Matching Items (16)

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Numerical simulation of environmental flow over urban landscape for applications to renewable energy

Description

Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among environmental organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global warming. One fast

Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among environmental organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global warming. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Computational Methods for Simulations of Multiphase Compressible Flows for Atomization Applications

Description

Compressible fluid flows involving multiple physical states of matter occur in both nature and technical applications such as underwater explosions and implosions, cavitation-induced bubble collapse in naval applications and Richtmyer-Meshkov

Compressible fluid flows involving multiple physical states of matter occur in both nature and technical applications such as underwater explosions and implosions, cavitation-induced bubble collapse in naval applications and Richtmyer-Meshkov type instabilities in inertial confinement fusion. Of particular interest is the atomization of fuels that enable shock-induced mixing of fuel and oxidizer in supersonic combustors. Due to low residence times and varying length scales, providing insight through physical experiments is both technically challenging and sometimes unfeasible. Numerical simulations can help provide detailed insight and aid in the engineering design of devices that can harness these physical phenomena.

In this research, computational methods were developed to accurately simulate phase interfaces in compressible fluid flows with a focus on targeting primary atomization. Novel numerical methods which treat the phase interface as a discontinuity, and as a smeared region were developed using low-dissipation, high-order schemes. The resulting methods account for the effects of compressibility, surface tension and viscosity. To aid with the varying length scales and high-resolution requirements found in atomization applications, an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) framework is used to provide high-resolution only in regions of interest. The developed methods were verified with test cases involving strong shocks, high density ratios, surface tension effects and jumps in the equations of state, in one-, two- and three dimensions, obtaining good agreement with theoretical and experimental results. An application case of the primary atomization of a liquid jet injected into a Mach 2 supersonic crossflow of air is performed with the methods developed.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Identification, Decomposition and Analysis of Dynamic Large-Scale Structures in Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

Description

The central purpose of this work is to investigate the large-scale, coherent structures that exist in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) when the domain is large enough for the classical ”wind

The central purpose of this work is to investigate the large-scale, coherent structures that exist in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection (RBC) when the domain is large enough for the classical ”wind of turbulence” to break down. The study exclusively focuses on the structures that from when the RBC geometry is a cylinder. A series of visualization studies, Fourier analysis and proper orthogonal decomposition are employed to qualitatively and quantitatively inspect the large-scale structures’ length and time scales, spatial organization, and dynamic properties. The data in this study is generated by direct numerical simulation to resolve all the scales of turbulence in a 6.3 aspect-ratio cylinder at a Rayleigh number of 9.6 × 107 and Prandtl number of 6.7. Single and double point statistics are compared against experiments and several resolution criteria are examined to verify that the simulation has enough spatial and temporal resolution to adequately represent the physical system.

Large-scale structures are found to organize as roll-cells aligned along the cell’s side walls, with rays of vorticity pointing toward the core of the cell. Two different large- scale organizations are observed and these patterns are well described spatially and energetically by azimuthal Fourier modes with frequencies of 2 and 3. These Fourier modes are shown to be dominant throughout the entire domain, and are found to be the primary source for radial inhomogeneity by inspection of the energy spectra. The precision with which the azimuthal Fourier modes describe these large-scale structures shows that these structures influence a large range of length scales. Conversely, the smaller scale structures are found to be more sensitive to radial position within the Fourier modes showing a strong dependence on physical length scales.

Dynamics in the large-scale structures are observed including a transition in the global pattern followed by a net rotation about the central axis. The transition takes place over 10 eddy-turnover times and the subsequent rotation occurs at a rate of approximately 1.1 degrees per eddy-turnover. These time-scales are of the same order of magnitude as those seen in lower aspect-ratio RBC for similar events and suggests a similarity in dynamic events across different aspect-ratios.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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High-order moving overlapping grid methodology in a spectral element method

Description

A moving overlapping mesh methodology that achieves spectral accuracy in space and up to second-order accuracy in time is developed for solution of unsteady incompressible flow equations in three-dimensional domains.

