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Wavelength-Tunable Infrared Metamaterial by Tailoring Magnetic Resonance Condition With VO2 Phase Transition

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In this work, we report the design of a wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by tailoring magnetic resonance condition with the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain method shows a broad absorption peak at the

In this work, we report the design of a wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by tailoring magnetic resonance condition with the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain method shows a broad absorption peak at the wavelength of 10.9 μm when VO2 is a metal, but it shifts to 15.1 μm when VO2 changes to dielectric phase below its phase transition temperature of 68 °C. The large tunability of 38.5% in the resonance wavelength stems from the different excitation conditions of magnetic resonance mediated by plasmon in metallic VO2 but optical phonons in dielectric VO2. The physical mechanism is elucidated with the aid of electromagnetic field distribution at the resonance wavelengths. A hybrid magnetic resonance mode due to the plasmon-phonon coupling is also discussed. The results here would be beneficial for active control of thermal radiation in novel electronic, optical, and thermal devices.

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2014-09-28

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Plasmonic Light Trapping in an Ultrathin Photovoltaic Layer With Film-Coupled Metamaterial Structures

Description

A film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically investigated for enhancing the light absorption in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer of crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs). The top subwavelength concave grating and the bottom metallic film could not only effectively trap light with the

A film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically investigated for enhancing the light absorption in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer of crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs). The top subwavelength concave grating and the bottom metallic film could not only effectively trap light with the help of wave interference and magnetic resonance effects excited above the bandgap, but also practically serve as electrical contacts for photon-generated charge collection. The energy absorbed by the active layer is greatly enhanced with the help of the film-coupled metamaterial structure, resulting in significant improvement on the short-circuit current density by three times over a free-standing GaAs layer at the same thickness. The performance of the proposed light trapping structure is demonstrated to be little affected by the grating ridge width considering the geometric tolerance during fabrication. The optical absorption at oblique incidences also shows direction-insensitive behavior, which is highly desired for efficiently converting off-normal sunlight to electricity. The results would facilitate the development of next-generation ultrathin solar cells with lower cost and higher efficiency.

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2015-02-01

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Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Between Metamaterials Coated With Silicon Carbide Thin Films

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In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic

In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC. By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial, it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonances for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

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2015-01-19

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Indium Tin Oxide Nanowires as Hyperbolic Metamaterials for Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer

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We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowire arrays which behave as type 1 and 2 hyperbolic metamaterials. Using spatial dispersion dependent effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the nanowires, the impact of

We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowire arrays which behave as type 1 and 2 hyperbolic metamaterials. Using spatial dispersion dependent effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the nanowires, the impact of filling fraction on the heat transfer is analyzed. Depending on the filling fraction, it is possible to achieve both types of hyperbolic modes. At 150 nm vacuum gap, the heat transfer between the nanowires with 0.5 filling fraction can be 11 times higher than that between two bulk ITOs. For vacuum gaps less than 150 nm the heat transfer increases as the filling fraction decreases. Results obtained from this study will facilitate applications of ITO nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for energy systems.

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2015-02-07

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Near-Field Thermal Radiation Between Homogeneous Dual Uniaxial Electromagnetic Metamaterials

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Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with

Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The effect of vacuum gap distance is also studied, which shows that the enhancement at smaller vacuum gap is mainly due to hyperbolic mode and surface plasmon polariton modes. In addition, the results show that the contribution of s-polarized waves is significant and should not be excluded due to the strong magnetic response regardless of vacuum gap distances. The fundamental understanding and insights obtained here will facilitate the finding and application of novel materials for near-field thermal radiation.

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2016-06-07

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Elastic, Magnetic, and Electronic Properties of Iridium Phosphide Ir2P

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Cubic (space group: Fmm) iridium phosphide, Ir2P, has been synthesized at high pressure and high temperature. Angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on Ir2P powder using a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature and high pressures (up to 40.6 GPa) yielded a bulk

Cubic (space group: Fmm) iridium phosphide, Ir2P, has been synthesized at high pressure and high temperature. Angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on Ir2P powder using a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature and high pressures (up to 40.6 GPa) yielded a bulk modulus of B[subscript 0] = 306(6) GPa and its pressure derivative B0′ = 6.4(5). Such a high bulk modulus attributed to the short and strongly covalent Ir-P bonds as revealed by first – principles calculations and three-dimensionally distributed [IrP4] tetrahedron network. Indentation testing on a well–sintered polycrystalline sample yielded the hardness of 11.8(4) GPa. Relatively low shear modulus of ~64 GPa from theoretical calculations suggests a complicated overall bonding in Ir2P with metallic, ionic, and covalent characteristics. In addition, a spin glass behavior is indicated by magnetic susceptibility measurements.

