Matching Items (14)

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Accelerated aging in adults with knee osteoarthritis pain: consideration for frequency, intensity, time, and total pain sites

Description

Introduction: Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) show increased morbidity and mortality. Telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, predicts increased morbidity and mortality. Telomeres shorten with persisting biological and psychosocial stress.

Introduction: Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) show increased morbidity and mortality. Telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, predicts increased morbidity and mortality. Telomeres shorten with persisting biological and psychosocial stress. Living with chronic OA pain is stressful. Previous research exploring telomere length in people with OA has produced inconsistent results. Considering pain severity may clarify the relationship between OA and telomeres.
Objectives: We hypothesized that individuals with high OA chronic pain severity would have shorter telomeres than those with no or low chronic pain severity.
Methods: One hundred thirty-six adults, ages 45 to 85 years old, with and without symptomatic knee OA were included in the analysis. Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length was measured, and demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Participants were categorized into 5 pain severity groups based on an additive index of frequency, intensity, time or duration, and total number of pain sites (FITT). Covariates included age, sex, race or ethnicity, study site, and knee pain status.
Results: The no or low chronic pain severity group had significantly longer telomeres compared with the high pain severity group, P50.025. A significant chronic pain severity dose response emerged for telomere length, P50.034. The FITT chronic pain severity index was highly correlated with the clinical and functional OA pain measures. However, individual clinical and functional measures were not associated with telomere length.
Conclusion: Results demonstrate accelerated cellular aging with high knee OA chronic pain severity and provide evidence for the potential utility of the FITT chronic pain severity index in capturing the biological burden of chronic pain.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-04

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Sleep strategies of night-shift nurses on days off: which ones are most adaptive?

Description

Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night-shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a

Objectives: To determine the off-shift sleep strategies of bi-ethnic night-shift nurses, the relationship between these sleep strategies and adaptation to shift work, and identify the participant-level characteristics associated with a given sleep strategy.
Methods: African-American and non-Hispanic White female, night-shift nurses from an academic hospital were recruited to complete a survey on sleep–wake patterns (n = 213). Participants completed the standard shiftwork index and the biological clocks questionnaire to determine sleep strategies and adaptation to night-shift work. In addition, chronotype was determined quantitatively with a modified version of the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire. Most participants worked ~3 consecutive 12-h night-shifts followed by several days off.
Results: Five sleep strategies used on days off were identified: (a) night stay, (b) nap proxy, (c) switch sleeper, (d) no sleep, and (e) incomplete switcher. Nap proxy and no sleep types were associated with poorer adaptation to night-shift work. The switch sleeper and incomplete switcher types were identified as more adaptive strategies that were associated with less sleep disturbance, a later chronotype, and less cardiovascular problems.
Conclusion: Behavioral sleep strategies are related to adaptation to a typical night-shift schedule among hospital nurses. Nurses are crucial to the safety and well-being of their patients. Therefore, adoption of more adaptive sleep strategies may reduce sleep/wake dysregulation in this population, and improve cardiovascular outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12-19

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Effects of Decreased Opportunity to Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Mood by Sex in Older Adults

Description

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare older adults (ages 60 to 80) with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. The purpose was to determine if reducing one's sleep by an hour each night for 12 weeks, led to worse cognition and mood over time. Study Design: The study contained two groups: older adults with their sleep restricted and older adults with their sleep un-restricted. Participants were recruited by researchers at Arizona State University and The University of Arizona by advertising in newspapers, on flyers in senior centers, and on radio stations. After rigorous screening for health conditions, current sleep patterns and depression, individuals entered the study. Participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. Likewise, males and females performed three cognitive tests after two weeks of baseline, and again after treatment week 14 of the study. These cognitive tests included Stroop Color and Word Test, Trail making and PVT. Results: The depression scale and three cognitive tests showed that there was no significant difference with cognition and mood over 14 weeks between individuals with a fixed sleep schedule compared to a restricted sleep schedule. Conclusions: Reducing older adult's sleep duration by an hour each night for 14 weeks does not produce negative effects, and does not provoke signs of depression or weakened cognition.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Methods of Relaxation for Promoting Sleep in Patients Diagnosed with Cancer

Description

For this creative project, an instructional video on relaxation techniques was created. The relaxation techniques demonstrated were intended to help patients with comorbid cancer and sleep disturbance fall asleep with

