Matching Items (27)

127827-Thumbnail Image.png

The Social Dimension of Sustainable Neighborhood Design: Comparing Two Neighborhoods in Freiburg, Germany

Description

The study presented in this article adds to the body of research on the socio-cultural dimension of sustainable cit-ies by looking at the efforts of the City of Freiburg, Germany

The study presented in this article adds to the body of research on the socio-cultural dimension of sustainable cit-ies by looking at the efforts of the City of Freiburg, Germany to create neighborhoods that acknowledge the im-portance of the social dimension of sustainable development. The research in this article is centered on evaluating the social responses of living in Freiburg’s two recognized sustainable neighborhoods Rieselfeld and Vauban. The study focuses on the motivational factors that prompted todays residents of the two neighborhoods to move there in the first place, their level of satisfaction living there now, and their perceived social interactions and level of community engagement. Result show that satisfaction with living in a place and reinforcing its assets through so-cial resiliency or livability can result in long-term community staying power. In general, there were few differences in preferences ratings of physical and social assets between the two communities. The levels of importance of so-cial factors contributing to place satisfaction and staying power were not significantly different in both neighbor-hoods. Having a “cluster” of social factors present that were important to residents contributed significantly to place satisfaction. In fact, survey results showed that it was these social factors that were seen as more important to place satisfaction than the physical attributes of sustainable developments.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-10-13

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies: Phoenix

Description

The growing urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is having detrimental effects on urban populations and must be addressed in planning. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness

The growing urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is having detrimental effects on urban populations and must be addressed in planning. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of urban heat island effect reduction factors for Metropolitan Phoenix. Current strategies, case studies, and the ENVI-Met modeling software were used to finalize conclusions and suggestions to further progress Phoenix’s goals in combating urban heat islands. Results from the studies found that the implementation of green walls and roofs, the integration of wind towers into existing and new construction, improving building energy efficiency, and an establishment of a task force responsible for researching applying UHI strategies to the cities are all expected to halt Phoenix’s progression into a more intense UHI, and to reverse the adverse effects that city development has had on the environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04-12

136940-Thumbnail Image.png

Placemaking in Arizona Hispanic Communities: An Exploration of Barrios in Tucson and Phoenix

Description

Hispanic neighborhoods, referred to as barrios, reveal several key characteristics unique to their ethnic neighborhood identity. The housescapes in the neighborhoods exhibit three characteristics which distinguish them as Latino housescapes:

Hispanic neighborhoods, referred to as barrios, reveal several key characteristics unique to their ethnic neighborhood identity. The housescapes in the neighborhoods exhibit three characteristics which distinguish them as Latino housescapes: bright color exteriors, fences around the property and a display of religious iconography. In a spatial and landscape analysis of two key barrios in Arizona: Barrio Anita in Tucson and El Campito in Nuestro Barrio in Phoenix, research reveals the prevalence of the three housescape characteristics. The multiple case study explores the extent to which Hispanic housescapes exhibit bright house color exteriors, fences and religious iconography. The least prevalent of these characteristics is the display of religious symbols which indicates a growing change in the way Hispanic ethnicity is displayed in neighborhoods.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

135745-Thumbnail Image.png

A preliminary assessment looking at perceived quality of life in neighborhoods in the Phoenix metropolitan area focusing on community-oriented design, walkability, and proximity to nature.

Description

As urban areas continue to grow with an increasing amount of population growth and influx, prudent planning for developed and developing cities has never been as important as it is

As urban areas continue to grow with an increasing amount of population growth and influx, prudent planning for developed and developing cities has never been as important as it is today. Currently, about 54% of the world's population lives in urban areas while that number is expected to increase to 66% by 2050 (United Nations 2014). This being said, planners, politicians, and policymakers among others need to be able to anticipate the ideal urban infrastructure needed with the most effective layout and design for creating and maintaining a high quality of life. The purpose of this research is to identify a potential link between neighborhood-scale urban form criteria that are believed to improve quality of life and the perceived quality of life of people who live in neighborhoods that display these specific urban form criteria. This study looked at three neighborhoods that each exhibited differences in neighborhood urban form such as: community-oriented design, high walkability, and close proximity to nature. A non-scientific preliminary survey was conducted in each of these three neighborhoods to identify potential differences in urban form preference targeting different demographics. The scope of this study is a preliminary assessment to gain an idea of which neighborhood-scale urban form factors, if any, are important for improving quality of life from the point of view of the resident. These results may lead to future study that could determine the relationship between availability of infrastructure and residential preference for certain infrastructure. This could also lead to a guide for planners on important criteria to consider for future neighborhood development in an urban setting as well as areas to focus on in the urban retrofitting process.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

