Matching Items (6)

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Mathematical Modeling: Lights Out!

Description

Lights Out is a puzzle game where the goal is to turn off all the lights on a nxn board starting from a random configuration. In order to find the

Lights Out is a puzzle game where the goal is to turn off all the lights on a nxn board starting from a random configuration. In order to find the solution of a configuration, the game is constructed using a matrix basis in the span of the field Z mod 2.This the game can be modeled by the system Ap=s which will be the center of the investigation when determining the solvability for any n×n board since A is not always invertable leading to some interesting cases. The goal of this thesis was to construct a model that will allow the player to solve for the pushes to attain the zero-state for an nxn system. Constructing the model gave a procedure that will allow to solve the puzzle game. The procedure presented here first uses a simple clearing technique (valid for any board size) to turn off all the lights except in the last row, which we call the standard-clear. The heart of the technique, is to give a way to use the information about which lights remain lit in the last row to determine which switches in the first row need to be pushed before the standard-clear. This part of the solution algorithm we call the first row adjustment, and it depends heavily on the specific board size n of the problem. Finally, after these first row pushes are made, the standard clear will now turn off all the lights including (seemingly magically) the last row. Thus the solution to the Lights Out puzzle of a given size is reduced to finding a first row adjustment for that size. (Please refer to the actual thesis for the full abstract)

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Proofs and Generalizations of the Jordan Curve Theorem

Description

The Jordan curve theorem states that any homeomorphic copy of a circle into R2 divides the plane into two distinct regions. This paper reconstructs one proof of the Jordan curve

The Jordan curve theorem states that any homeomorphic copy of a circle into R2 divides the plane into two distinct regions. This paper reconstructs one proof of the Jordan curve theorem before turning its attention toward generalizations of the theorem and their proofs and counterexamples. We begin with an introduction to elementary topology and the different notions of the connectedness of a space before constructing the first proof of the Jordan curve theorem. We then turn our attention to algebraic topology which we utilize in our discussion of the Jordan curve theorem’s generalizations. We end with a proof of the Jordan-Brouwer theorems, extensions of the Jordan curve theorem to higher dimensions.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The construction of a hyperbolic 4-manifold with a single cusp, following Kolpakov and Martelli

Description

Reprising the work of Kolpakov and Martelli, a manifold is constructed by face pairings of a four dimensional polytope, the 24-cell. The resulting geometry is a single cusped hyperbolic 4-manifold

Reprising the work of Kolpakov and Martelli, a manifold is constructed by face pairings of a four dimensional polytope, the 24-cell. The resulting geometry is a single cusped hyperbolic 4-manifold of finite volume. A short discussion of its geometry and underlying topology is included.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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On the uncrossing partial order on matchings

Description

The uncrossing partially ordered set $P_n$ is defined on the set of matchings on $2n$ points on a circle represented with wires. The order relation is $\tau'\leq \tau$ in $P_n$

The uncrossing partially ordered set $P_n$ is defined on the set of matchings on $2n$ points on a circle represented with wires. The order relation is $\tau'\leq \tau$ in $P_n$ if and only if $\tau'$ is obtained by resolving a crossing of $\tau$. %This partial order has been studied by Alman-Lian-Tran, Huang-Wen-Xie, Kenyon, and Lam. %The posets $P_n$ emerged from studies of circular planar electrical networks. Circular planar electrical networks are finite weighted undirected graphs embedded into a disk, with boundary vertices and interior vertices. By Curtis-Ingerman-Morrow and de Verdi\`ere-Gitler-Vertigan, the electrical networks can be encoded with response matrices. By Lam the space of response matrices for electrical networks has a cell structure, and this cell structure can be described by the uncrossing partial orders. %Lam proves that the posets can be identified with dual Bruhat order on affine permutations of type $(n,2n)$. Using this identification, Lam proves the poset $\hat{P}_n$, the uncrossing poset $P_n$ with a unique minimum element $\hat{0}$ adjoined, is Eulerian. This thesis consists of two sets of results: (1) flag enumeration in intervals in the uncrossing poset $P_n$ and (2) cyclic sieving phenomenon on the set $P_n$.

I identify elements in $P_n$ with affine permutations of type $(0,2n)$. %This identification enables us to explicitly describe the elements in $P_n$ with the elements in $\mathcal{MP}_n$.