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Date Created
2016-02-24

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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Hexane Diffusion through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-68

Description

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) are a promising technology for the separation of gases. ZIFs represent a type of hybrid material that is a subset of metal organic frameworks while displaying zeolite properties. ZIFs have tunable pore metrics, high thermal stability,

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) are a promising technology for the separation of gases. ZIFs represent a type of hybrid material that is a subset of metal organic frameworks while displaying zeolite properties. ZIFs have tunable pore metrics, high thermal stability, and large surface areas giving them advantages over traditional zeolites. The experiment sought to determine the flux of hexane vapor through ZIF-68 with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) mapping. FTIR mapping was used to obtain three spectra per crystal and the concentration gradient was analyzed to determine the flux. ZIF-68 was completely stable when loaded with hexane and exposed to the atmosphere. There was no hexane diffusion out of the crystal. As a result, ZIF-68 was heated to 50°C to increase diffusion and calculate the flux. ZIF-68 adhered to Knudsen Diffusion, and the flux was calculated to be 2.00*10-5 kg mol/s*m2. The small flux occurred because almost no concentration gradient was obtained through the crystal. It was hypothesized that the resistance in the crystal was substantially lower than the resistance at the boundary layer, which would have caused a small concentration gradient. Using film mass transfer theory, the resistance inside the crystal was found to be 1200 times lower than the resistance at the boundary layer confirming the hypothesis.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Switchable Wavelength-Selective and Diffuse Metamaterial Absorber/Emitter With a Phase Transition Spacer Layer

Description

We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 lm when the excitation of

We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 lm when the excitation of magnetic resonance is supported with the insulating VO2 spacer layer. The wavelength-selective absorption is switched off when the magnetic resonance is disabled with metallic VO2 that shorts the top and bottom metallic structures. The resonance wavelength can be tuned with different geometry, and the switchable metamaterial exhibits diffuse behaviors at oblique angles. The results would facilitate the design of switchable metamaterials for active control in energy and sensing applications.

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2014-08-19

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Development of Tuning Fork-Based Metrology for Study of Casimir Forces Across Nanometric Gaps

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This paper discusses the theoretical approximation and attempted measurement of the quantum <br/>force produced by material interactions though the use of a tuning fork-based atomic force microscopy <br/>device. This device was built and orientated specifically for the measurement of the

This paper discusses the theoretical approximation and attempted measurement of the quantum <br/>force produced by material interactions though the use of a tuning fork-based atomic force microscopy <br/>device. This device was built and orientated specifically for the measurement of the Casimir force as a <br/>function of separation distance using a piezo actuator for approaching and a micro tuning fork for the <br/>force measurement. This project proceeds with an experimental measurement of the ambient Casmir force <br/>through the use of a tuning fork-based AFM to determine its viability in measuring the magnitude of the <br/>force interaction between an interface material and the tuning fork probe. The ambient measurements <br/>taken during the device’s development displayed results consistent with theoretical approximations, while<br/>demonstrating the capability to perform high-precision force measurements. The experimental results<br/>concluded in a successful development of a device which has the potential to measure forces of <br/>magnitude 10−6 to 10−9 at nanometric gaps. To conclude, a path to material analysis using an approach <br/>stage, alternative methods of testing, and potential future experiments are speculated upon.

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Date Created
2021-05

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Dynamic Cryothermal Measurements of VO2-Based Fabry-Perot Emitter

Description

This work summarizes the development of a dynamic measurement platform in a cryostat to measure sample temperature response to space-like conditions and the creation a MATLAB theoretical model to predict sample temperature responses in the platform itself. An interesting variable-emittance

This work summarizes the development of a dynamic measurement platform in a cryostat to measure sample temperature response to space-like conditions and the creation a MATLAB theoretical model to predict sample temperature responses in the platform itself. An interesting variable-emittance sample called a Fabry-Perot emitter was studied for its thermal homeostasis behavior using the two developments. Using the measurement platform, it was shown that there was no thermal homeostatic behavior demonstrated by the sample at steady state temperatures. Theoretical calculations show other ways to demonstrate the cooling homeostasis behavior through time-varying heat inputs. Factors within the system such as heat loss and thermal mass contributed to an inhibited sample performance in the platform. Future work will have to be conducted, not only to verify the findings of the initial experiments but also to improve the measurement platform and the theoretical model.

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Date Created
2021-05