Matching Items (26)

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Native American Participation in Public Lands Management: An Historical Evaluation

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the historical development of Native Americans' participation in public lands management. The literature on federal-tribal relations in public lands management demonstrates that Native Americans face an uphill battle in order to receive

The purpose of this paper is to explore the historical development of Native Americans' participation in public lands management. The literature on federal-tribal relations in public lands management demonstrates that Native Americans face an uphill battle in order to receive recognition of and protection for their cultural and traditional ties to public lands. This paper uses Arnstein's ladder of participation to evaluate several historical examples of federal-tribal relations in public lands management. Arnstein's ladder of participation shows how different forms of participation correspond to an individual or groups power to affect outcomes of decision-making processes. The examples discussed in this paper are explicative of these different forms of participation and show that the predominance of hierarchical power structures and particular cultural ideals of American society have impeded recognition of and protection for Native Americans' cultural and traditional ties to public lands. Around the end of the 19th century and start of the 20th century, forms of nonparticipation excluded Native Americans from the emerging dialogue concerning the nation's first public lands. Although Native Americans became more militant and assertive in the economic, political, and cultural spheres of American society as time went on, tokenistic forms of participation still precluded effective and equitable recognition of and protection for their cultural and traditional ties to public lands. This paper concludes with an evaluation of the recent creation of Bears Ears National Monument by presidential proclamation and how the organization and activism by several tribes to receive protection for the Bears Ears landscape demonstrates the potential for similar approaches to produce more effective and equitable forms of participation.

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2019-05

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The Social Dimension of Sustainable Neighborhood Design: Comparing Two Neighborhoods in Freiburg, Germany

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The study presented in this article adds to the body of research on the socio-cultural dimension of sustainable cities by looking at the efforts of the City of Freiburg, Germany to create neighborhoods that acknowledge the importance of the social

The study presented in this article adds to the body of research on the socio-cultural dimension of sustainable cities by looking at the efforts of the City of Freiburg, Germany to create neighborhoods that acknowledge the importance of the social dimension of sustainable development. The research in this article is centered on evaluating the social responses of living in Freiburg’s two recognized sustainable neighborhoods Rieselfeld and Vauban. The study focuses on the motivational factors that prompted todays residents of the two neighborhoods to move there in the first place, their level of satisfaction living there now, and their perceived social interactions and level of community engagement. Result show that satisfaction with living in a place and reinforcing its assets through social resiliency or livability can result in long-term community staying power. In general, there were few differences in preferences ratings of physical and social assets between the two communities. The levels of importance of social factors contributing to place satisfaction and staying power were not significantly different in both neighbor-hoods. Having a “cluster” of social factors present that were important to residents contributed significantly to place satisfaction. In fact, survey results showed that it was these social factors that were seen as more important to place satisfaction than the physical attributes of sustainable developments.

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2017-10-13

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Placemaking in Arizona Hispanic Communities: An Exploration of Barrios in Tucson and Phoenix

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Hispanic neighborhoods, referred to as barrios, reveal several key characteristics unique to their ethnic neighborhood identity. The housescapes in the neighborhoods exhibit three characteristics which distinguish them as Latino housescapes: bright color exteriors, fences around the property and a display

Hispanic neighborhoods, referred to as barrios, reveal several key characteristics unique to their ethnic neighborhood identity. The housescapes in the neighborhoods exhibit three characteristics which distinguish them as Latino housescapes: bright color exteriors, fences around the property and a display of religious iconography. In a spatial and landscape analysis of two key barrios in Arizona: Barrio Anita in Tucson and El Campito in Nuestro Barrio in Phoenix, research reveals the prevalence of the three housescape characteristics. The multiple case study explores the extent to which Hispanic housescapes exhibit bright house color exteriors, fences and religious iconography. The least prevalent of these characteristics is the display of religious symbols which indicates a growing change in the way Hispanic ethnicity is displayed in neighborhoods.

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2014-05

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A preliminary assessment looking at perceived quality of life in neighborhoods in the Phoenix metropolitan area focusing on community-oriented design, walkability, and proximity to nature.

