Matching Items (152)

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Preliminary Results and the Unconsidered Potential of the 2014 Open Payments Research Dataset: Introducing a Complex Systems Framework for Extracting Meaningful Information from Big Data

Description

This work challenges the conventional perceptions surrounding the utility and use of the CMS Open Payments data. I suggest unconsidered methodologies for extracting meaningful information from these data following an

This work challenges the conventional perceptions surrounding the utility and use of the CMS Open Payments data. I suggest unconsidered methodologies for extracting meaningful information from these data following an exploratory analysis of the 2014 research dataset that, in turn, enhance its value as a public good. This dataset is favored for analysis over the general payments dataset as it is believed that generating transparency in the pharmaceutical and medical device R&D process would be of the greatest benefit to public health. The research dataset has been largely ignored by analysts and this may be one of the few works that have accomplished a comprehensive exploratory analysis of these data. If we are to extract valuable information from this dataset, we must alter both our approach as well as focus our attention towards re-conceptualizing the questions that we ask. Adopting the theoretical framework of complex systems serves as the foundation for our interpretation of the research dataset. This framework, in conjunction with a methodological toolkit for network analysis, may set a precedent for the development of alternative perspectives that allow for novel interpretations of the information that big data attempts to convey. By thus proposing a novel perspective in interpreting the information that this dataset contains, it is possible to gain insight into the emergent dynamics of the collaborative relationships that are established during the pharmaceutical and medical device R&D process.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Media's Impact on Adolescent Sexual Activity and Body Image

Description

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact that media messages has on adolescents and the development of their sexual activity and body image. Specifically the question of

The purpose of this study is to explore the impact that media messages has on adolescents and the development of their sexual activity and body image. Specifically the question of how the hypersexualized and stereotypical portrayals of men and women in the media impact the adolescents that consume them. The proposed study will analyze how media consumption impacts male adolescents growing up in a single mother household. The methods used in this study are ethnographic research, interviews, and self-report surveys.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Addressing Childhood Trauma in the Classroom

Description

Over the past few years, the issue of childhood trauma in the United States has become significant. A growing number of children are experiencing abuse, neglect, or some other form

Over the past few years, the issue of childhood trauma in the United States has become significant. A growing number of children are experiencing abuse, neglect, or some other form of maltreatment each year. Considering the stressful home lives of maltreated children, the one sure sanctuary is school. However, this idea requires teachers to be actively involved in identifying and caring for the children who need it most. Traumatic childhood experiences leave lasting scars on its victims, so it is helpful if teachers learn how to identify and support children who have lived through them. It is unfortunate that teachers will most likely encounter children throughout their career who have experienced horrendous things, but it is a reality. With this being said, teachers need to develop an understanding of what traumatized children live with, and learn how to address these issues with skilled sensitivity. Schools are not just a place where children learn how to read and write; they build the foundation for a successful life. This project was designed to provide teachers with a necessary resource for helping children who have suffered traumatic experiences. The methodology of this project began with interviews with organizations specializing in working with traumatized children such as Arizonans for Children, Free Arts for Abused Children, The Sojourner Center, and UMOM. The next step was a review of the current literature on the subject of childhood trauma. The findings have all been compiled into one, convenient document for teacher use and distribution. Upon completion of this document, an interactive video presentation will be made available through an online education website, so that distribution will be made simpler. Hopefully, teachers will share the information with people in their networks and create a chain reaction. The goal is to make it available to as many teachers as possible, so that more children will receive the support they need.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An Examination of Dimensions of Social Support and Their Associations with Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers' Mental Health

Description

Social support for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers can benefit mental health. Currently, there is little research on specific dimensions of social support and how they change during the beginning years of

Social support for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers can benefit mental health. Currently, there is little research on specific dimensions of social support and how they change during the beginning years of parenthood, and even less focusing on the influence each dimension has on adolescent mothers' mental health. This study sought to fill such gaps through the analysis of data from the Supporting MAMI Project at Arizona State University. First, the current study assessed perceptions of emotional, instrumental, and companionship support received from mother figures by Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204; Mean age at Wave 1 = 16.24, SD = .99) across five years through descriptive statistics and univariate latent growth models. Second, the study assessed the strength of the impact that each dimension of social support had on mental health across six years via conditional growth models. Findings indicated that each dimension of social support shifted in a bi-linear spline shape from Wave 1 to Wave 6, with growth parameters' significance varying for each dimension of support. Each dimension of support was significantly related to depressive symptoms at Wave 6, with varying degrees of influence across growth parameters. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Everyday Functioning in Individuals with Psychotic-like Experiences: Information Gleaned from Friends and Family

Description

Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) are prevalent in the general population and may be a marker of risk for psychosis, yet little is known about the everyday functioning of individuals with PLEs.

Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) are prevalent in the general population and may be a marker of risk for psychosis, yet little is known about the everyday functioning of individuals with PLEs. The purpose of this study was to compare everyday functioning of people with and without PLEs. Participants were 108 college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course who were selected for participation in the study because they scored in the top and bottom 10% of a screening test for PLEs. Informants were emailed questionnaires and asked to report on the participants' functioning in three domains: interpersonal functioning, disorganized behavior, and cognitive-perceptual functioning. Informants also reported on participants' attention and memory problems. Results showed that, consistent with prior research, individuals high in PLEs were from lower SES families and reported more depression, anxiety, and substance use. Moreover, informants for participants high in PLEs reported more unusual/disorganized behavior than informants for participants low in PLEs. No differences were observed between individuals high versus low in PLEs for informant-reported interpersonal functioning and attention and memory problems, however. Findings suggest that noticeable difficulties among individuals with PLEs are limited to disorganized behavior. More research is needed to determine the functional consequences of disorganized behavior among individuals with PLEs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An American in Scotland: An Examination of What it Means to Be a Tourist, a Traveler, and a Student in a Foreign Country

Description

This paper is an examination of my own personal experience living and studying abroad in Scotland and how this experience relates to the concept of tourist versus traveler. The concept

This paper is an examination of my own personal experience living and studying abroad in Scotland and how this experience relates to the concept of tourist versus traveler. The concept of tourist versus traveler is found in many different work of travel writing. Paul Fussell described the tourist versus traveler idea best. Travelers, according to Fussell, "learn not just foreign customs and curious cuisines and unfamiliar beliefs and novel forms of government, they learn, if they are lucky, humility." The aim of this project is to look at the differences between a tourist and a traveler is reference to my own personal experiences studying abroad. After spending a semester living and studying in Scotland I noticed that my behavior had changed, becoming more likely to try new things and immerse myself in Scottish society, instead of seeing the important historical places. I spent five months living in Scotland and during this time I noticed that the more time I spent abroad the less I wanted to do the tourist traps and the more I wanted experience Scotland through the parts of the country most generally would not see. My paper moves from my experience as a tourist to later in the semester when I had been living there for a while. This work can also be used to examine what living and studying abroad is like for students. Different countries have different ways of handling education and this work can help highlight these differences.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Sustainable Innovation in Supply Chain Management -- A Measurable Supply Chain Framework

Description

This study aims to find measurable approaches to achieve sustainable closed-loop supply chain. The proposed methodology here was initiated with my experience that was gained through InnovationSpace Program. InnovationSpace Program

This study aims to find measurable approaches to achieve sustainable closed-loop supply chain. The proposed methodology here was initiated with my experience that was gained through InnovationSpace Program. InnovationSpace Program is a year-long multidisciplinary product-design and development program hosted by Arizona State University that aims to tackle societal problems. Inspired by the Design Thinking framework, I found out that much more effort would need to be done from the beginning stage of product design in order to achieve real and cohesive improvement in industries today. Thinking about the concepts of reverse logistics within supply chain and the planned obsolescence during the product design stage, I would like to come out some more efficient and measurable long-term supply chain planning for the industries, regarding its different production lines and the properties of its products.

Through the process of writing the sustainability report for InnovationSpace program, I had gained deeper understanding about applying sustainability concept into daily business procedures. As supply chain is defined as the oversight over materials, services, information and finances flowed within and among companies and industries, the new innovative supply chain management can be better adjusted according to the concern of any sustainable impact to all the stakeholders and communities. After gathering the information from industries and listening to the suggestions from academic insights, I then finalized the proposed innovative sustainability strategy for the supply chain management nowadays and I called it as Diamond Index.