A moving overlapping mesh methodology that achieves spectral accuracy in space and up to second-order accuracy in time is developed for solution of unsteady incompressible flow equations in three-dimensional domains. The targeted applications are in aerospace and mechanical engineering domains and involve problems in turbomachinery, rotary aircrafts, wind turbines and others. The methodology is built within the dual-session communication framework initially developed for stationary overlapping meshes. The methodology employs semi-implicit spectral element discretization of equations in each subdomain and explicit treatment of subdomain interfaces with spectrally-accurate spatial interpolation and high-order accurate temporal extrapolation, and requires few, if any, iterations, yet maintains the global accuracy and stability of the underlying flow solver. Mesh movement is enabled through the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of the governing equations, which allows for prescription of arbitrary velocity values at discrete mesh points.

The stationary and moving overlapping mesh methodologies are thoroughly validated using two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems in laminar and turbulent flows. The spatial and temporal global convergence, for both methods, is documented and is in agreement with the nominal order of accuracy of the underlying solver.

Stationary overlapping mesh methodology was validated to assess the influence of long integration times and inflow-outflow global boundary conditions on the performance. In a turbulent benchmark of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent statistics are validated against the available data.

Moving overlapping mesh simulations are validated on the problems of two-dimensional oscillating cylinder and a three-dimensional rotating sphere. The aerodynamic forces acting on these moving rigid bodies are determined, and all results are compared with published data. Scaling tests, with both methodologies, show near linear strong scaling, even for moderately large processor counts.

The moving overlapping mesh methodology is utilized to investigate the effect of an upstream turbulent wake on a three-dimensional oscillating NACA0012 extruded airfoil. A direct numerical simulation (DNS) at Reynolds Number 44,000 is performed for steady inflow incident upon the airfoil oscillating between angle of attack 5.6 and 25 degrees with reduced frequency k=0.16. Results are contrasted with subsequent DNS of the same oscillating airfoil in a turbulent wake generated by a stationary upstream cylinder.

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Date Created
  • 2016

A collation and analysis of two-dimensional unsplit conservative advection methods for volume of fluid at interfaces

Description

The goal of this paper was to do an analysis of two-dimensional unsplit mass and momentum conserving Finite Volume Methods for Advection for Volume of Fluid Fields with interfaces and

The goal of this paper was to do an analysis of two-dimensional unsplit mass and momentum conserving Finite Volume Methods for Advection for Volume of Fluid Fields with interfaces and validating their rates of convergence. Specifically three unsplit transport methods and one split transport method were amalgamated individually with four Piece-wise Linear Reconstruction Schemes (PLIC) i.e. Unsplit Eulerian Advection (UEA) by Owkes and Desjardins (2014), Unsplit Lagrangian Advection (ULA) by Yang et al. (2010), Split Lagrangian Advection (SLA) by Scardovelli and Zaleski (2003) and Unsplit Averaged Eulerian-Lagrangian Advection (UAELA) with two Finite Difference Methods by Parker and Youngs (1992) and two Error Minimization Methods by Pilliod Jr and Puckett (2004). The observed order of accuracy was first order in all cases except when unsplit methods and error minimization methods were used consecutively in each iteration, which resulted in second-order accuracy on the shape error convergence. The Averaged Unsplit Eulerian-Lagrangian Advection (AUELA) did produce first-order accuracy but that was due to a temporal error in the numerical setup. The main unsplit methods, Unsplit Eulerian Advection (UEA) and Unsplit Lagrangian Advection (ULA), preserve mass and momentum and require geometric clipping to solve two-phase fluid flows. The Unsplit Lagrangian Advection (ULA) can allow for small divergence in the velocity field perhaps saving time on the iterative solver of the variable coefficient Poisson System.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Extraction of coherent structures using direct numerical simulation in 3D turbulent flows and its effects on chemotaxis

Description

A numerical study of chemotaxis in 3D turbulence is presented here. Direct Numerical

