Matching Items (18)

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The Adult Communication, Cognitive, and Reading Profile of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Description

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndromes in humans. This case study focuses on the language and reading profile of a female adult with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome who was undiagnosed until the age of

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is one of the most frequent chromosomal microdeletion syndromes in humans. This case study focuses on the language and reading profile of a female adult with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome who was undiagnosed until the age of 27 years old. To comprehensively describe the participant's profile, a series of assessment measures was administered in the speech, language, cognition, reading, and motor domains. Understanding how 22q11.2DS has impacted the life of a recently diagnosed adult will provide insight into how to best facilitate long-term language and educational support for this population and inform future research.

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2018-05

The Babble Boot Camp turns 2: Phonetic and phonemic inventory complexity and expressive vocabulary growth in infants with Classic Galactosemia undergoing an experimental prevention therapy

Description

Classic Galactosemia (CG) is a rare recessive metabolic disease resulting in the inability to digest galactose. Despite early detection via newborn screening and strict diet management, infants with CG are at high risk for severe speech (60%) and language (90%)

Classic Galactosemia (CG) is a rare recessive metabolic disease resulting in the inability to digest galactose. Despite early detection via newborn screening and strict diet management, infants with CG are at high risk for severe speech (60%) and language (90%) disorders (Waggoner, D., Buist, N., & Donnell, 1990). Although this risk is known since birth, no preventive treatment approaches in the area of speech and language have been developed. The Babble Boot Camp (BBC) is the first experimental proactive intervention for infants with CG ages 2 to 24 months. It is designed to stimulate early vocalization, coo, babble, first words, vocabulary growth, and syntactic complexity, with the goal of preventing or at least ameliorating the expected speech and language difficulties. All children undergo close monitoring. Day-long audio recordings, collected once per month using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system, are the source material for pre-speech and speech measures including Mean Babbling Level (MBL), Syllable Structure Level (SSL), and phonetic and phonemic inventory complexity.
Parent questionnaires are analyzed for expressive vocabulary size. Here, findings are described for the first 9 children who underwent the BBC and an untreated control child, all with CG. The initial results are consistent with higher MBL and SSL scores in the treatment cohort, compared to the untreated control infant. In addition, most children in the treatment cohort achieved larger vocabulary sizes than the control child. Of the four oldest children in the treatment cohort, three had expressive vocabularies within normal limits at 21 months. Phonetic
inventory complexity at 11 months predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months. Given the high risk for speech and language disorders in children with CG, these results are encouraging, but an appropriately powered clinical trial is necessary to validate these findings. The BBC is on its way to a full clinical trial with 75 families, fully funded by the National Institutes of Health.

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2019-05

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Learning Rate in Auditory Motor Adaptation

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Past studies have shown that auditory feedback plays an important role in maintaining the speech production system. Typically, speakers compensate for auditory feedback alterations when the alterations persist over time (auditory motor adaptation). Our study focused on how to increase

Past studies have shown that auditory feedback plays an important role in maintaining the speech production system. Typically, speakers compensate for auditory feedback alterations when the alterations persist over time (auditory motor adaptation). Our study focused on how to increase the rate of adaptation by using different auditory feedback conditions. For the present study, we recruited a total of 30 participants. We examined auditory motor adaptation after participants completed three conditions: Normal speaking, noise-masked speaking, and silent reading. The normal condition was used as a control condition. In the noise-masked condition, noise was added to the auditory feedback to completely mask speech outputs. In the silent reading condition, participants were instructed to silently read target words in their heads, then read the words out loud. We found that the learning rate in the noise-masked condition was lower than that in the normal condition. In contrast, participants adapted at a faster rate after they experience the silent reading condition. Overall, this study demonstrated that adaptation rate can be modified through pre-exposing participants to different types auditory-motor manipulations.

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2019-05

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Sequential processing deficits in adults with dyslexia: The role of serial order and spatial orientation of letters during word pair comparison and spelling

Description

The purpose of this project was to investigate the hypothesis that adults with dyslexia tend to have lower accuracies in and take longer to process tasks involving the serial order of letters, compared to age and gender-matched controls. In Experiment