134749-Thumbnail Image.png

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies: Phoenix

Description

The growing urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is having detrimental effects on urban populations and the environment, and therefore, must be addressed. The purpose of this research is to investigate

The growing urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is having detrimental effects on urban populations and the environment, and therefore, must be addressed. The purpose of this research is to investigate possible strategies that could be utilized to reduce the effects of the urban heat island for the city of Phoenix. Current strategies, case studies, and the ENVI-Met modeling software were used to finalize conclusions and suggestions to further progress Phoenix's goals in combating its urban heat island. Results from the studies found that there is much potential in reducing daytime and evening temperatures through improving infrastructure by means of increased vegetation in the forms of green roofs and walls, reducing anthropogenic heat release, improving artificial surface coverage, and implementing lasting policies for further development. Results from the ENVI-met microclimate program shows areas for further research in urban heat island mitigation strategies.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

132623-Thumbnail Image.png

Native American Participation in Public Lands Management: An Historical Evaluation

Description

The purpose of this paper is to explore the historical development of Native Americans' participation in public lands management. The literature on federal-tribal relations in public lands management demonstrates that

The purpose of this paper is to explore the historical development of Native Americans' participation in public lands management. The literature on federal-tribal relations in public lands management demonstrates that Native Americans face an uphill battle in order to receive recognition of and protection for their cultural and traditional ties to public lands. This paper uses Arnstein's ladder of participation to evaluate several historical examples of federal-tribal relations in public lands management. Arnstein's ladder of participation shows how different forms of participation correspond to an individual or groups power to affect outcomes of decision-making processes. The examples discussed in this paper are explicative of these different forms of participation and show that the predominance of hierarchical power structures and particular cultural ideals of American society have impeded recognition of and protection for Native Americans' cultural and traditional ties to public lands. Around the end of the 19th century and start of the 20th century, forms of nonparticipation excluded Native Americans from the emerging dialogue concerning the nation's first public lands. Although Native Americans became more militant and assertive in the economic, political, and cultural spheres of American society as time went on, tokenistic forms of participation still precluded effective and equitable recognition of and protection for their cultural and traditional ties to public lands. This paper concludes with an evaluation of the recent creation of Bears Ears National Monument by presidential proclamation and how the organization and activism by several tribes to receive protection for the Bears Ears landscape demonstrates the potential for similar approaches to produce more effective and equitable forms of participation.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

152658-Thumbnail Image.png

Setting a resilient urban table: planning for community food systems

Description

Research indicates that projected increases in global urban populations are not adequately addressed by current food production and planning. In the U.S., insufficient access to food, or the inability to

Research indicates that projected increases in global urban populations are not adequately addressed by current food production and planning. In the U.S., insufficient access to food, or the inability to access enough food for an active, healthy life affects nearly 15% of the population. In the face of these challenges, how are urban planners and other food system professionals planning for more resilient food systems? The purpose of this qualitative case study is to understand the planning and policy resources and food system approaches that might have the ability to strengthen food systems, and ultimately, urban resiliency. It proposes that by understanding food system planning in this context, planning approaches can be developed to strengthen urban food systems. The study uses the conceptual framework of urban planning for food, new community food systems, urban resiliency, and the theory of Panarchy as a model for urban planning and creation of new community food systems. Panarchy theory proposes that entrenched, non-diverse systems can change and adapt, and this study proposes that some U.S. cities are doing just that by planning for new community food systems. It studied 16 U.S. cities considered to be leaders in sustainability practices, and conducted semi-structured interviews with professionals in three of those cities: Portland, OR; San Francisco, CA; and Seattle, WA. The study found that these cities are using innovative methods in food system work, with professionals from many different departments and disciplines bringing interdisciplinary approaches to food planning and policy. Supported by strong executive leadership, these cities are creating progressive urban agriculture zoning policies and other food system initiatives, and using innovative educational programs and events to engage citizens at all socio-economic levels. Food system departments are relatively new, plans and policies among the cities are not consistent, and they are faced with limited resources to adequately track food system-related data. However they are still moving forward with programming to increase food access and improve their food systems. Food-system resiliency is recognized as an important goal, but cities are in varying stages of development for resiliency planning.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