Simulation were used to calculate the nutrient uptake for both motile and non-motile bacterial

species and by

A numerical study of chemotaxis in 3D turbulence is presented here. Direct Numerical

Simulation were used to calculate the nutrient uptake for both motile and non-motile bacterial

species and by applying the dynamical systems theory the effect of flow topology on the

variability of chemotaxis is analyzed. It is done by injecting a highly localized patch of nutrient

in the turbulent flow, and analyzing the evolution of reaction associated with the observed

high and low stretching regions. The Gaussian nutrient patch is released at different locations

and the corresponding nutrient uptake is obtained. The variable stretching characteristics of

the flow is depicted by Lagrangian Coherent Structures and the roles they play in affecting the

uptake are analyzed. The Lagrangian Coherent Structures are quantified by the Finite Time

Lyapunov Exponents which is a measure of the average stretching experienced by the flow in

finite time. It is found that in high stretching regions, the motile bacteria are attracted to the

nutrient patch very quickly, but also dispersed quickly; whereas in low stretching regions the

bacteria respond slower towards the nutrient patch. However the total uptake is intricately

determined by stretching history. These reaction characteristics are reflected in the several

realizations of simulations. This helps in understanding turbulence intensity and how it affects

the uptake of the nutrient.

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Date Created
  • 2017

Fundamentals and Applications of N-pulse Particle Image Velocimetry-accelerometry: Towards Advanced Measurements of Complex Flows and Turbulence

Description

Over the past three decades, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been continuously growing to become an informative and robust experimental tool for fluid mechanics research. Compared to the early stage

Over the past three decades, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been continuously growing to become an informative and robust experimental tool for fluid mechanics research. Compared to the early stage of PIV development, the dynamic range of PIV has been improved by about an order of magnitude (Adrian, 2005; Westerweel et al., 2013). Further improvement requires a breakthrough innovation, which constitutes the main motivation of this dissertation. N-pulse particle image velocimetry-accelerometry (N-pulse PIVA, where N>=3) is a promising technique to this regard. It employs bursts of N pulses to gain advantages in both spatial and temporal resolution. The performance improvement by N-pulse PIVA is studied using particle tracking (i.e. N-pulse PTVA), and it is shown that an enhancement of at least another order of magnitude is achievable. Furthermore, the capability of N-pulse PIVA to measure unsteady acceleration and force is demonstrated in the context of an oscillating cylinder interacting with surrounding fluid. The cylinder motion, the fluid velocity and acceleration, and the fluid force exerted on the cylinder are successfully measured. On the other hand, a key issue of multi-camera registration for the implementation of N-pulse PIVA is addressed with an accuracy of 0.001 pixel. Subsequently, two applications of N-pulse PTVA to complex flows and turbulence are presented. A novel 8-pulse PTVA analysis was developed and validated to accurately resolve particle unsteady drag in post-shock flows. It is found that the particle drag is substantially elevated from the standard drag due to flow unsteadiness, and a new drag correlation incorporating particle Reynolds number and unsteadiness is desired upon removal of the uncertainty arising from non-uniform particle size. Next, the estimation of turbulence statistics utilizes the ensemble average of 4-pulse PTV data within a small domain of an optimally determined size. The estimation of mean velocity, mean velocity gradient and isotropic dissipation rate are presented and discussed by means of synthetic turbulence, as well as a tomographic measurement of turbulent boundary layer. The results indicate the superior capability of the N-pulse PTV based method to extract high-spatial-resolution high-accuracy turbulence statistics.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Investigation of Transition and Vortex Systems of a Dynamically Pitching Airfoil Under the Free-stream Turbulence Conditions

Description

The effect of reduced frequency on dynamic stall behavior of a pitching NACA0012 airfoil in a turbulent wake using Direct Numerical Simulations is presented in the current study. Upstream turbulence

The effect of reduced frequency on dynamic stall behavior of a pitching NACA0012 airfoil in a turbulent wake using Direct Numerical Simulations is presented in the current study. Upstream turbulence with dynamically oscillating blades and airfoils is associated with ambient flow unsteadiness and is encountered in many operating conditions. Wake turbulence, a more realistic scenario for airfoils in operation, is generated using a small solid cylinder placed upstream, the vortices shed from which interact with the pitching airfoil affecting dynamic stall behavior.

