Matching Items (11)

How changes in brain activity and connectivity are associated with motor performance in people with MS

Description

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit pronounced changes in brain structure, activity, and connectivity. While considerable work has begun to elucidate how these neural changes contribute to behavior, the heterogeneity

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit pronounced changes in brain structure, activity, and connectivity. While considerable work has begun to elucidate how these neural changes contribute to behavior, the heterogeneity of symptoms and diagnoses makes interpretation of findings and application to clinical practice challenging. In particular, whether MS related changes in brain activity or brain connectivity protect against or contribute to worsening motor symptoms is unclear. With the recent emergence of neuromodulatory techniques that can alter neural activity in specific brain regions, it is critical to establish whether localized brain activation patterns are contributing to (i.e. maladaptive) or protecting against (i.e. adaptive) progression of motor symptoms. In this manuscript, we consolidate recent findings regarding changes in supraspinal structure and activity in people with MS and how these changes may contribute to motor performance. Furthermore, we discuss a hypothesis suggesting that increased neural activity during movement may be either adaptive or maladaptive depending on where in the brain this increase is observed. Specifically, we outline preliminary evidence suggesting sensorimotor cortex activity in the ipsilateral cortices may be maladaptive in people with MS. We also discuss future work that could supply data to support or refute this hypothesis, thus improving our understanding of this important topic.

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  • 2017-09-28

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The effects of variable training on generalization during loss of balance

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Reactive step and treadmill perturbation training have been shown to improve first step measurements and reduce falls. However, the effect of variable training on the efficacy of generalization is

Reactive step and treadmill perturbation training have been shown to improve first step measurements and reduce falls. However, the effect of variable training on the efficacy of generalization is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to measure whether the addition of variability in the perturbation training protocol can increase the amount of generalization seen in forward perturbations. The study included 28 young, healthy adults between the age of 20-35 years old with no known significant medical history. Fifteen participants underwent constant training in one direction with the same belt acceleration (4 m/s2) and thirteen participants underwent variable training where their foot positioned and belt acceleration (3 m/s2, 4 m/s2, 5 m/s2) were randomized throughout the collections All slips were done in the forward direction requiring a forward reactive step. To assess the effects of variable training an independent sample t-test of the differences in generalization between each group was calculated. Primary outcome variables in both studies were margin of stability (MOS), step length, and step latency. Results from the study indicated that variable training made no significant improvement (p<0.05) in generalization across the variables. The P-values for the difference in generalization of MOS, step length, and step latency were 0.635, 0.225, 0.148 respectively. Despite the lack of significant evidence to support improvement in generalization with variable training, further investigations are warranted to develop training methods capable of reducing falls in at risk populations.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Using kinematic data to identify movement patterns shared between tasks: A way to explain transfer

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In motor training, transfer is defined as the gain/loss of performance in one task as a result of training on another. In our laboratory, we have observed that training on

In motor training, transfer is defined as the gain/loss of performance in one task as a result of training on another. In our laboratory, we have observed that training on a multi-joint coordination task (which simulates arm and wrist movement when feeding) transfers to a dexterity task (which simulates finger and hand movement when dressing), such that there are improvements in the dexterity task that emerge without having trained on that specific task. More recently, we have shown that the dexterity task transfers to the multi-joint coordination task. These collective findings suggest that there are shared movement patterns between these two functional motor tasks that may yield this bi-directional transfer effect. Therefore, the objective of this thesis project was to collect kinematic data of the hand to use in future principal component analyses to better understand the underlying mechanism of transfer between these two functional motor tasks. The joint angles of the hand were recorded during twenty second trials of the multi-joint coordination task and the dexterity task. The ranges of motion for the joints in the hand during naïve performance of both motor tasks were analyzed. From a linear regression analysis, we observe that the hand’s ranges of motion were strongly correlated between the two tasks, which suggests that these two functionally different tasks may share movement patterns in terms of joint angles. This similarity of joint angles of the hand may play a role in why we observe this bi-directional transfer between the dexterity and multi-joint coordination tasks. Following neurological injury, patients participate in physical therapy in order to retrain their nervous system to restore lost motor function(s). If patients can only practice a limited number of activities in therapy, our data suggest that other activities may also improve through transfer of training. Kinematic data collection may inform how much a patient improves with motor training and why there may be an improvement in untrained motor tasks.