For this creative project, an instructional video on relaxation techniques was created. The relaxation techniques demonstrated were intended to help patients with comorbid cancer and sleep disturbance fall asleep with greater ease. Based on a literature review, autogenic training and tai chi were chosen as the relaxation techniques to demonstrate in the video project. The literature review informed what components of autogenic training and tai chi should be included in the video. A patient with cancer was asked to participate in the making of the video. The patient was guided through autogenic training and tai chi. The patient provided feedback on her experience after completing each technique. The video also included background information on the two relaxation techniques. The completed video was presented to the director of Natural Medicine and Detox in Phoenix, AZ, a naturopathic physician, and a cancer survivor. These individuals provided feedback on what they liked about the video and what they thought needed improvement. The video was posted on YouTube as a resource for patients with cancer. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04kYz1kSCaU

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Differences in Traditional and Non-Traditional Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors between Asian and Non-Hispanic White Young Adults

Description

The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors between Asian and non-Hispanic White young adults. The burden of CVD

The objective of the present study was to investigate differences in traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors between Asian and non-Hispanic White young adults. The burden of CVD varies by racial/ethnic group. Traditional risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing CVD include smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Suboptimal sleep is known to be a non-traditional risk factor for poor overall health, CVD risk factors, and CVD. The present study was an investigation of a cross-sectional, screening survey used for a larger community-based study on sleep and cardiovascular health. The unadjusted results examining differences in traditional CVD risk factors indicated that Asian participants were less likely to report alcohol use compared to non-Hispanic White participants. For non-traditional CVD risk factors, Asians were less likely to report experiencing sleep-related fatigue or malaise, attention impairment, daytime sleepiness, reduced motivation or energy, or concerns about their sleep compared to non-Hispanic White participants. Multivariate-analyses were conducted adjusting for sex and age. The adjusted results indicated that the Asian participants were less likely to report alcohol consumption, regular engagement in exercise, engagement in hard intensity exercise, concerns with sleep quality, and sleep difficulty-related fatigue, attention impairment, daytime sleepiness, reduced motivation, and were more likely to be obese compared to non-Hispanic White participants. The results may help guide cardiovascular prevention education provided to these groups. The data indicate the need for further longitudinal research studies on non-traditional CVD risk factors like sleep by ethnicity/race.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Comparison of Actigraphic and Subjective Assessment of Sleep Parameters in Healthy Individuals

Description

Sleep diaries and actigraphy are two common methods used to assess sleep subjectively and objectively, respectively. Compared to the gold standard of sleep assessment, polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphic methods

Sleep diaries and actigraphy are two common methods used to assess sleep subjectively and objectively, respectively. Compared to the gold standard of sleep assessment, polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphic methods are more cost-effective and simpler to use. This study aimed to compare the sleep parameters derived from actigraphy and sleep diaries (total sleep time, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, wake after sleep onset, percentage of time awake, and sleep efficiency). Based on results from previous similar studies, it was hypothesized that the sleep diaries would overestimate the total sleep time parameter and underestimate wake parameters. Twenty healthy young adults without sleep problems volunteered to participate. The participants wore an Actiwatch 2 on their wrist and filled out a sleep diary every morning for the duration of six days. A high intraclass correlation coefficient value between subjective and objective sleep was found for the parameter total sleep time, even though total sleep time was found to be slightly overestimated by the sleep diaries. Sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, number of awakenings, percentage of time awake, and sleep efficiency were underestimated by the sleep diaries and did not have high correlation values. Based off of the ICC results, there does not seem to be a strong correlation between the Actiwatch 2 and the sleep diaries, but looking at the Bland Altman plots, there seems to be agreement between the methods.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Effects of Sleep on Bone Mineral Density in College-Aged Males and Females

Description

Sleep is imperative for health and wellness with direct impacts on brain function, physiology, emotional well-being, performance and safety when compromised. Adolescents and young adults are increasingly affected by factors

