Matching Items (23)

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Development and validation of makeup and sexualized clothing questionnaires

Description

Background
Body acceptance programs on college campuses indicated that collegiate women often report feeling pressure to dress in a sexualized manner, and use makeup to enhance beauty. Currently, no quantitative

Background
Body acceptance programs on college campuses indicated that collegiate women often report feeling pressure to dress in a sexualized manner, and use makeup to enhance beauty. Currently, no quantitative measures exist to assess attitudes and daily behaviors that may arise in response to perceived pressure to wear makeup or dress in a provocative manner. The goal of the current studies was to develop brief self-report questionnaires aimed at assessing makeup and sexualized clothing use and attitudes in young women.
Methods
An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 403 undergraduate women was used in Study 1 to create items to measure the pressure women feel to wear makeup and sexualized clothing. A confirmatory factor analysis (N = 153) was used in Study 2 to confirm the factor structure found in Study 1. An incremental validity analysis was also conducted in Study 2. Across both studies, participants completed online questionnaires.
Results
In Study 1, items were developed for two questionnaires to assess perceived pressure to wear makeup and discomfort when not wearing makeup, and perceived pressure to wear sexualized clothing, and body image concerns with regards to sexualized clothing. The exploratory factor analyses revealed Unconfident and Unease scales for the Makeup Questionnaire (MUQ) and Body Dissatisfaction and Pressure scales for the Sexualized Clothing Questionnaire (SCQ). In Study 2, the confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the factor structure for the MUQ and SCQ. The incremental validity analysis revealed that these measures can be used to predict self-objectification and shape and weight concern in women.
Conclusion
These studies provide preliminary support for the factor structure of two novel questionnaires aimed at assessing perceived pressure to wear makeup and sexualized clothing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-11-22

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An Examination of Prevalence Rates for Disordered Eating Behavior across Sexual Minority Undergraduate Men and Women

Description

Introduction: The current study aimed to explore the prevalence rates of binge-eating and weight compensatory behaviors across sexual minority undergraduate men and women. Methods: The sample included 3411 undergraduate men

Introduction: The current study aimed to explore the prevalence rates of binge-eating and weight compensatory behaviors across sexual minority undergraduate men and women. Methods: The sample included 3411 undergraduate men and women from a large public university. Participants completed a self-report online questionnaire regarding various personality, social networking, and health behaviors. Results: Analyses showed no difference in binge-eating for women, but statistically significant differences across sexual orientation groups for weight compensatory behaviors. Analyses for men showed statistically significant differences between sexual orientation groups for objective-binge eating and self-induced vomiting. There were no differences among men for other behaviors. Discussion: These findings demonstrate both statistically and clinically significant differences across sexual orientation groups indicating that gender as well as sexual orientation bear a correlation to the propensity to engage in certain disordered eating behaviors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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DACA Health Gap: Challenges Mexican Students Face in Arizona

Description

Literature on the undocumented population in the United States is rich, and is growing in the area of the 1.5 generation (which refers to undocumented individuals, typically under age 30,

Literature on the undocumented population in the United States is rich, and is growing in the area of the 1.5 generation (which refers to undocumented individuals, typically under age 30, who have grown up in the U.S.), but is scant regarding the health of this population, how they alleviate illnesses and what resources they have to do so. While Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) provides temporary benefits to undocumented youth, a DACA health gap persists. Even for those who are awarded DACA, when compared to their citizen counterparts, resources are still unequal. The 1.5 generation faces unique health challenges and even with policy progress, circumstances tied to their documentation status leave them reverting back to limited resources. In this study, ten members of this generation were interviewed. Findings show that they suffer from minor physical health challenges, but significant mental and emotional health challenges without the means to access adequate healthcare comparable to their citizen counterparts.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Development and Validation of Make-up and Sexualized Clothing Questionnaires