Diamond Index=Avg(Environmental Stewardship+Social Responsibility +Economic Impact)^(Innovation Index)

Economic Impact (Econ)∈ [0, 10] Social Responsibility (Soc)∈[0, 10]
Environmental Stewardship (Env) ∈ [0, 10] Innovation ∈ [0, 1]

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

A Catalog of the Expressive Vocabularies of Seven Preschool Children

Description

Preschoolers' vocabularies are an important component of their receptive and expressive language skills. This study was designed to catalog preschoolers' expressive vocabularies to provide an accurate estimate of how many

Preschoolers' vocabularies are an important component of their receptive and expressive language skills. This study was designed to catalog preschoolers' expressive vocabularies to provide an accurate estimate of how many words and which words seven preschoolers knew. In this study a LENA digital recorder was used to record language samples of the children (age range 40 months to 69 months) over 4-6 days. Their language samples were transcribed and individual root words were extracted. The children spoke an average of 1,698 unique words (range 1,522 \u2014 1,957 words). There were 539 words produced by all of the children in the study as well as 820 words produced by 6 of the 7 children. These data provide preliminary information that will be useful for designing a larger, more comprehensive study of children's vocabulary with the goal of teachers and speech-language pathologists being able to use this information to determine if a child's vocabulary is smaller than other children when they enter elementary school. This can inform assessment and intervention decisions as well as provide guidance to preschool curriculum developers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

Towards the Development of a Multimarker Platform for Point-of-Care Monitoring of Solid Organ Transplant Patient Health through Impedance-Time Testing of Tacrolimus Cystatin-C, and IL-12

Description

Each year, 30,000 patients obtain transplants. To prevent graft rejection, immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus are prescribed. Due to tacrolimus's narrow therapeutic range, a dose that is too low places patients

Each year, 30,000 patients obtain transplants. To prevent graft rejection, immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus are prescribed. Due to tacrolimus's narrow therapeutic range, a dose that is too low places patients at risk for transplant rejection, but too high of a dose leads to kidney failure. The de facto method for monitoring of transplant patient health is bimonthly blood draws, which are cumbersome, painful, and difficult to translate into urgently needed dosage changes in a timely manner. To improve long-term transplant survival rates, we propose a finger-prick sensor that will provide patients and healthcare providers with a measurement of tacrolimus, immune health (through IL-12), and kidney damage (through cystatin C) levels 100 times more frequently than the status quo. Additionally, patient quality of life will be improved due to reduction in time and pain associated with blood draws. Optimal binding frequencies for each marker were found. However, due to limitations with EIS, the integration of the detection of the three markers into one multimarker sensing platform has not yet been realized. To this end, impedance-time tests were run on each marker along with different antibodies, and optimal times of each marker were determined to be 17s, 6s, and 2s, for tacrolimus, cystatin c, and IL-12, respectively (n=6). The integration of impedance-time analysis with traditional EIS methodologies has the potential to enable multi-marker analysis by analyzing binding kinetics on a single electrode with respect to time. Thus, our results provide unique insight into possibilities to improve and facilitate detection of multiple markers not only for the sensor for solid organ transplant patients, but for the monitoring of patients with disease that also entail the observation of multiple markers. Furthermore, the use of impedance-time testing also provides the ability for another way to optimize accuracy/precision of marker detection because it specifies a particular time, in addition to a particular optimal binding frequency, at which to measure concentration.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Effects of Decreased Opportunity to Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Mood by Sex in Older Adults

Description

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to determine if reducing one's sleep by an hour each night for 12 weeks, led to worse cognition and mood over time. Study Design: The study contained two groups: older adults with their sleep restricted and older adults with their sleep un-restricted. Participants were recruited by researchers at Arizona State University and The University of Arizona by advertising in newspapers, on flyers in senior centers, and on radio stations. After rigorous screening for health conditions, current sleep patterns and depression, individuals entered the study. Participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. Likewise, males and females performed three cognitive tests after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. These cognitive tests included Stroop Color and Word Test, Trail making and PVT. Results: The depression scale and three cognitive tests showed that there was no significant difference with cognition and mood over 14 weeks between individuals with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. Conclusions: Reducing older adult's sleep duration by an hour each night for 14 weeks does not produce negative effects, and does not provoke signs of depression or weakened cognition.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05