Matching Items (129)

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Breast Health Seeking Behaviors In Countries With Varying Health Coverage

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There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play an important role in understanding variability in women’s breast health

There is an enormous unmet need for services, education, and outreach to improve women’s breast health. Healthcare systems and insurance systems vary widely around the world, and this may play an important role in understanding variability in women’s breast health knowledge and behavior globally. The goal of this study is to determine how varying healthcare systems in three countries (Japan, Paraguay, US) affect a woman’s likelihood of seeing a physician in regard to their breasts. For example, Japan is a clear example of a region that provides universal health insurance to its citizens. The government takes responsibility in giving accessible and equitable healthcare to its entire population (Zhang & Oyama, 2016). On the other hand, a country such as Paraguay is composed of both public and private sectors. In order for citizens to gain insurance, one would have to either be formally employed or choose to pay out-of-pocket for hospital visits (“Paraguay”, 2017). A country such as the United States does not have universal health insurance. However, it does have a mix of public and private sectors, meaning there is little to no coverage for its citizens. To accommodate for this, the United States came up with the Affordable Care Act, which extends coverage to the uninsured. Although the United States might be a country that spends more on healthcare than any other nation, there are residents that still lack healthcare (De Lew, Greenberg & Kinchen, 1992). This study, then, compares women’s breast health knowledge and behavior in Japan, Paraguay, and the US. Other variables, which are also considered in this study, that might affect this include wealth level, education, having general awareness of breast cancer, having regular health checks, and having some breast education. Using statistical analysis of breast check rates of women in Japan, Paraguay, and the United States, this research found that women sampled in Asunción, Paraguay check their breasts more often than either women sampled from Scottsdale, U.S. or Osaka, Japan. It was also found that women sampled from Paraguay were more confident in detecting changes in their breast compared to women sampled from the Japan or the US. Finally, it was noted that women sampled from Japan were least likely to partake in seeing a doctor in concern of changes in their breasts compared to women sampled from the other two research locations. These findings have relevance for the implementation of advocacy and public education about breast health.

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2020-05

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Akshara- A Global Initiative

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Menstruation - a stigmatized topic and a social taboo- has led to a lack of menstrual hygiene awareness and improper practices impacting women’s health adversely over generations in India. Akshara aims to increase menstrual hygiene education and reduce stigma in

Menstruation - a stigmatized topic and a social taboo- has led to a lack of menstrual hygiene awareness and improper practices impacting women’s health adversely over generations in India. Akshara aims to increase menstrual hygiene education and reduce stigma in India. A creative children’s illustrated book, and interactive workshop curriculum about menstruation were designed and published in Hindi and English. Menstrual hygiene workshops, utilizing the designed tools, were conducted in Delhi and Ghaziabad, India to over 230 students through NGO partnerships in December 2018. The response to the menstrual hygiene and stigma workshops was overwhelmingly positive, and a significant increase in the knowledge and awareness survey scores was observed after the curriculum teachings and classroom discussions. This evaluation highlights and provides a potential solution path to eradicate the root cause of the menstruation stigma in underprivileged women through education and open conversations on the topic starting at a pivotal young age. The main aim of the workshop was to help eradicate the stigma associated with menstruation and menstrual health in India through education.

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2019-05

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Assessing the Voids in the Space Liability Framework: Space Privatization and Space Debris

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This thesis seeks to examine shortcomings in space law by focusing on two interconnected aspects: privatization and space debris. The aspects of privatization and space debris will be examined under the context of the Outer Space Treaty (OST) and other

This thesis seeks to examine shortcomings in space law by focusing on two interconnected aspects: privatization and space debris. The aspects of privatization and space debris will be examined under the context of the Outer Space Treaty (OST) and other relevant legal instruments. Privatization and space debris are two current challenges that the OST fails to regulate efficiently. While the OST was being drafted, the international community did not foresee problems such as privatization and space debris. This is significant because we are witnessing an increase in privatization of space activities and corporations as well as a massive accumulation of dangerous space debris. While the OST grants states the power to regulate private space companies and the accretion of space debris, national laws rarely align with the OST, leading to the abuse of international space laws. We will make recommendations at the end of the thesis in an effort to revise the use of soft language in the OST to attune national laws with international laws as well as address the growing ambiguity surrounding privatization and space debris.

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2019-05

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Phoenix's 90-90-90 Plan: Is the City on Track to Meet its Goals?