A recently developed moving overlapping grid approach is used using a high-order Spectral Element Method (SEM) for spatial discretization combined with a dynamic time-stepping procedure allowing for up to third order temporal discretization. Two cases of reduced frequency (k = 0:16 and 0:25) for airfoil oscillation are investigated and the change in dynamic stall behavior with change in reduced frequency is studied and documented using flow-fields and aerodynamic coefficients (Drag, Lift and Pitching Moment) with a focus on understanding vortex system dynamics (including formation of secondary vortices) for different reduced frequencies and it’s affect on airfoil aerodynamic characteristics and fatigue life. Transition of the flow over the surface of an airfoil for both undisturbed and disturbed flow cases will also be discussed using Pressure coefficient and Skin Friction coefficient data for a given cycle combined with a wavelet analysis using Morse wavelets in MATLAB.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Short-term wind power forecasts using Doppler lidar

Description

With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning

With a ground-based Doppler lidar on the upwind side of a wind farm in the Tehachapi Pass of California, radial wind velocity measurements were collected for repeating sector sweeps, scanning up to 10 kilometers away. This region consisted of complex terrain, with the scans made between mountains. The dataset was utilized for techniques being studied for short-term forecasting of wind power by correlating changes in energy content and of turbulence intensity by tracking spatial variance, in the wind ahead of a wind farm. A ramp event was also captured and its propagation was tracked.

Orthogonal horizontal wind vectors were retrieved from the radial velocity using a sector Velocity Azimuth Display method. Streamlines were plotted to determine the potential sites for a correlation of upstream wind speed with wind speed at downstream locations near the wind farm. A "virtual wind turbine" was "placed" in locations along the streamline by using the time-series velocity data at the location as the input to a modeled wind turbine, to determine the extractable energy content at that location. The relationship between this time-dependent energy content upstream and near the wind farm was studied. By correlating the energy content with each upstream location based on a time shift estimated according to advection at the mean wind speed, several fits were evaluated. A prediction of the downstream energy content was produced by shifting the power output in time and applying the best-fit function. This method made predictions of the power near the wind farm several minutes in advance. Predictions were also made up to an hour in advance for a large ramp event. The Magnitude Absolute Error and Standard Deviation are presented for the predictions based on each selected upstream location.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Assessment of global model simulations of present and future climate

Description

Climate change has been one of the major issues of global economic and social concerns in the past decade. To quantitatively predict global climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Climate change has been one of the major issues of global economic and social concerns in the past decade. To quantitatively predict global climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations have organized a multi-national effort to use global atmosphere-ocean models to project anthropogenically induced climate changes in the 21st century. The computer simulations performed with those models and archived by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project - Phase 5 (CMIP5) form the most comprehensive quantitative basis for the prediction of global environmental changes on decadal-to-centennial time scales. While the CMIP5 archives have been widely used for policy making, the inherent biases in the models have not been systematically examined. The main objective of this study is to validate the CMIP5 simulations of the 20th century climate with observations to quantify the biases and uncertainties in state-of-the-art climate models. Specifically, this work focuses on three major features in the atmosphere: the jet streams over the North Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the low level jet (LLJ) stream over central North America which affects the weather in the United States, and the near-surface wind field over North America which is relevant to energy applications. The errors in the model simulations of those features are systematically quantified and the uncertainties in future predictions are assessed for stakeholders to use in climate applications. Additional atmospheric model simulations are performed to determine the sources of the errors in climate models. The results reject a popular idea that the errors in the sea surface temperature due to an inaccurate ocean circulation contributes to the errors in major atmospheric jet streams.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014