Matching Items (7)

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Electric Field Sensing

Description

This project examines the science of electric field sensing and completes experiments, gathering data to support its utility for various applications. The basic system consists of a transmitter, receiver, and lock-in amplifier. The primary goal of the study was to

This project examines the science of electric field sensing and completes experiments, gathering data to support its utility for various applications. The basic system consists of a transmitter, receiver, and lock-in amplifier. The primary goal of the study was to determine if such a system could detect a human disturbance, due to the capacitance of a human body, and such a thesis was supported. Much different results were obtained when a person disturbed the electric field transmitted by the system than when other types of objects, such as chairs and electronic devices, were placed in the field. In fact, there was a distinct difference between persons of varied sizes as well. This thesis goes through the basic design of the system and the process of experimental design for determining the capabilities of such an electric field sensing system.

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Created

Date Created
2013-05

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Micromachined acoustic programmable tunable finite impulse response (FIR) filters for microwave applications

Description

This dissertation proposes a miniature FIR filter that works at microwave frequencies, whose filter response can ideally be digitally programmed. Such a frequency agile device can find applications in cellular communications and wireless networking. The basic concept of the FIR

This dissertation proposes a miniature FIR filter that works at microwave frequencies, whose filter response can ideally be digitally programmed. Such a frequency agile device can find applications in cellular communications and wireless networking. The basic concept of the FIR filter utilizes a low loss acoustic waveguide of appropriate geometry that acts as a traveling wave tapped-delay line. The input RF signal is applied by an array of capacitive transducers at various locations on the acoustic waveguide at one end that excites waves of a propagating acoustic mode with varying spatial delays and amplitudes which interfere as they propagate. The output RF signal is picked up at the other end of the waveguide by another array of capacitive transducers. Tuning of the FIR filter coefficients is realized by controlling the DC voltage profile applied to the individual transducers which essentially shapes the overall filter response. Equivalent circuit modeling of the capacitive transducer, acoustic waveguide and transducer-line coupling is presented in this dissertation. A theoretical model for the filter is developed from a general theory of an array of transducers exciting a waveguide and is used to obtain a set of filter design equations. A MATLAB based circuit simulator is developed to simulate the filter responses. Design parameters and simulation results obtained for an example waveguide structure are presented and compared to the values estimated by the theoretical model. A waveguide structure utilizing the Rayleigh-like mode of a ridge is then introduced. A semi-analytical method to obtain propagating elastic modes of such a ridge waveguide etched in an anisotropic crystal is presented. Microfabrication of a filter based on ridges etched in single crystal Silicon is discussed along with details of the challenges faced. Finally, future work and a few alternative designs are presented that can have a better chance of success. Analysis and modeling work to this point has given a good understanding of the working principles, performance tradeoffs and fabrication pitfalls of the proposed device. With the appropriate acoustic waveguide structure, the proposed device could make it possible to realize miniature programmable FIR filters in the GHz range.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

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Film bulk acoustic resonators of high quality factors in liquid environments for biosensing applications

Description

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) demonstrates label-free biosensing capabilities and is considered to be a promising alternative of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). FBARs achieve great success in vacuum, or in the air, but find limited applications in

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) demonstrates label-free biosensing capabilities and is considered to be a promising alternative of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). FBARs achieve great success in vacuum, or in the air, but find limited applications in liquid media because squeeze damping significantly degrades quality factor (Q) and results in poor frequency resolution. A transmission-line model shows that by confining the liquid in a thickness comparable to the acoustic wavelength of the resonator, Q can be considerably improved. The devices exhibit damped oscillatory patterns of Q as the liquid thickness varies. Q assumes its maxima and minima when the channel thickness is an odd and even multiple of the quarter-wavelength of the resonance, respectively. Microfluidic channels are integrated with longitudinal-mode FBARs (L-FBARs) to realize this design; a tenfold improvement of Q over fully-immersed devices is experimentally verified. Microfluidic integrated FBAR sensors have been demonstrated for detecting protein binding in liquid and monitoring the Vroman effect (the competitive protein adsorption behavior), showing their potential as a promising bio-analytical tool. A contour-mode FBAR (C-FBAR) is developed to further improve Q and to alleviate the need for complex integration of microfluidic channels. The C-FBAR consists of a suspended piezoelectric ring made of aluminum nitride and is excited in the fundamental radial-extensional mode. By replacing the squeeze damping with shear damping, high Qs (189 in water and 77 in human whole blood) are obtained in semi-infinite depth liquids. The C-FBAR sensors are characterized by aptamer - thrombin binding pairs and aqueous glycerine solutions for mass and viscosity sensing schemes, respectively. The C-FBAR sensor demonstrates accurate viscosity measurement from 1 to 10 centipoise, and can be deployed to monitor in-vitro blood coagulation processes in real time. Results show that its resonant frequency decreases as the viscosity of the blood increases during the fibrin generation process after the coagulation cascade. The coagulation time and the start/end of the fibrin generation are quantitatively determined, showing the C-FBAR can be a low-cost, portable yet reliable tool for hemostasis diagnostics.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Power management interface circuit for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) bio-sensing and chemical sensing applications