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  • 2017-12

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Relating Reactive Stepping Characteristics to Falls in Older Community Dwelling Adults

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Background: Falls are a leading cause of injury in older adults with roughly 1 in 4 American's over the age of 65 experiencing a fall. Research that looks at reactive

Background: Falls are a leading cause of injury in older adults with roughly 1 in 4 American's over the age of 65 experiencing a fall. Research that looks at reactive stepping, or the steps a person takes when they encounter a loss of balance, is sparse. Whether a specific aspect of reactive stepping can be linked to falls has yet to be determined. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which reactive stepping characteristics may be correlated with falls in from community dwelling older adults. Methods: 54 older adults (11 fallers & 43 non-fallers) underwent 3 "postural perturbations", in which they leaned back into the testers hands and were released, resulting in one or more reactive steps. Inertial sensors (APDM, inc.) were used to measure participant movement and Quantify reactive steps. Step length and step latency, which is the time it takes for an individual to perform a step, were the primary outcomes measured, along with time to stabilization, number of steps taken, and time until first foot strike. Results: Neither step length or step latency were significantly different in fallers compared to non-fallers (p=0.537 and p=0.431, respectively). However, four square step test was significantly different between the populations (p= 0.045). Conclusions: These results showed that four square step test may be more closely related to falls than step length or latency. When performing fall prevention training, or working with an individual at risk for falling, it may be more beneficial to focus on four square step test and the changes in direction associated with it, as opposed to other stepping characteristics in order to improve their fall risk.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Pilot Study: Generalization of Improvements in Reactive Stepping Performance in Healthy

Description

According to the Center for Disease Control, 1 in every 3 individuals will fall in their lifetime. Treadmill perturbation training has been a beneficial tool to increase reactive postural control

According to the Center for Disease Control, 1 in every 3 individuals will fall in their lifetime. Treadmill perturbation training has been a beneficial tool to increase reactive postural control and decrease the amount of falls. This study looked at the extent of the training effects on 29 healthy young adults to evaluate if stepping improvements in one direction could generalize to improvements in the quality of stepping in other directions. Outcome variables of Margin of Stability (MOS), step length, and step latency were evaluated for all 15 participants trained with forward perturbations and 14 participants trained with backward perturbations. From the paired t-tests, there were limited significant improvements in stepping with regards to motor learning and generalization. The only significant outcome was an increase in step length for the participants who trained in the backward direction (p=0.014; p<0.05). However, this significant increase in step length for this backward group did not generalize when the participants stepped in the forward direction post training. From the correlation tests, there was a significant, moderate correlation between motor learning and generalization (rho =0.527, p= 0.043; p<0.05), thus suggesting there may be a relationship between the amount of learning and the amount of generalization observed. Further evaluation of the second step and the foot motion during stepping may reveal more information and explain the changes in stepping to describe how healthy young adults were able to regain balance with each perturbation given.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Human Postural Stability Under 2-dimensional Oscillatory Perturbations

Description

Oscillatory perturbations with varying amplitudes and frequencies have been found to significantly affect human standing balance. However, previous studies have only applied perturbation in either the anterior-posterior (AP) or the