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As urban areas continue to grow with an increasing amount of population growth and influx, prudent planning for developed and developing cities has never been as important as it is today. Currently, about 54% of the world's population lives in

As urban areas continue to grow with an increasing amount of population growth and influx, prudent planning for developed and developing cities has never been as important as it is today. Currently, about 54% of the world's population lives in urban areas while that number is expected to increase to 66% by 2050 (United Nations 2014). This being said, planners, politicians, and policymakers among others need to be able to anticipate the ideal urban infrastructure needed with the most effective layout and design for creating and maintaining a high quality of life. The purpose of this research is to identify a potential link between neighborhood-scale urban form criteria that are believed to improve quality of life and the perceived quality of life of people who live in neighborhoods that display these specific urban form criteria. This study looked at three neighborhoods that each exhibited differences in neighborhood urban form such as: community-oriented design, high walkability, and close proximity to nature. A non-scientific preliminary survey was conducted in each of these three neighborhoods to identify potential differences in urban form preference targeting different demographics. The scope of this study is a preliminary assessment to gain an idea of which neighborhood-scale urban form factors, if any, are important for improving quality of life from the point of view of the resident. These results may lead to future study that could determine the relationship between availability of infrastructure and residential preference for certain infrastructure. This could also lead to a guide for planners on important criteria to consider for future neighborhood development in an urban setting as well as areas to focus on in the urban retrofitting process.

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2016-05

An Exploration of Communicating Sustainability Ideas Through Technology to Inspire Sustainable Urban Planning Practice

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This report describes the process by which I created a concise but comprehensive online source of information about best practices in sustainability for urban planners. The goal of the project was to provide accessible information that would help planners in

This report describes the process by which I created a concise but comprehensive online source of information about best practices in sustainability for urban planners. The goal of the project was to provide accessible information that would help planners in ways that help them comprehend and implement sustainable solutions to common planning problems that are found throughout the United States. To create the website, I researched methods for communicating clearly to planners, took a graduate course in communicating about sustainability, and drew on information that I had compiled on sustainable solutions for transportation, economy, water, green space, and governance.

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2017-12-01

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The Role of Urban Infrastructure in Supporting Transit-Oriented Development

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Of the many challenges cities face, congestion and air quality are two interrelated issues that despite technological improvements in vehicle emissions standards and engine efficiency, continue to worsen. Of the strategies attempting to reduce automobile dependency, a popular approach adopted

Of the many challenges cities face, congestion and air quality are two interrelated issues that despite technological improvements in vehicle emissions standards and engine efficiency, continue to worsen. Of the strategies attempting to reduce automobile dependency, a popular approach adopted by cities is the concept of transit-oriented development (TOD). The strategy aims to better integrate land use and transportation planning, and is often characterized by a mix of land uses, high density, and proximity to quality public transit. While practitioners and academics argue the economic and environmental benefits of TOD, there are several examples along the Valley Metro light rail corridor where the strategy appears to be failing to attract people, businesses, and ultimately transit riders. The purpose of this study is to explore how urban infrastructure characteristics, specifically transportation connectivity, urban design, and land use interact to support light rail ridership. The study utilizes a rendition of sustainability’s triple-bottom-line framework, wherein economic, environmental, and social elements are represented as criteria in the transportation, land use, and urban design analysis of six Valley Metro light rail stations. Each element has supporting criteria that are ranked relative to the other stations under analysis, culminating in overall TOD scores for each station. The number of TOD projects and ridership trends are also compared, and in combination with the evaluation of urban infrastructure elements, the results suggest the importance of transportation connectivity, pedestrian-scale infrastructure, a sense of place, and employment centers for TOD stations to yield high ridership. Findings are analyzed through a sustainability lens resulting in the proposal of strategic solutions for improving TOD planning methods.

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2017-04-17

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The availability of parks for children: a case study of Scottsdale, Arizona

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The United States has a long history of providing public parks and amenities, especially for children. Unfortunately, children today are spending less time in public parks, less time getting physical activity and more time being indoors and sedentary. While multiple

The United States has a long history of providing public parks and amenities, especially for children. Unfortunately, children today are spending less time in public parks, less time getting physical activity and more time being indoors and sedentary. While multiple factors may be responsible for this lack of activity, multiple researchers have found the availability of parks is a significant influence on the physical activity levels of children as well as on the occurrence of obesity related illness. Public parks are ideal locations for children to get physical activity, however they are not always equitably distributed within communities. Income and race/ethnicity especially are common variables found to impact availability of parks. Such socioeconomic variables typically have an impact on the availability of public parks within a community. Such variables may also impact the quality of the parks provided. A case study of Scottsdale, Arizona was conducted analyzing the availability of public parks within the City between the years of 1990 and 2000 and the current quality of the parks. Statistical analysis and observation were utilized to assess the amount of park space available (in acres) and the quality of the parks in comparison to selected socioeconomic variables including ethnicity, income and total percent housing type (single family or multi-family). All analysis was conducted using U.S. Census data from the years 1990 and 2000 and was at the tract level. The results of the analysis indicate that in contrast to the initial hypothesis and past research, within the City of Scottsdale, lower income neighborhoods actually have more public park space available to them than higher income neighborhoods. Between 1990 and 2000 the difference in park space between the lowest and highest income quartiles increased considerably, approximately 230% over the ten years. The quality analysis results indicate that the overall quality of parks is slightly higher in the highest income neighborhoods, which also have no parks that could be considered of poor quality. Given the atypical results of this analysis, further research is necessary to better understand the impacts of socioeconomic characteristics on park, especially regarding children.