151977-Thumbnail Image.png

Public perceptions of climate change: risk, trust, and policy

Description

Global climate change (GCC) is among the most important issues of the 21st century. Adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are some of the salient local and regional challenges

Global climate change (GCC) is among the most important issues of the 21st century. Adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are some of the salient local and regional challenges scientists, decision makers, and the general public face today and will be in the near future. However, designed adaptation and mitigation strategies do not guarantee success in coping with global climate change. Despite the robust and convincing body for anthropogenic global climate change research and science there is still a significant gap between the recommendations provided by the scientific community and the actual actions by the public and policy makers. In order to design, implement, and generate sufficient public support for policies and planning interventions at the national and international level, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the public's perceptions regarding GCC. Based on survey research in nine countries, the purpose of this study is two-fold: First, to understand the nature of public perceptions of global climate change in different countries; and secondly to identi-fy perception factors which have a significant impact on the public's willingness to sup-port GCC policies or commit to behavioral changes to reduce GHG emissions. Factors such as trust in GCC information which need to be considered in future climate change communication efforts are also dealt with in this dissertation. This study has identified several aspects that need to be considered in future communication programs. GCC is characterized by high uncertainties, unfamiliar risks, and other characteristics of hazards which make personal connections, responsibility and engagement difficult. Communication efforts need to acknowledge these obstacles, build up trust and motivate the public to be more engaged in reducing GCC by emphasizing the multiple benefits of many policies outside of just reducing GCC. Levels of skepticism among the public towards the reality of GCC as well as the trustworthiness and sufficien-cy of the scientific findings varies by country. Thus, communicators need to be aware of their audience in order to decide how educational their program needs to be.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

158228-Thumbnail Image.png

Disparities in Access to Healthy Food: Exploring the Spatial Accessibility Patterns of Local and Conventional Food Systems in Maricopa County

Description

Disparities in access to healthy food are a key public health concern in the United States (U.S.) Food access is considered as a critical element of food insecurity. Food insecurity

Disparities in access to healthy food are a key public health concern in the United States (U.S.) Food access is considered as a critical element of food insecurity. Food insecurity can often be prevalent in a region due to lack of healthy food outlets as well as inequitable access to healthy food outlets. A large body of literature pertaining to access to healthy food has reported that conventional food outlets such as supermarkets and large grocery stores may not be equitably distributed across different neighborhoods in a region. There has been limited research on local food access patterns. Despite the few studies focused on access to individual types of local food outlets, such as farmers markets, little is known about whether such access varies among different types of local food outlets and how such access patterns compare with the uneven access to conventional food outlets. This study uses Maricopa County, one of the largest counties in Arizona, as a case study to examine the spatial patterns of access to conventional food markets (i.e. supermarkets or large grocery stores) and four different types of local food outlets, including farmers market, community garden, community supported agriculture (CSA) and mobile food markets. By analyzing the association between healthy food access and neighborhood characteristics, the study suggests that the local food system has a great potential in providing healthy food access to low-income and minority populations of the County than conventional food outlets. The study provides important insights into the way different types of local food outlets offer their availability in space and whether they are more equitable in serving underserved neighborhoods. The findings from this study can assist both government agencies and city planner formulate strategies to improve access to healthy food in disadvantaged neighborhoods.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158227-Thumbnail Image.png

A Social-Ecological System Approach for Forest Resource Management of the Himchari National Park in Bangladesh

Description

Deforestation is a common phenomenon in Bangladesh, leaving the country under a great threat of losing its natural habitat. The increasing rate of natural habitat loss has raised questions regarding

Deforestation is a common phenomenon in Bangladesh, leaving the country under a great threat of losing its natural habitat. The increasing rate of natural habitat loss has raised questions regarding the country’s forest resource management practices. These practices were originally adopted to protect the forest ecosystem and secure the livelihood of the people dependent on forest resources. Despite the support from development partners like the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the country is still struggling to protect its forest resources from human encroachment. One of the major problems is the lack of inconclusiveness in current approaches. Most initiatives are not evidence-based and are project-based for only a certain period of time. This has failed to ensure sustainable outcomes. This study looks at Bangladesh’s Himchari National Park forest management system to generate evidence regarding deforestation from 1991-2018 and highlight existing gaps. To identify and analyze the gaps, the study uses a social-ecological system (SES) lens. Results reveal deforestation across different time periods, articulates the overall governance structure regarding forest resource management, and provides an overview of the major gaps within the system. The study also offers a set of recommendations for improving the existing management system and policy implications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020