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The overall goal of the research study was to determine if the City of Phoenix is going to attain their 90-90-90 targets for 2020 as part of the Fast-Track Cities initiative. The Fast-Track Cities plan includes that by 2020, 90%

The overall goal of the research study was to determine if the City of Phoenix is going to attain their 90-90-90 targets for 2020 as part of the Fast-Track Cities initiative. The Fast-Track Cities plan includes that by 2020, 90% of people living with HIV know their HIV status, 90% of people who know their HIV-positive status are on treatments, and 90% of people on treatment have suppressed viral loads. In order to achieve the Fast-Track Cities Initiative goals, the number of people who are aware of their status will need to increase by an additional 5%. The number of people living with HIV who are on HIV medications will need to increase 39%, and the number of people virally suppressed will need to increase 40% (City of Phoenix, 2016). This study was executed by first comparing HIV/AIDS epidemiology reports from the years of 2015-2017 to see the incidence trends. The city of Phoenix was also compared to the second largest city in Arizona, Tucson, to see if Phoenix was making more advances towards ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic in 2030. Next, interviews were conducted with members of the Ad-Hoc committee to gain their opinion on whether Phoenix is going to meet their 90-90-90 goals for the upcoming year. It was concluded that the City of Phoenix is making great progress, however, is not going to achieve their goals by 2020. The Ad-Hoc committee still is aiming to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic by 2030 and have implemented various projects such as the rapid-start protocol and the HIV home test kit initiative to meet this goal. Future improvements for the Fast-Track cities initiative include obtaining more accurate data and improving funding for the HIV stigma focus group as well as recruiting more political leaders.

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2019-05

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Reefer Madness: An Introduction to Cannabis (ASB 420)

Description

Weed, pot, chronic, kaya, and kush are just a few names for one of the world’s most far-reaching and impactful substances. This course is designed with inclusive teaching devices for students to explore how the roots of economies, cultures, and

Weed, pot, chronic, kaya, and kush are just a few names for one of the world’s most far-reaching and impactful substances. This course is designed with inclusive teaching devices for students to explore how the roots of economies, cultures, and histories have been intertwined with the subsistence of a plant. We will explore the biological and chemical nature of cannabis, historical accounts of human interactions with cannabis, production and industries, medicinal and recreational applications, legal and criminal ramifications, as well as future directions for legislation and economic opportunities. This class is intended to provide you with past research and facts, paired with coverage of events and movements happening today, so that you can make well-informed decisions for your future. The goal of this class is to motivate students to approach the topic of cannabis from various thought perspectives, so they can critically develop both life science knowledge and social science understandings regarding this polarizing subject. At the end of the course, students should be able to 1) Describe the basic anatomy and biology of cannabis plants, and the effects of psychoactive strains of cannabis on humans, 2) Explain the effects of cannabis on U.S. culture, as well as how U.S. culture has shaped the status of cannabis, 3) Differentiate evidence-based arguments from opinions and anecdotal positions, 4) Evaluate the interconnectedness of history, economics, criminal justice, and social contexts as they relate to cannabis, and 5) Demonstrate the ability to integrate evidence-based understandings into creating and disseminating knowledge through structured conversations and organized presentations.

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2019-05

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Identifying and Evaluating the Impact of Ecological Factors on the Patterns of Health Risk Behaviors Among Arizona State University Students: A Survey-Based Study

Description

Ecological modeling can be used to analyze health risk behaviors and their relationship to ecological factors, which is useful in determining how social environmental factors influence an individual’s decisions. Environmental interactions shape the way that humans behave throughout the day,

Ecological modeling can be used to analyze health risk behaviors and their relationship to ecological factors, which is useful in determining how social environmental factors influence an individual’s decisions. Environmental interactions shape the way that humans behave throughout the day, either through observation, action, or consequences. Specifically, health risk behaviors can be analyzed in relation to ecological factors. Alcohol drinking among college students has been a long concern and there are many risks associated with these behaviors in this population. Consistent engagement in health risk behaviors as a college student, such as drinking and smoking, can pose a much larger issues later in life and can lead to many different health problems. A research study was conducted in the form of a 27 question survey to determine and evaluate the impact of ecological factors on drinking and smoking behaviors among Arizona State University students. Ecological factors such as demographics, living conditions, contexts of social interactions, and places where students spend most of their time were used to evaluate the relationship between drinking and smoking behaviors and the ecological factors, both on- and off- campus. The sample size of this study is 541 students. Statistical tests were conducted using Excel and RStudio to find relationships between patterns of health risk behaviors and various ecological factors. The data from the survey was analyzed to address three main questions. The first question analyzed drinking behaviors in relation to demographics, specifically gender and race. The second question assessed drinking behaviors with participation in Greek life and clubs on campus. The third question evaluated the relationship between health risk behaviors and students’ living conditions, such as living on or off campus. The results show that while gender does not have a statistically significant influence on drinking behaviors, race does. White individuals are more likely to engage in drinking behaviors and are more at risk than non-whites. Participation in Greek life was shown to be statistically significant in determining health risk behaviors, while involvement in clubs was not. Finally, on campus students are less likely to engage in health risk behaviors than off-campus students.