The purpose of this project was to investigate the hypothesis that adults with dyslexia tend to have lower accuracies in and take longer to process tasks involving the serial order of letters, compared to age and gender-matched controls. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated word pairs for differences. Half of the word pairs that they evaluated were the same, whereas the remaining word pairs differed along specific parameters such as sequential rearrangements ("left" vs "felt"), left/right reversals ("cob" vs "cod"), up/down reversals ("best" vs "pest"), homophones ("grown" vs "groan"), visual letter similarities ("tight" vs "fight"), and generic substitutions ("moan" vs "loan"). The response times and accuracies of both groups were recorded. In Experiment 2, the participants spelled single words to dictation using the spelling subtest from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test\u2014II. Spelling errors were evaluated for errors such as sequential rearrangements, left/right reversals, homophones, substitutions, orthographic violations, omissions, and insertions. An example of a spelling error is the word "excitement" misspelled as "excietment", which involves a sequential rearrangement error. Another example is the word "apparently" misspelled as "aparently,", which involves an error of omission. Error frequencies within these error types for both groups were recorded. Experiment 3 evaluated whether left/right reversal errors during the letter-naming Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus (RAN/RAS) task were associated with left/right errors during word pair comparison and spelling and whether these visual reversal errors were also associated with errors of serial order. The group with dyslexia was split into two groups: group 1 included participants who did not make any left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task and group 2 included participants who did make left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task. The accuracies and reaction times of these three groups during the comparison and spelling assessments were recorded. The results of experiment 1 revealed that that adults with dyslexia had a significantly higher reaction time and lower accuracy during the sequential rearrangement and left/right reversal conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the group with dyslexia made significantly more spelling errors during the homophone and omission conditions. The results of Experiment 3 showed associations between the sequential rearrangement and left/right conditions in both the word pair comparison and spelling task for participants with dyslexia who made left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task. Overall, the participants with dyslexia who made left/right reversals during the RAN/RAS task seemed to have greater difficulty understanding the orientation of letters that occur on a horizontal plane, since this underlying pattern of errors was also seen throughout the spelling and word comparison tasks. These results show that left/right reversals and errors of serial order are evident in some, but not all adults with dyslexia. These errors may also characterize a distinct subtype of dyslexia. Further, errors of left/right reversal and serial order appear to be associated, so left/right reversals may represent a special form of serial order error that involves a change in the order of visual processing in the horizontal but not vertical axis of letter orientation.

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2018-12

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Global motor characteristics in three families with familial speech sound disorders, compared to an adult with a cerebellar stroke: Evidence for the cerebellar hypothesis of apraxia of speech

Description

The purpose of this study was to compare the speech and motor functions a group of individuals with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) and a case study of an individual who has suffered a right cerebellar stroke. The participants consisted

The purpose of this study was to compare the speech and motor functions a group of individuals with Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) and a case study of an individual who has suffered a right cerebellar stroke. The participants consisted of one case study adult and three families made up of three to five members each, all with a history of CAS. All of the participants in the study performed below average on speech and motor function tests. There are some comparable similarities between the CAS group and the case study individual suggesting that there is cerebellar involvement in the fine motor skills needed to perform speech movements.

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2020-05

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Dyslexia, Creativity, and Neural Adaptation

Description

Objective: A recent electroencephalogram (EEG) study of adults with dyslexia showed that individuals with dyslexia have diminished auditory sensory gating compared to typical controls. Previous studies done involving intoxication and its effect on sensory gating and creativity have shown that

Objective: A recent electroencephalogram (EEG) study of adults with dyslexia showed that individuals with dyslexia have diminished auditory sensory gating compared to typical controls. Previous studies done involving intoxication and its effect on sensory gating and creativity have shown that there is a positive correlation between creativity (divergent thinking problem solving) and sensory gating deficiency. With previous study findings, the link between dyslexia and sensory gating deficiency and the link between sensory gating deficiency and creativity have been shown, but not the link between dyslexia and creativity. This pilot study aims to address this knowledge gap using event-related potentials.

Methods: Two adults with dyslexia and 4 control adults participated in an auditory gating test using tone pairs. Latencies and Amplitudes for the N100 and P200 responses were recorded and analyzed. Participants were also administered the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults (ATTA), a test of creative ability designed to evaluate divergent thinking in individuals. Results were averaged and compared.

Results: The averaged difference in measured N100 amplitudes between tone 1 and tone 2 was significantly larger in the control group compared to the difference observed in the dyslexia group. In particular, one participant with dyslexia who had low scores on a task of rapid word recognition also showed no evidence of gating at the N100 component, whereas the other participant with dyslexia with good word recognition scores showed evidence of intact gating. The averaged difference in measured P200 amplitude between tone 1 and tone 2 was larger in the dyslexia group compared to the control group; however, the difference was small enough to be considered insignificant. The total average ATTA score for the control group was higher than the average of the dyslexia group. This difference in total average was less than one point on a 106-point scale.

Conclusions: Neural sensory gating occurs approximately 100 ms after the onset of a stimulus and is diminished in adults with dyslexia who also have deficits in rapid word recognition. There is a difference in creativity, in terms of divergent thinking, between those with dyslexia and those without (controls scored higher on average); however, the difference is not significant (less than one point). Dyslexia scores were more consistent than controls.

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2020-05

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Movement Makes Meaning: The Role of Fine Motor Skills in an Embodied Reading Comprehension Program

Description

Simulation theory states that text comprehension is achieved by simulating (or imagining) text content using motor, perceptual, and emotional systems. Hence, motor skill should correlate with comprehension skill. In fact, previous research has linked fine motor skills (FMS) with word

Simulation theory states that text comprehension is achieved by simulating (or imagining) text content using motor, perceptual, and emotional systems. Hence, motor skill should correlate with comprehension skill. In fact, previous research has linked fine motor skills (FMS) with word processing and mathematical skills. I predicted a positive relationship between FMS and reading comprehension. Children enrolled in a reading comprehension intervention were assessed on FMS using the Movement ABC-2. There was a significant correlation between FMS and comprehension of narrative texts, but contrary to the prediction, the correlation was negative. Also unexpected, the control condition performed better on comprehension questions than the intervention conditions. To try to understand these results, we examined the time each child took to answer the comprehension questions. Many children answered the questions quickly, and average time to answer the questions was strongly correlated with comprehension scores. Children may have been answering questions quickly (and randomly) in order to advance to the next story. Nonetheless, the data do not support a relationship between FMS and reading comprehension.