Sleep is imperative for health and wellness with direct impacts on brain function, physiology, emotional well-being, performance and safety when compromised. Adolescents and young adults are increasingly affected by factors affecting the maintenance of regular sleep schedules. College and university students are a potentially vulnerable population to sleep deprivation and sleep insufficiency. Possible factors that could contribute to poor sleep hygiene include, but are not limited to, academic pressures, social activities, and increased screen time. Arguably, students are still experiencing bone mineralization, until the age of 30 or even 40 years old, which makes it more important to understand the effects that altered sleep patterns could have on continued development of bone health. It is our understanding that to date, studies assessing the risk of sleep insufficiency on bone mineral density in college students have not been conducted. We hypothesized that college-aged students, between the ages of 18-25 years, with shorter sleep durations, greater sleep schedule variability, and poorer sleep environments will have significantly lower bone mineral density. ActiGraph monitoring, via a wrist ActiWatch was used to quantitatively measure sleep habits for up to 7 consecutive days. During the week-long study participants also captured their self-reported sleep data through the use of a sleep diary. Participants were measured one time within the study for bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and total hip through a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. This was a preliminary analysis of a larger cross-sectional analysis looked at 17 participants, of which there were 14 females and 3 males, (n=5, 1 and 11 Hispanic, Black and White, respectively). The mean age of participants was 20.8±1.7 y with an average BMI of 22.9±3.2 kg/m2. ActiWatch measurement data showed a mean daily sleep duration of participants to be 437.5 ± 43.1 (372.5 – 509.4) minutes. Mean sleep efficiency (minutes of sleep divided by minutes of time in bed) and mean number of awakenings were 87.4±4.3 (75.4-93.4) minutes and 32.1±6.4 (22.3-42.7) awakenings, respectively. The median time for wake after sleep onset (WASO) was 34.5±10.5 (18.3-67.4) minutes. The mean bone mineral density (BMD) for the hips was 1.06±0.14 (0.81-1.28) g/cm2 with a mean BMD of the lumbar spine being 1.24±0.12 (0.92-1.43) g/cm2. Age-matched Z-scores of the hips was 0.31±0.96 (-1.6-2.1) and lumbar spine was 0.53 (IQR: 0.13, 0.98; -2.25-1.55). Neither sleep duration nor sleep efficiency was significantly correlated to BMD of either locations. While WASO was positively associated with hip and spine BMD, this value was not statistically significant in this population. Overall, associations between sleep and BMD of the femur and spine were not seen in this cohort. Further work utilizing a larger cohort will allow for control of covariates while looking for potential associations between bone health, sleep duration and efficiency.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Investigating the Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Startle Response

Description

Older adults tend to learn at a lesser extent and slower rate than younger individuals. This is especially problematic for older adults at risk to injury or neurological disease who

Older adults tend to learn at a lesser extent and slower rate than younger individuals. This is especially problematic for older adults at risk to injury or neurological disease who require therapy to learn and relearn motor skills. There is evidence that the reticulospinal system is critical to motor learning and that deficits in the reticulospinal system may be responsible, at least in part, for learning deficits in older adults. Specifically, delays in the reticulospinal system (measured via the startle reflex) are related to poor motor learning and retention in older adults. However, the mechanism underlying these delays in the reticulospinal system is currently unknown.

Along with aging, sleep deprivation is correlated with learning deficits. Research has shown that a lack of sleep negatively impacts motor skill learning and consolidation. Since there is a link between sleep and learning, as well as learning and the reticulospinal system, these observations raise the question: does sleep deprivation underlie reticulospinal delays? We hypothesized that sleep deprivation was correlated to a slower startle response, indicating a delayed reticulospinal system. Our objectives were to observe the impact of sleep deprivation on 1) the startle response (characterized by muscle onset latency and percentage of startle responses elicited) and 2) functional performance (to determine whether subjects were sufficiently sleep deprived).

21 young adults participated in two experimental sessions: one control session (8-10 hour time in bed opportunity for at least 3 nights prior) and one sleep deprivation session (0 hour time in bed opportunity for one night prior). The same protocol was conducted during each session. First, subjects were randomly exposed to 15 loud, startling acoustic stimuli of 120 dB. Electromyography (EMG) data measured muscle activity from the left and right sternocleidomastoid (LSCM and RSCM), biceps brachii, and triceps brachii. To assess functional performance, cognitive, balance, and motor tests were also administered. The EMG data were analyzed in MATLAB. A generalized linear mixed model was performed on LSCM and RSCM onset latencies. Paired t-tests were performed on the percentage of startle responses elicited and functional performance metrics. A p-value of less than 0.05 indicated significance.