Using this identification, I adapt a technique in Reading for finding recursions for the cd-indices of intervals in Bruhat order of Coxeter groups to the uncrossing poset $P_n$. As a result, I produce recursions for the cd-indices of intervals in the uncrossing poset $P_n$. I also obtain a recursion for the ab-indices of intervals in the poset $\hat{P}_n$, the poset $P_n$ with a unique minimum $\hat0$ adjoined. %We define an induced subposet $\mathcal{MP}_n$ of the affine permutations under Bruhat order.

Reiner-Stanton-White defined the cyclic sieving phenomenon (CSP) associated to a finite cyclic group action on a finite set and a polynomial. Sagan observed the CSP on the set of non-crossing matchings with the $q$-Catalan polynomial. Bowling-Liang presented similar results on the set of $k$-crossing matchings for $1\leq k \leq 3$. In this dissertation, I focus on the set of all matchings on $[2n]:=\{1,2,\dots,2n\}$. I find the number of matchings fixed by $\frac{2\pi}{d}$ rotations for $d|2n$. I then find the polynomial $X_n(q)$ such that the set of matchings together with $X_n(q)$ and the cyclic group of order $2n$ exhibits the CSP.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Hybrid Subgroups of Complex Hyperbolic Lattices

Description

In the 1980's, Gromov and Piatetski-Shapiro introduced a technique called "hybridization'' which allowed them to produce non-arithmetic hyperbolic lattices from two non-commensurable arithmetic lattices. It has been asked whether an

In the 1980's, Gromov and Piatetski-Shapiro introduced a technique called "hybridization'' which allowed them to produce non-arithmetic hyperbolic lattices from two non-commensurable arithmetic lattices. It has been asked whether an analogous hybridization technique exists for complex hyperbolic lattices, because certain geometric obstructions make it unclear how to adapt this technique. This thesis explores one possible construction (originally due to Hunt) in depth and uses it to produce arithmetic lattices, non-arithmetic lattices, and thin subgroups in SU(2,1).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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On minimal levels of Iwasawa towers

Description

In 1959, Iwasawa proved that the size of the $p$-part of the class groups of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension grows as a power of $p$ with exponent ${\mu}p^m+{\lambda}\,m+\nu$ for $m$ sufficiently large.

In 1959, Iwasawa proved that the size of the $p$-part of the class groups of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension grows as a power of $p$ with exponent ${\mu}p^m+{\lambda}\,m+\nu$ for $m$ sufficiently large. Broadly, I construct conditions to verify if a given $m$ is indeed sufficiently large. More precisely, let $CG_m^i$ (class group) be the $\epsilon_i$-eigenspace component of the $p$-Sylow subgroup of the class group of the field at the $m$-th level in a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension; and let $IACG^i_m$ (Iwasawa analytic class group) be ${\mathbb{Z}_p[[T]]/((1+T)^{p^m}-1,f(T,\omega^{1-i}))}$, where $f$ is the associated Iwasawa power series. It is expected that $CG_m^i$ and $IACG^i_m$ be isomorphic, providing us with a powerful connection between algebraic and analytic techniques; however, as of yet, this isomorphism is unestablished in general. I consider the existence and the properties of an exact sequence $$0\longrightarrow\ker{\longrightarrow}CG_m^i{\longrightarrow}IACG_m^i{\longrightarrow}\textrm{coker}\longrightarrow0.$$ In the case of a $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension where the Main Conjecture is established, there exists a pseudo-isomorphism between the respective inverse limits of $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$. I consider conditions for when such a pseudo-isomorphism immediately gives the existence of the desired exact sequence, and I also consider work-around methods that preserve cardinality for otherwise. However, I primarily focus on constructing conditions to verify if a given $m$ is sufficiently large that the kernel and cokernel of the above exact sequence have become well-behaved, providing similarity of growth both in the size and in the structure of $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$; as well as conditions to determine if any such $m$ exists. The primary motivating idea is that if $IACG_m^i$ is relatively easy to work with, and if the relationship between $CG_m^i$ and $IACG_m^i$ is understood; then $CG_m^i$ becomes easier to work with. Moreover, while the motivating framework is stated concretely in terms of the cyclotomic $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extension of $p$-power roots of unity, all results are generally applicable to arbitrary $\mathbb{Z}_p$-extensions as they are developed in terms of Iwasawa-Theory-inspired, yet abstracted, algebraic results on maps between inverse limits.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013