Description

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that women often report feeling pressure to dress in a sexualized manner, cover up their so-called flaws with make-up, and continually strive to be thin. Currently, no measure exists to assess the daily behaviors of women to wear make-up or dress in certain ways due to body image concerns. Thus, the goal of the current studies was to develop a brief self-report questionnaire on make-up and sexualized clothing for college women. In Study 1, items were developed from qualitative data collected by the Body Project Prevention Program to assess pressure to wear make-up, discomfort when not wearing make-up, pressure to wear sexualized clothing, and body image concerns with regards to sexualized clothing. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a Confidence and a Comfort subscale for the Make-up Questionnaire (MUQ) and a Body Dissatisfaction and Pressure subscale for the Sexualized Clothing Questionnaire (SCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 confirmed the factor structure for the MUQ and SCQ. Study 3 compared scores on the MUQ and SCQ among intervention and control groups across time points. A gain score analysis revealed that women in the intervention did not become significantly healthier over time in comparison to the control group on the MUQ and SCQ subscales. However, the treatment condition did become significantly healthier over time in regard to other measures of eating pathology. These studies provide insight into the pressures women feel to wear make-up and sexualized clothing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Culturally Motivated Clinician Drift in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: How Clinicians Adopt, Adapt, or Abandon CBT for Latino Clients

Description

Prior research has identified that clinicians in the treatment of eating disorders often do not adhere closely to empirically-supported treatments (EST), and are particularly likely to modify Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT).

Prior research has identified that clinicians in the treatment of eating disorders often do not adhere closely to empirically-supported treatments (EST), and are particularly likely to modify Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT). Several reasons for this phenomenon, dubbed "clinician drift", have been identified, including level of clinician training, education, and type of patient care. In addition to the phenomenon of clinician drift, there has been a growing controversy within the field of clinical psychology about the compatibility of ESTs and multiculturalism. Some argue that the standardization inherent to EST resists the concept of cultural adaptability; while others have countered that cultural adaptability is essential in order for empirically supported treatments to remain relevant, ethical, and effective. In order to shed more light on this issue, this study examined how clinicians tend to drift from CBT in the treatment of Latinos suffering from eating disorders, in order to accommodate Latino culture and elements of eating behavior specific to Latino populations. We both attempted to replicate prior findings regarding predictors of clinician drift, as well as build upon the little existing research into the "culturally-motivated clinician drift." It was discovered that no therapist characteristics or client characteristics were predictive of drift. However, the majority of the sample still adapted or abandoned at least part of the CBT treatment. Their responses regarding the weaknesses of CBT for their Spanish-speaking clients can provide insight into how the treatment can be modified for more diverse clients.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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The Association Between Acne and Social Appearance Anxiety and Other Correlates Among Undergraduates

Description

The goal of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of SAA and body dissatisfaction among freshman undergraduate students between 18-20 years old suffering from self-reported acne. A total

The goal of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of SAA and body dissatisfaction among freshman undergraduate students between 18-20 years old suffering from self-reported acne. A total of 73 participants in an online survey were asked to complete the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Body Parts Satisfaction Scale (BPSS), and Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS). No significant correlation was found between acne severity and SAAS scores, but a significant, positive correlation was found between acne severity and body dissatisfaction. Moreover, acne sufferers had higher mean scores for the BPSS than non-acne sufferers indicating higher body dissatisfaction, but there was no significant difference in the scores for the SAAS between acne sufferers and non-acne sufferers. There was also no significant difference in correlations between acne severity and SAAS scores or BPSS scores between men and women, however, women had much higher mean scores for SAAS than men. In addition, scores for the SAAS and BPSS were found to have a significant, positive correlation with both depression and anxiety across the entire sample. There is paucity of research on the psychosocial effects of acne, more specifically social appearance anxiety (SAA), so further research is needed to replicate and extend the findings of the current study using a larger sample size ranging in acne severity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Food Addiction and Binge Eating Disorder

Description

The purpose of this literature review is to examine the distinction between Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). There is confusion and debate regarding the two: some argue