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Date Created
2011

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An ecological aesthetic in restructuring urban landscapes: two cases in Seoul, South Korea

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As a significant level of the reformation and transformation of our society has been provoked by environmental deterioration, ecological approaches in environmental design have drawn much attention from professionals as an alternative world view and also as a practical design

As a significant level of the reformation and transformation of our society has been provoked by environmental deterioration, ecological approaches in environmental design have drawn much attention from professionals as an alternative world view and also as a practical design approach. Particularly in landscape architecture, ecological understanding has been at the very core of the profession since its emergence and plays an important role in the decision making processes. While ecology supports the profession with an objective rationale, aesthetics plays another major role in providing various understandings about the aesthetic experience of people, which is rather subjective. However, the ways to seek the balance between them are still controversial. Furthermore, the conventional aesthetic value system of landscape appears to have limitations for guiding us to an appropriate appreciation, especially in dealing with newly emerging urban landscape patterns such as regeneration of post-industrial landscapes. Understanding these issues, there have been continuous attempts to describe the relation between ecology and aesthetics, suggesting that a new approach known as "ecological aesthetics," can bring us a new set of viewpoints seeking a reunion of nature and culture, and science and art. It asserts that "there is a type of beauty" in the landscape associated with its ecological health which people could aesthetically appreciate; and therefore, revealing the "hidden" beauty of nature in more visible ways should be the primary concern of today's ecological designers. This research mainly consists of extensive literature research and a case study on two landscape restructuring projects of post-industrial landscapes in Seoul, Korea. The literature research redefines the tasks of landscape architecture based on the idea of ecological aesthetics, and the case study seeks the potentials and limitations of current design projects. This research proposes a framework for landscape perception and reflects on the lessons that would be useful for better practice and research.

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Date Created
2011

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Public perceptions of climate change: risk, trust, and policy

Description

Global climate change (GCC) is among the most important issues of the 21st century. Adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are some of the salient local and regional challenges scientists, decision makers, and the general public face today and

Global climate change (GCC) is among the most important issues of the 21st century. Adaptation to and mitigation of climate change are some of the salient local and regional challenges scientists, decision makers, and the general public face today and will be in the near future. However, designed adaptation and mitigation strategies do not guarantee success in coping with global climate change. Despite the robust and convincing body for anthropogenic global climate change research and science there is still a significant gap between the recommendations provided by the scientific community and the actual actions by the public and policy makers. In order to design, implement, and generate sufficient public support for policies and planning interventions at the national and international level, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the public's perceptions regarding GCC. Based on survey research in nine countries, the purpose of this study is two-fold: First, to understand the nature of public perceptions of global climate change in different countries; and secondly to identi-fy perception factors which have a significant impact on the public's willingness to sup-port GCC policies or commit to behavioral changes to reduce GHG emissions. Factors such as trust in GCC information which need to be considered in future climate change communication efforts are also dealt with in this dissertation. This study has identified several aspects that need to be considered in future communication programs. GCC is characterized by high uncertainties, unfamiliar risks, and other characteristics of hazards which make personal connections, responsibility and engagement difficult. Communication efforts need to acknowledge these obstacles, build up trust and motivate the public to be more engaged in reducing GCC by emphasizing the multiple benefits of many policies outside of just reducing GCC. Levels of skepticism among the public towards the reality of GCC as well as the trustworthiness and sufficien-cy of the scientific findings varies by country. Thus, communicators need to be aware of their audience in order to decide how educational their program needs to be.

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Date Created
2013

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Curriculum improvement in education for sustainable development: measuring learning outcomes in an introductory urban planning course

Description

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is an academic goal for many courses in higher learning. ESD encompasses a specific range of learning outcomes, competencies, skills and literacies that include and exceed the acquisition of content knowledge. Methods and case studies

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is an academic goal for many courses in higher learning. ESD encompasses a specific range of learning outcomes, competencies, skills and literacies that include and exceed the acquisition of content knowledge. Methods and case studies for measuring learning outcomes in ESD is absent from the literature. This case study of an undergraduate course in urban sustainability examines the processes, curriculum, pedagogies, and methods to explore whether or not learning outcomes in education for sustainable development are being reached. Observations of the course, and the statistical analysis of student surveys from course evaluations, are explored to help identify the relationships between learning outcomes in ESD and the processes of learning and teaching in the case study. Recommendations are made for applying the lessons of the case study to other courses, and for continuing further research in this area.

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2012