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2019-05

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Optimization of a Human Gastrin Receptor for LCP Crystallization

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The human gastrin receptor (CCKBR or CCK2R) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found throughout the central nervous system, stomach, and a variety of cancer cells. CCK2R is implicated in the regulation of biological processes, including anxiety, satiety,

The human gastrin receptor (CCKBR or CCK2R) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found throughout the central nervous system, stomach, and a variety of cancer cells. CCK2R is implicated in the regulation of biological processes, including anxiety, satiety, arousal, analgesia, psychosis, and cancer cell growth and proliferation. While CCK2R is an attractive drug target, few drugs have managed to effectively target the receptor, and none have been brought to market. Contributory to this is the lack of high-resolution crystal structure capable of elucidating the binding regions of CCK2R to streamlining drug screening. While GPCRs are not amenable to traditional structural analysis methodologies, the advent of lipidic cubic phase (LCP) crystallography and serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) at X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), has extended the applicability of X-ray crystallography to these integral membrane proteins. LCP-SFX depends on optimizing the protein of interest for extraction, purification, and crystallization. Here we report our findings regarding the optimization of CCK2R suggesting the synergistic relationship between N-terminal truncations and the insertion of a fusion protein along ICL3, in addition to a 30-residue truncation of the C-terminus. Samples were expressed in Sf9 insect cells using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system, extracted using n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltoside detergent, and purified via TALON immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The constructs were characterized via SDS-PAGE, Western blot, and size exclusion chromatography. These findings demonstrate the improvements to CCK2R’s crystallographic amenability upon these modifications, however significant improvements must be made prior to crystallization trials. Future work will involve screening C-terminal truncations, thermostabilizing point mutations, and co-crystallizing ligands. Ideally this investigation will serve as a model for future CCK2R structural analysis and contribute to a heightened interest in CCK2R as a therapeutic target.

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2019-05

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Modeling Dynamics of Methamphetamine Markets and Use: A Case Study of Arizona and California

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Substance abuse has become a major problem in the USA in the past decade, with immense public health and societal consequences. Methamphetamine (meth) use has grown due to an increased number of meth production and distribution markets. Border states such

Substance abuse has become a major problem in the USA in the past decade, with immense public health and societal consequences. Methamphetamine (meth) use has grown due to an increased number of meth production and distribution markets. Border states such as Arizona and California are especially concerned with Mexico’s production and distribution of meth to their residents. A mathematical model for meth use and markets was developed and then analyzed to track multiple types of drug markets and drug-related arrests for possession or distribution. The importance of social influences as a major causal factor in the onset of illicit drug use is explicitly incorporated. The model parameters are then estimated using meth-related data from California and Arizona. A parameter sensitivity analysis on the model output was carried out. The results suggest that law enforcement policy aimed at marketers will be significantly more effective than targeting current users. Moreover, local unorganized markets have a greater role in maintaining the endemic level of meth users. Whereas, global organized markets play a role in initiating meth use outbreaks. Some implications for interventions and health promotion for the two states are also discussed.

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2019-05

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Female Solicitation and Male Rejection During Mating Events in Wild Chimpanzees

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Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight into the evolutionary development of certain behaviors. In this paper,

Humans are seemingly unique among the great apes with regard to their monogamous mating behavior. Since chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are humans closest living relative, understanding their actions may give insight into the evolutionary development of certain behaviors. In this paper, the mating behavior of chimpanzees will be evaluated in hopes of better understanding any similarities or differences compared to that of humans. Wild male chimpanzees have shown to reject solicitations from females at full swelling. The hypothesis being tested was that a male chimpanzee will reject a female who solicits a mating event due to age, rank, and parity. Long term data from Gombe National Park in Tanzania, Africa was used to test this. As expected, parous females were less likely to be rejected than nulliparous females, rejection was more likely if several other swollen females were present, and rejection was less likely if the female was higher-ranking/older. Surprisingly, it was found that younger males were more likely to reject females than prime males were. This was most likely due to the fact that almost always, higher-ranking males were also present, which may have deterred young males from mating. The results also showed that there was no effect of male rank and female reproductive state on the probability of rejection. The findings of this study may help to show a potential evolutionary step towards conscious mate selection as seen in humans.

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2019-05

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Water and Worry: Disasters in Queretaro, Mexico

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Research has been conducted analyzing factors that affect mental health in regions that suffer from water insecurity and water scarcity. Amber Wutich and Alexandra Brewis (2019) explain the effects that water scarcity has on mental health and how chronic worry

Research has been conducted analyzing factors that affect mental health in regions that suffer from water insecurity and water scarcity. Amber Wutich and Alexandra Brewis (2019) explain the effects that water scarcity has on mental health and how chronic worry can trigger depression, stress, anxiety and in extreme cases this can lead to suicidal thoughts. Bina Agarwal (2000) analyzes gender roles in relation to water insecurity where women express more signs of anxiety and worry due to the limited options they have when seeking water outside their household. There are limited studies done on water insecurity at a household level which limit an understanding of possible coping mechanisms along with additional factors that affect mental health. In this study, surveys are conducted in the city of San Juan Del Rio, Queretaro in Mexico where residents have been affected by massive flooding’s. Additionally, residents in Mexico not only suffer from water scarcity but also from poor water infrastructure, constant water outages, shortages, and contaminated water supply. Respondents answers (n=23) regarding the amount of worry, household size, being head of household, and gender was used to conduct paired sample statistical tests where associations were determined. Associations relating to the amount of worry resulted in the idea that residents in San Juan Del Rio because they consistently struggle with water shortages, have developed a coping strategy to deal with water outages and therefore, show fewer signs of worry when faced with a household water situation. In consideration, surveys conducted in surrounding towns and in a rural setting can provide additional information regarding how poverty is related to mental health and water scarcity along with a deeper understanding of possible coping strategies at a household level.

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2019-05