Matching Items (7)

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The Dietary Habits of College Freshmen in Early Adulthood

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College students enter a critical period during early adulthood that involves transitioning to college and making independent dietary choices. As this time period is marked by new health habits and

College students enter a critical period during early adulthood that involves transitioning to college and making independent dietary choices. As this time period is marked by new health habits and actions, this study observed what dietary habits may be occurring during the initial transition into college. We observed dietary habits of college students during their first semester in college. Forty participants (33% male, 67% female) completed the study with the mean BMI of females being 25.1 (overweight) and the mean BMI of males being 23.4 (normal-weight). Two sets of online surveys (pre-test and post-test) assessing the daily number of servings of fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, oils, dairy, combination/other were administered. The results showed that overall the number of food servings consumed between the pre-test period and the post-test period varied by both gender and food group. Men ate more servings from all food groups (besides vegetables and combination/other) during the pre-test period than females (all p < .05). Except for vegetables and combination foods, men showed a significantly greater drop in number of servings for all food groups from pre to post-test as compared to females, whereas, women showed no difference in number of servings consumed between pre-test and post-test for any food. Males were classified as average weight at the beginning of the study and they may have not been aware of the amount of food they were consuming initially (unlike the female group who was overweight). Also, males may have been displaying evolutionary behavior of "showing off" when dining around females and thus consumed more. Keywords: early adulthood, dietary habits, freshmen

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  • 2016-05

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The Rewarding Effects of the Surface Area Occupied by Food in Rats

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Previous studies showed that rats preferred and also ran faster for multiple pellets than a single pellet of food. Here, we manipulated the rewarding effects of surface area occupied by

Previous studies showed that rats preferred and also ran faster for multiple pellets than a single pellet of food. Here, we manipulated the rewarding effects of surface area occupied by food pellets on preference and running speed of rats trained on a T-maze. Twenty-two male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to prefer one T-maze arm containing 30 food pellets scattered and the other arm with 30 pellets clustered. There was a significant preference for clustered food pieces over the scattered ones. The choice of the clustered food pieces may be explained by the optimal foraging theory to maximize energy gain. Therefore, larger surface area occupied by food pieces may be less rewarding when unnecessary energy is expended.

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  • 2013-05

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The Effects of Dip and Distraction on Consumption of Vegetables in Adults

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Increasing vegetable consumption among the adult population is a major goal, as the health benefits of vegetables can decrease one's risk of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The current

Increasing vegetable consumption among the adult population is a major goal, as the health benefits of vegetables can decrease one's risk of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The current study examined a potential strategy to increase consumption of vegetables by pairing them with a dip and a TV distraction. Based upon results of previous, similar research studies (Blass et al., 2006; Fisher et al., 2012; Johnston et al., 2012; Mittal, Stevenson, Oaten, & Miller, 2011), we hypothesized that eating vegetables with dip or while distracted with a television sitcom would result in increased consumption. We also hypothesized that both dip and a distraction together will synergistically increase vegetable consumption. A total of 126 college students were assigned to one of four conditions: eating vegetables with dip, with dip and a television distractor, with only a television distractor, or without either dip or a television distractor. While television had no significant influence on vegetable consumption, pairing vegetables with a dip significantly increased consumption of vegetables. Pairing vegetables with a dip may prove to be an effective strategy for increasing vegetable intake in the adult population.

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  • 2013-12

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Conditioning Vegetable Preferences through Texture Pairing in Children

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Neophobia is a sensory phenomenon common in children that makes novel foods taste unpleasant. Our study tested exposure and pairing effects on neophobia in children by exposing them to novel

Neophobia is a sensory phenomenon common in children that makes novel foods taste unpleasant. Our study tested exposure and pairing effects on neophobia in children by exposing them to novel vegetables paired with varying textures. Results showed a significant increase in liking for all subject groups after six exposures, which is less exposure than required in other studies. Except in one case, texture was not related to a change in liking that differed significantly from other groups.

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  • 2013-05

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The Use of Dips on Increasing Vegetable Liking and Intake in College Students

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Statistics are rising for adults who are overweight and/or obese, putting them at higher risk of developing serious health problems. Eating fewer portions of vegetable than the daily-recommended amounts contributes

Statistics are rising for adults who are overweight and/or obese, putting them at higher risk of developing serious health problems. Eating fewer portions of vegetable than the daily-recommended amounts contributes to this increase with. College students, being more susceptible to weight gain as they are transitioning from childhood to adulthood. Previous studies demonstrated that children ate more vegetables when repeatedly paired with a low-fat dip compared to when served plain. The current study examined whether this effect was also successful in college-aged subjects. A total of 148 (55 males, 91 females) college-aged students from an introductory psychology class at Arizona State University (Tempe, AZ) participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive cauliflower or broccoli (raw) either served plain or with low-fat ranch dressing. Subjects showed a greater preference for and consumption of the vegetable plain that was previously given with dip than without dip. These findings suggest that serving vegetables with low-fat ranch dip two times can increase the liking and consumption of vegetables in college students.

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  • 2015-05

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Does Varying Item Size Act as a Determinant for Food Preference in Rats?

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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the size of food items is an important dimension of food incentive in rats. The experiment involved training rats on

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the size of food items is an important dimension of food incentive in rats. The experiment involved training rats on a T-maze with 1, 45 mg pellet and 7, 5 mg pellets in one alternative and 8, 10 mg pellets in the other alternative. Results from this study indicated that the rats showed preference for the alternative that contained the 1, 45 mg pellet surrounded by 7, 5 mg pellets. Thus, rats preferred the food set that contained the larger sized food unit to an equicaloric food set with only smaller sized food units. In regards to running speed, no significant differences were found for either alternative of food. Results from this study indicated that the apparent size of an item could be a factor in the incentive value of food and perhaps, rats used size as a heuristic, placing a higher incentive value on the food set that contained the larger sized food unit than one containing only smaller sized food units.

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  • 2013-05

Consumer Perceptions and Behavior: Organic Products in America

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This paper encompasses part of the complex topic of relationships between consumers, organic products, and advertising in America with a particular focus on Tempe, Arizona. Background research included in this

This paper encompasses part of the complex topic of relationships between consumers, organic products, and advertising in America with a particular focus on Tempe, Arizona. Background research included in this paper includes how the term "organic" was developed and regulated to fit the federal standards that are implied through the use of the USDA organic label that was introduced in October of 2002. Further research considers the factors that have empirically and overwhelmingly contributed to motivations of attitude development and purchasing behaviors of the average organic consumer in America, tracking changes and potential causes over the past several decades. A large proportion of this paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted in Tempe between late 2014 and early 2015. This survey, shown in the appendices, includes responses from 310 Tempe consumers regarding questions of demographics, knowledge and perception of organic products, perceived access to organic products, consumer values, and purchasing behaviors. The results of the survey reflect the values displayed in previous studies on national surveys, with some discrepancies that appear to set Tempe apart from the national average. However, the results of the survey are limited by their exclusion and limited parsing of multiple confounds. Additionally, the respondents of the survey were not proportionate to the actually population of Tempe and therefore cannot be accurately generalized to the Tempe population as a whole. The third and final section of this paper deals with the relationship between advertisers and consumers. This considers how advertising helps to develop product values and perceptions through various methods. Future directions for advertising of organic products is also addressed, as advertisers can potentially become a source of developing scientific information if properly utilized. Further directives and gaps in research are addressed in the final portion of the paper and include how to increase consumer knowledge, the problems faced by organic advocates, what is important about what we already know, and where to go from here.

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  • 2015-05