Description

Power supply management is important for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) bio-sensing and chemical sensing applications. The dissertation focuses on discussion of accessibility to different power sources and supply tuning in sensing applications. First, the dissertation presents a high efficiency DC-DC converter for

Power supply management is important for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) bio-sensing and chemical sensing applications. The dissertation focuses on discussion of accessibility to different power sources and supply tuning in sensing applications. First, the dissertation presents a high efficiency DC-DC converter for a miniaturized Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC). The miniaturized MFC produces up to approximately 10µW with an output voltage of 0.4-0.7V. Such a low voltage, which is also load dependent, prevents the MFC to directly drive low power electronics. A PFM (Pulse Frequency Modulation) type DC-DC converter in DCM (Discontinuous Conduction Mode) is developed to address the challenges and provides a load independent output voltage with high conversion efficiency. The DC-DC converter, implemented in UMC 0.18µm technology, has been thoroughly characterized, coupled with the MFC. At 0.9V output, the converter has a peak efficiency of 85% with 9µW load, highest efficiency over prior publication. Energy could be harvested wirelessly and often has profound impacts on system performance. The dissertation reports a side-by-side comparison of two wireless and passive sensing systems: inductive and electromagnetic (EM) couplings for an application of in-situ and real-time monitoring of wafer cleanliness in semiconductor facilities. The wireless system, containing the MEMS sensor works with battery-free operations. Two wireless systems based on inductive and EM couplings have been implemented. The working distance of the inductive coupling system is limited by signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) while that of the EM coupling is limited by the coupled power. The implemented on-wafer transponders achieve a working distance of 6 cm and 25 cm with a concentration resolution of less than 2% (4 ppb for a 200 ppb solution) for inductive and EM couplings, respectively. Finally, the supply tuning is presented in bio-sensing application to mitigate temperature sensitivity. The FBAR (film bulk acoustic resonator) based oscillator is an attractive method in label-free sensing application. Molecular interactions on FBAR surface induce mass change, which results in resonant frequency shift of FBAR. While FBAR has a high-Q to be sensitive to the molecular interactions, FBAR has finite temperature sensitivity. A temperature compensation technique is presented that improves the temperature coefficient of a 1.625 GHz FBAR-based oscillator from -118 ppm/K to less than 1 ppm/K by tuning the supply voltage of the oscillator. The tuning technique adds no additional component and has a large frequency tunability of -4305 ppm/V.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Fully passive wireless acquisition of neuropotentials

Description

The ability to monitor electrophysiological signals from the sentient brain is requisite to decipher its enormously complex workings and initiate remedial solutions for the vast amount of neurologically-based disorders. Despite immense advancements in creating a variety of instruments to record