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2018-12

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Genetic Candidate Variants in Two Multigenerational Families with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Description

Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a severe and socially debilitating form of speech sound disorder with suspected genetic involvement, but the genetic etiology is not yet well understood. Very few known or putative causal genes have been identified to

Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a severe and socially debilitating form of speech sound disorder with suspected genetic involvement, but the genetic etiology is not yet well understood. Very few known or putative causal genes have been identified to date, e.g., FOXP2 and BCL11A. Building a knowledge base of the genetic etiology of CAS will make it possible to identify infants at genetic risk and motivate the development of effective very early intervention programs. We investigated the genetic etiology of CAS in two large multigenerational families with familial CAS. Complementary genomic methods included Markov chain Monte Carlo linkage analysis, copy-number analysis, identity-by-descent sharing, and exome sequencing with variant filtering. No overlaps in regions with positive evidence of linkage between the two families were found. In one family, linkage analysis detected two chromosomal regions of interest, 5p15.1-p14.1, and 17p13.1-q11.1, inherited separately from the two founders. Single-point linkage analysis of selected variants identified CDH18 as a primary gene of interest and additionally, MYO10, NIPBL, GLP2R, NCOR1, FLCN, SMCR8, NEK8, and ANKRD12, possibly with additive effects. Linkage analysis in the second family detected five regions with LOD scores approaching the highest values possible in the family. A gene of interest was C4orf21 (ZGRF1) on 4q25-q28.2. Evidence for previously described causal copy-number variations and validated or suspected genes was not found. Results are consistent with a heterogeneous CAS etiology, as is expected in many neurogenic disorders. Future studies will investigate genome variants in these and other families with CAS.

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2016-04-27

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A Functional and Structural MRI Investigation of the Neural Signatures of Dyslexia in Adults

Description

The International Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as a learning disorder that is characterized by poor spelling, decoding, and word recognition abilities. There is still no known cause of dyslexia, although it is a very common disability that affects 1 in

The International Dyslexia Association defines dyslexia as a learning disorder that is characterized by poor spelling, decoding, and word recognition abilities. There is still no known cause of dyslexia, although it is a very common disability that affects 1 in 10 people. Previous fMRI and MRI research in dyslexia has explored the neural correlations of hemispheric lateralization and phonemic awareness in dyslexia. The present study investigated the underlying neurobiology of five adults with dyslexia compared to age- and sex-matched control subjects using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects completed a large battery of behavioral tasks as part of a larger study and underwent functional and structural MRI acquisition. This data was collected and preprocessed at the University of Washington. Analyses focused on examining the neural correlates of hemispheric lateralization, letter reversal mistakes, reduced processing speed, and phonemic awareness. There were no significant findings of hemispheric differences between subjects with dyslexia and controls. The subject making the largest amount of letter reversal errors had deactivation in their cerebellum during the fMRI language task. Cerebellar white matter volume and surface area of the premotor cortex was the largest in the individual with the slowest reaction time to tapping. Phonemic decoding efficiency had a high correlation with neural activation in the primary motor cortex during the fMRI motor task (r=0.6). Findings from the present study suggest that brain regions utilized during motor control, such as the cerebellum, premotor cortex, and primary motor cortex, may have a larger role in dyslexia then previously considered. Future studies are needed to further distinguish the role of the cerebellum and other motor regions in relation to motor control and language processing deficits related to dyslexia.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Effect of various attentional conditions on P300 and MMN ERP waveforms

Description

It is important to consider attention when designing and conducting an experiment due to the significant impact it can have on how people process information. This study compared the influence attention can have on performance of an auditory task. Using

It is important to consider attention when designing and conducting an experiment due to the significant impact it can have on how people process information. This study compared the influence attention can have on performance of an auditory task. Using an EEG system and measuring cortical evoked response potentials (ERPs) the assumptions about keeping eyes open during passive listening tasks which related to the low attention parameter of MMN, as well as requiring an active response for the high attention parameter of the P300 were tested. The hypotheses were that the presence of an active, focused component will increase the magnitude of the P300 (as is generally accepted), that the presence of an active, focused component will decrease the magnitude of the MMN (as is currently debated), and that closed eyes would diminish the magnitude of both components (as also is currently debated). The presence of significant values for both the P300 amplitude and P300 adaptive mean indicated a successful causal link between the presence of an active condition and an increased P300 waveform, while the high individual variability present throughout the data focus the scope of future study on MMN and P300.

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2016-05