Thirteen out of 21 participants displayed at least one startle response during their control and sleep deprived sessions and were further analyzed. No differences were found in onset latency (RSCM: control = 75.87 ± 21.94ms, sleep deprived = 82.06 ± 27.47ms; LSCM: control = 79.53 ± 17.85ms, sleep deprived = 78.48 ± 20.75ms) and percentage of startle responses elicited (control = 84.10 ± 15.53%; sleep deprived = 83.59 ± 18.58%) between the two sessions. However, significant differences were observed in reaction time, TUG with Dual time, and average balance time with the right leg up. Our data did not support our hypothesis; no significant differences were seen between subjects’ startle responses during the control and sleep deprived sessions. However, sleep deprivation was indicated with declines were observed in functional performance. Therefore, we concluded that sleep deprivation may not affect the startle response and underlie delays in the reticulospinal system.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Stress, Depression, and Sleep Among College Students

Description

There has been a rise in the prevalence of mental health disorders among western industrialized populations.1 By 2020, depression will be second to heart disease in its contribution to the

There has been a rise in the prevalence of mental health disorders among western industrialized populations.1 By 2020, depression will be second to heart disease in its contribution to the global burden of disease as measured by disability-adjusted life years.2 Anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting 40 million adults in the United States ages 18 and older, or 18.1% of the U.S population every year.3
Mental disorders are prevalent in young adults and frequently present between 12-24 years of age.4 The top five sources of stress reported by college students were changes in sleeping routines, changes in eating habits, increased amount of work, new responsibilities, and breaks/vacations.5 Overall, a total of 73% of college students report occasional difficulties sleeping, and 48% of students suffer from sleep deprivation, as self-reported.6,7
Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and sleep may influence symptoms related to stress and depression.8 Symptoms of depression include but are not limited to, persistent anxious or sad moods, feeling guilty or helpless, loss of interest in hobbies, irritability, and other behaviors that may interrupt daily living.9 Inadequate intake of folic acid from fruits and vegetables, and essential fatty acids in fish, may increase symptoms of depression.10 Unhealthy eating habits may be associated with increases in depression-like symptoms in women, supporting the notion that healthier eating habits may decrease major depression.11 Diet is only one component of how lifestyle may influence depression and stress in adults. Exercise may be another important component in decreasing depression-related symptoms due to the release of endorphins.12 It has been found that participating in regular physical activity may decrease tension levels, increase and stabilize mood, improve self-esteem, and lead to better sleeping patterns.13 It has been concluded that individuals who consume a healthy diet are less likely to experience depression whereas people eating unhealthy and processed diets are more likely to be depressed.14
Poor sleep quality as well as unstable sleeping patterns may lead to poor psychological and physical health.15 Poor sleep includes longer duration of sleep onset latency, which is defined as the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, waking up multiple times throughout the night, and not getting a restful sleep because of tossing and turning.16 In healthy adults, the short-term consequences of sleep disruption consist of somatic pain, emotional destress and mood disorders, reduced quality of life, and increased stress responsivity.17 Irregular sleep-wake patterns, defined as taking numerous naps within a 24 hour span and not having a main nighttime sleep experience, are present at alarming levels (more than a quarter) among college students.18 A study done with 2,000 college students concluded that more than a quarter of the students were at risk of a sleeping disorder.19 Therefore, college students who were classified as poor-quality sleepers, reported experiencing more psychological and physical health problems compared to their healthy counterparts. Perceived stress was also found to be a factor in lower sleep quality of young adults.20
The link between depression-like symptoms and sleep remains poorly understood. It is mentioned that there are risk factors of poor sleep, depression and anxiety among college students but this topic has not yet been heavily studied within this population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Improving the Self-Efficacy of Adolescent Sex Trafficking Survivors Through Physical Activity

Description

Adolescent survivors of sex trafficking are at risk for poor health outcomes and may be less likely to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Survivors of childhood traumas

Adolescent survivors of sex trafficking are at risk for poor health outcomes and may be less likely to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity. Survivors of childhood traumas may be less likely to engage in physical activity due to lack of self-efficacy. The present study was a case-series of a pre-post, single-arm physical activity intervention to test whether the program could increase self-efficacy among adolescent survivors of sex trafficking. The intervention was 8-weeks of 60-minute aerobic physical activity classes offered three times per week at a residential center for adolescent girls who are survivors of sex trafficking and sexual abuse. The primary outcome was physical activity-related self-efficacy as measured by the Sport Competence subscale of the Physical Self Perception Profile (PSPP) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, emotional eating, and sleep habits. All outcomes were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Five participants were enrolled in the study. Two participants experienced an increase in the Sport Competence subscale of the PSPP Questionnaire by Week 4 of the study and then a decrease by Week 8 of the study. Another participant experienced no change in the Sport Competence subscale score. Scores for the last two participants could not be determined due to invalid data. These findings suggest that more research is needed on enhancing healthy behaviors among adolescent sex trafficking survivors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05