The ability to monitor electrophysiological signals from the sentient brain is requisite to decipher its enormously complex workings and initiate remedial solutions for the vast amount of neurologically-based disorders. Despite immense advancements in creating a variety of instruments to record signals from the brain, the translation of such neurorecording instrumentation to real clinical domains places heavy demands on their safety and reliability, both of which are not entirely portrayed by presently existing implantable recording solutions. In an attempt to lower these barriers, alternative wireless radar backscattering techniques are proposed to render the technical burdens of the implant chip to entirely passive neurorecording processes that transpire in the absence of formal integrated power sources or powering schemes along with any active circuitry. These radar-like wireless backscattering mechanisms are used to conceive of fully passive neurorecording operations of an implantable microsystem. The fully passive device potentially manifests inherent advantages over current wireless implantable and wired recording systems: negligible heat dissipation to reduce risks of brain tissue damage and minimal circuitry for long term reliability as a chronic implant. Fully passive neurorecording operations are realized via intrinsic nonlinear mixing properties of the varactor diode. These mixing and recording operations are directly activated by wirelessly interrogating the fully passive device with a microwave carrier signal. This fundamental carrier signal, acquired by the implant antenna, mixes through the varactor diode along with the internal targeted neuropotential brain signals to produce higher frequency harmonics containing the targeted neuropotential signals. These harmonics are backscattered wirelessly to the external interrogator that retrieves and recovers the original neuropotential brain signal. The passive approach removes the need for internal power sources and may alleviate heat trauma and reliability issues that limit practical implementation of existing implantable neurorecorders.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2014

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High performance microbial fuel cells and supercapacitors using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology

Description

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 W/m2 and from 6.3 W/m3 to 392 W/m3, respectively, which are still low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. In this dissertation, the impact of scaling effect on the performance of MFCs are investigated, and it is found that by scaling down the characteristic length of MFCs, the surface area to volume ratio increases and the current and power density improves. As a result, a miniaturized MFC fabricated by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System(MEMS) technology with gold anode is presented in this dissertation, which demonstrate a high power density of 3300 W/m3. The performance of the MEMS MFC is further improved by adopting anodes with higher surface area to volume ratio, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene based anodes, and the maximum power density is further improved to a record high power density of 11220 W/m3. A novel supercapacitor by regulating the respiration of the bacteria is also presented, and a high power density of 531.2 A/m2 (1,060,000 A/m3) and 197.5 W/m2 (395,000 W/m3), respectively, are marked, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than any previously reported microbial electrochemical techniques.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

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Fully-passive Wireless Acquisition of Biosignals

Description

The recording of biosignals enables physicians to correctly diagnose diseases and prescribe treatment. Existing wireless systems failed to effectively replace the conventional wired methods due to their large sizes, high power consumption, and the need to replace batteries. This thesis

The recording of biosignals enables physicians to correctly diagnose diseases and prescribe treatment. Existing wireless systems failed to effectively replace the conventional wired methods due to their large sizes, high power consumption, and the need to replace batteries. This thesis aims to alleviate these issues by presenting a series of wireless fully-passive sensors for the acquisition of biosignals: including neuropotential, biopotential, intracranial pressure (ICP), in addition to a stimulator for the pacing of engineered cardiac cells. In contrast to existing wireless biosignal recording systems, the proposed wireless sensors do not contain batteries or high-power electronics such as amplifiers or digital circuitries. Instead, the RFID tag-like sensors utilize a unique radiofrequency (RF) backscattering mechanism to enable wireless and battery-free telemetry of biosignals with extremely low power consumption. This characteristic minimizes the risk of heat-induced tissue damage and avoids the need to use any transcranial/transcutaneous wires, and thus significantly enhances long-term safety and reliability. For neuropotential recording, a small (9mm x 8mm), biocompatible, and flexible wireless recorder is developed and verified by in vivo acquisition of two types of neural signals, the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs). For wireless multichannel neural recording, a novel time-multiplexed multichannel recording method based on an inductor-capacitor delay circuit is presented and tested, realizing simultaneous wireless recording from 11 channels in a completely passive manner. For biopotential recording, a wearable and flexible wireless sensor is developed, achieving real-time wireless acquisition of ECG, EMG, and EOG signals. For ICP monitoring, a very small (5mm x 4mm) wireless ICP sensor is designed and verified both in vitro through a benchtop setup and in vivo through real-time ICP recording in rats. Finally, for cardiac cell stimulation, a flexible wireless passive stimulator, capable of delivering stimulation current as high as 60 mA, is developed, demonstrating successful control over the contraction of engineered cardiac cells. The studies conducted in this thesis provide information and guidance for future translation of wireless fully-passive telemetry methods into actual clinical application, especially in the field of implantable and wearable electronics.

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Date Created
2020