The purpose of this literature review is to examine the distinction between Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). There is confusion and debate regarding the two: some argue they are distinct and others argue they are too similar for FA to deserve its own diagnosis. It is important to examine differences and similarities because obesity is a growing public health problem, and determining the root cause of obesity may help with efforts to reverse the problem. In addition, developing effective treatment and prevention programs will be easier once specific risk factors and characteristics of FA and BED are established. This literature review includes empirical studies and other literature reviews looking at the overlap, unique personality correlates, and general psychopathology associated with both BED and FA. A consistent finding among studies that looked at impulsivity and FA was that negative urgency and lack of perseverance accurately predicted FA, relative to BED. Other consistent correlates of FA were negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and (negative) self-esteem. Treatment options for FA currently include a combination of addiction-based treatment and psychotherapy that is commonly used for BED (i.e. CBT, DBT). Based on my research review, it seems reasonable to conclude that FA does in fact differ from BED and that efforts to identify unique treatment targets for FA are needed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Arizona Psychiatric System: Structure, Defect, & Reform

Description

The Arizona healthcare system is changing and although its effects can be seen in almost every realm of the medical field, psychiatry is a specialty that is still experiencing hardship.

The Arizona healthcare system is changing and although its effects can be seen in almost every realm of the medical field, psychiatry is a specialty that is still experiencing hardship. There are scarce resources available for the ever-growing and struggling patient pool, especially in rural areas and minority populations. A comorbid cycle of untreated psychiatric illness contributes to the burden on emergency department and primary care medicine, as well as homelessness, crime, and suicide within the state. Arizona currently has a dismal spot in the rankings for American states with appropriate access to psychiatric resources, leaving many who need treatment without it. Compared to states with similar populations who are at the top of these rankings, Arizona spends more government money for behavioral health services, indicating a disparity in productivity and questioning monetary waste. Demographic statistics and other relevant scientific literature reveals that Arizona's psychiatric system lacks appropriate structure, and is failing the mental health care system both in monetary and societal constructs. These issues highlight the need for remedies and identify areas for future reform. Recommendations on such reform include permanent change in legislation and department models to improve crisis ward work, communication and networking during transition of care, integration of and access to continuum of care, and community education. They also include creating incentive and certification programs within the state in order to increase the number of available providers, especially in rural areas. These recommendations are directed to specifically reduce the burden of mental illness on emergency medical services, increase productivity, and decrease chronic untreated mental disease and monetary waste.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Exploring Women’s Body Ideals: Internalizing Ideals and Eating Restraint

Description

Appearance ideals are standards of beauty imposed by a culture or society, that are unrealistic and impossible to achieve. Research documents the existence of three appearance ideals, thin, muscular and

Appearance ideals are standards of beauty imposed by a culture or society, that are unrealistic and impossible to achieve. Research documents the existence of three appearance ideals, thin, muscular and hourglass ideals. The thin ideal is the pursuit of a very thin and low body weight. The muscular ideal is the pursuit of a toned and fit body. The hourglass ideal is the pursuit of a shapely body with bigger breasts and hips/buttocks than waist. These ideals are associated with disordered eating. However, no current study has examined the prevalence of all three ideals, or how the combination of ideals relates to dietary restraint, one example of a disordered eating behavior. This study was conducted on 505 undergraduate women at Arizona State University, who were completing research credit for a psychology course. The women participated in an online survey that assessed their demographics, each ideal, and dietary restraint. Results show that all combinations of ideals exist. Specifically, 41.5% of the sample endorse high levels of all three ideals, while 12.5% report thin and muscular ideals, 9.5% report thin and hourglass ideals, 9.9% report hourglass and muscular ideals, 8.4% report low levels of all three ideals, 6.4% report muscular ideal only, 6.4% report hourglass ideal only, and 5.6% report thin ideal only. Endorsing more than one ideal significantly associated with dietary restraint. Findings fulfill an important gap in the literature, suggest future directions for research, and have important clinical implications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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The Importance of Language in Cannabis Research

Description

This study was designed to learn what students call various forms of cannabis. A survey was created with questions designed to understand students' knowledge of types of cannabis, methods of

This study was designed to learn what students call various forms of cannabis. A survey was created with questions designed to understand students' knowledge of types of cannabis, methods of use, and potency. An introduction and methods section of the research paper is included.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05