Oscillatory perturbations with varying amplitudes and frequencies have been found to significantly affect human standing balance. However, previous studies have only applied perturbation in either the anterior-posterior (AP) or the medio-lateral (ML) directions. Little is currently known about the impacts of 2D oscillatory perturbations on postural stability, which are more commonly seen in daily life (i.e., while traveling on trains, ships, etc.). This study investigated the effects of applying 2D perturbations vs 1D perturbations on standing stability, and how increasing the frequency and amplitude of perturbation impacts postural stability. A dual-axis robotic platform was utilized to simulate various oscillatory perturbations and evaluate standing postural stability. Fifteen young healthy subjects were recruited to perform quiet stance on the platform. Impacts of perturbation direction (i.e., 1D versus 2D), amplitude, and frequency on postural stability were investigated by analyzing different stability measures, specifically AP/ML/2D Center-of-Pressure (COP) path length, AP/ML/2D Time-to-Boundary (TtB), and sway area. Standing postural stability was compromised more by 2D perturbations than 1D perturbations, evidenced by a significant increase in COP path length and sway area and decrease in TtB. Further, the stability decreased as 2D perturbation amplitude and frequency increased. A significant increase in COP path length and decrease in TtB were consistently observed as the 2D perturbation amplitude and frequency increased. However, sway area showed a considerable increase only with increasing perturbation amplitude but not with increasing frequency.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Breakdown and classification of skill transfer type between a hockey slap shot and golf drive

Description

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to

There is surprisingly little scientific literature describing whether a hockey slap shot positively or negatively transfers to a driving golf swing. Golf and hockey use a similar kinematic sequence to send the ball / puck towards a target, but does that directly translate to positive skill transfer between the two sports, or are there other important factors that could result in a negative skill transfer? The aim of this study is to look further into the two kinematic sequences and determine their intertask skill transfer type. A field experiment was conducted, following a specific research design, in order to compare performance between two groups, one being familiar with the skill that may transfer (hockey slapshot) and the other group being unfamiliar. Both groups had no experience in the skill being tested (driving golf swing) and various data was collected as all of the subjects performed 10 golf swings. The results of the data analysis showed that the group with experience in hockey had a higher variability of ball distance and ball speed. There are many factors of a hockey slapshot that are likely to develop a negative intertask skill transfer, resulting in this group's high inconsistency when performing a golf swing. On the other hand, the group with hockey experience also had higher mean club speed, showing that some aspects of the hockey slapshot resulted in a positive skill transfer, aiding their ability to perform a golf swing.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Balance and Gait in Adults with Down syndromeThe Effects of Acute Resistance Training (RT) and Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) on Balance and Gait in Adults with Down syndrome

Description

Down syndrome (DS) is caused by either an extra copy of chromosome 21 or by extra material on chromosome 21. This causes various levels of intellectual disability and issues with

Down syndrome (DS) is caused by either an extra copy of chromosome 21 or by extra material on chromosome 21. This causes various levels of intellectual disability and issues with gross motor skill development which can prevent these individuals from participating in activities of daily living (ADL) such as getting dressed, self-care, or grocery shopping. People with DS have a decreased ability to balance, an abnormal and slower gait pattern, difficulty adapting to new environments, and a lack of improvement in these areas with growth and development when compared to their neurotypical peers. The objective of this study was to determine the immediate effects of resistance training (RT) and assisted cycle therapy (ACT) on adults with DS’s balance ability and gait speed. Each participant completed one session of RT, ACT (stationary cycling with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence of at least 35% greater than their voluntary cycling speed), and no training in a randomly selected order. Balance and gait speed were measured by a Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (CTSIB) (i.e., eyes open firm surface, eyes closed firm surface, eyes open foam surface, eyes closed foam surface) on a Balance Tracking System Board (Btracks board) and by a Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. A total of ten participants’ data was used for analysis. The measures of total path length (cm), anterior-posterior (AP) excursion, and medial-lateral (ML) excursion were used to analyze the CTSIB. The average time was used to analyze the TUG test. The results showed that the eyes closed foam surface balance task was the most challenging balance task for every participant in every intervention. Furthermore, the most improvement was evident in the eyes closed foam surface balance task from pre to post intervention in all of the interventions. Post hoc tests also indicated statistically significant improvements of path length from pre to post in the RT intervention with the eyes closed foam surface balance task as well as with AP excursion in the ACT intervention with the eyes closed foam surface balance task. Possible explanations for improvements from pre to post in the eyes closed foam balance task across all interventions will be discussed with respect to the length of the intervention, and the effect of strength, social and learned factors on balance in adults with DS.

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Date Created
  • 2020-12

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My PTPro App - Circadian Health

Description

Physical therapy patients still receive their plan of care onto a piece of paper when there are hundreds of engaging physical therapy exercise videos on the internet. These exercise videos

Physical therapy patients still receive their plan of care onto a piece of paper when there are hundreds of engaging physical therapy exercise videos on the internet. These exercise videos are way more appealing to watch and physical therapists should consider delivering Home Exercise Programs (HEP) digitally. There are apps and online services such as Physioadvisor, Physprac app, Anterior Cruciate Ligament repair app, and work-out apps for people to create their own plan of care and are easily accessible with any electronic device. Most people are receiving information and learning through a lit screen anyways so it may only be a matter of time before people start using these resources instead of a physical therapist. Physical Therapists need to provide better resources for their patients and an app may be all they need. Figures of the results of the Qualtrics survey both Physical Therapists and Patient responses and were provided. A data analysis of each question and responses were interpreted to determine whether patients and physical therapists would like to use a physical therapy app as part of their rehab program. A Physiotherapy research journal with Switzerland researchers conducted a case study in a hospital and determined whether a HEP app testing was effective for patients to utilize.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Upper extremity biomechanics in native and non-native signers

Description

Individuals fluent in sign language who have at least one deaf parent are considered native signers while those with non-signing, hearing parents are non-native signers. Musculoskeletal pain from repetitive motion

Individuals fluent in sign language who have at least one deaf parent are considered native signers while those with non-signing, hearing parents are non-native signers. Musculoskeletal pain from repetitive motion is more common from non-natives than natives. The goal of this study was twofold: 1) to examine differences in upper extremity (UE) biomechanical measures between natives and non-natives and 2) upon creating a composite measure of injury-risk unique to signers, to compare differences in scores between natives and non-natives. Non-natives were hypothesized to have less favorable biomechanical measures and composite injury-risk scores compared to natives. Dynamometry was used for measurement of strength, electromyography for ‘micro’ rest breaks and muscle tension, optical motion capture for ballistic signing, non-neutral joint angle and work envelope, a numeric pain rating scale for pain, and the modified Strain Index (SI) as a composite measure of injury-risk. There were no differences in UE strength (all p≥0.22). Natives had more rest (natives 76.38%; non-natives 26.86%; p=0.002) and less muscle tension (natives 11.53%; non-natives 48.60%; p=0.008) for non-dominant upper trapezius across the first minute of the trial. For ballistic signing, no differences were found in resultant linear segment acceleration when producing the sign for ‘again’ (natives 27.59m/s2; non-natives 21.91m/s2; p=0.20). For non-neutral joint angle, natives had more wrist flexion-extension motion when producing the sign for ‘principal’ (natives 54.93°; non-natives 46.23°; p=0.04). Work envelope demonstrated the greatest significance when determining injury-risk. Natives had a marginally greater work envelope along the z-axis (inferior-superior) across the first minute of the trial (natives 35.80cm; non-natives 30.84cm; p=0.051). Natives (30%) presented with a lower pain prevalence than non-natives (40%); however, there was no significant difference in the modified SI scores (natives 4.70 points; non-natives 3.06 points; p=0.144) and no association between presence of pain with the modified SI score (r=0.087; p=0.680). This work offers a comprehensive analysis of all the previously identified UE biomechanics unique to signers and helped to inform a composite measure of injury-risk. Use of the modified SI demonstrates promise, although its lack of association with pain does confirm that injury-risk encompasses other variables in addition to a signer’s biomechanics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018