Matching Items (40)

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Small Buildings, Big Impacts: Developing a Library of Small Commercial Building Energy Efficiency Case Studies

Description

Small commercial buildings, or those comprising less than 50,000 square feet of floor area, make up 90% of the total number of buildings in the United States. Though these buildings

Small commercial buildings, or those comprising less than 50,000 square feet of floor area, make up 90% of the total number of buildings in the United States. Though these buildings currently account for less than 50% of total energy consumption in the U.S., this statistic is expected to change as larger commercial buildings become more efficient and thus account for a smaller percentage of commercial building energy consumption. This paper describes the efforts of a multi-organization collaboration and their demonstration partners in developing a library of case studies that promote and facilitate energy efficiency in the small commercial buildings market as well as a case study template that standardized the library. Case studies address five identified barriers to energy efficiency in the small commercial market, specifically lack of: 1) access to centralized, comprehensive, and consistent information about how to achieve energy targets, 2) reasonably achievable energy targets, 3) access to tools that measure buildings’ progress toward targets, 4) financial incentives that make the reduction effort attractive, and 5) effective models of how disparate stakeholders can collaborate in commercial centers to reach targets. The case study library can be organized by location, ownership type, decision criteria, building type, project size, energy savings, end uses impacted, and retrofit measures. This paper discusses the process of developing the library and case study template. Finally, the paper presents next steps in demonstrating the efficacy of the library and explores energy savings potential from broad implementation.

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Date Created
  • 2015-09-14

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Determining the Feasibility of Statistical Techniques to Identify the Most Important Input Parameters of Building Energy Models

Description

Previous studies in building energy assessment clearly state that to meet sustainable energy goals, existing buildings, as well as new buildings, will need to improve their energy efficiency. Thus, meeting

Previous studies in building energy assessment clearly state that to meet sustainable energy goals, existing buildings, as well as new buildings, will need to improve their energy efficiency. Thus, meeting energy goals relies on retrofitting existing buildings. Most building energy models are bottom-up engineering models, meaning these models calculate energy demand of individual buildings through their physical properties and energy use for specific end uses (e.g., lighting, appliances, and water heating). Researchers then scale up these model results to represent the building stock of the region studied.
Studies reveal that there is a lack of information about the building stock and associated modeling tools and this lack of knowledge affects the assessment of building energy efficiency strategies. Literature suggests that the level of complexity of energy models needs to be limited. Accuracy of these energy models can be elevated by reducing the input parameters, alleviating the need for users to make many assumptions about building construction and occupancy, among other factors. To mitigate the need for assumptions and the resulting model inaccuracies, the authors argue buildings should be described in a regional stock model with a restricted number of input parameters. One commonly-accepted method of identifying critical input parameters is sensitivity analysis, which requires a large number of runs that are both time consuming and may require high processing capacity.
This paper utilizes the Energy, Carbon and Cost Assessment for Buildings Stocks (ECCABS) model, which calculates the net energy demand of buildings and presents aggregated and individual- building-level, demand for specific end uses, e.g., heating, cooling, lighting, hot water and appliances. The model has already been validated using the Swedish, Spanish, and UK building stock data. This paper discusses potential improvements to this model by assessing the feasibility of using stepwise regression to identify the most important input parameters using the data from UK residential sector. The paper presents results of stepwise regression and compares these to sensitivity analysis; finally, the paper documents the advantages and challenges associated with each method.

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Date Created
  • 2015-09-14

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Defining and Understanding “Small Projects” in the Industrial Construction Sector

Description

To date, little research has been performed regarding the planning and management of “small” projects – those projects typically differentiated from “large” projects due to having lower costs. In 2013,

To date, little research has been performed regarding the planning and management of “small” projects – those projects typically differentiated from “large” projects due to having lower costs. In 2013, The Construction Industry Institute (CII) set out to develop a front end planning tool that will provide practitioners with a standardized process for planning small projects in the industrial sector. The research team determined that data should be sought from industry regarding small industrial projects to ensure applicability, effectiveness and validity of the new tool. The team developed and administered a survey to determine (1) the prevalence of small projects, (2) the planning processes currently in use for small projects, and (3) current metrics used by industry to differentiate between small and large projects. The survey data showed that small projects make up a majority of projects completed in the industrial sector, planning of these projects varies greatly across the industry, and the metrics posed in the survey were mostly not appropriate for use in differentiating between small and large projects. This study contributes to knowledge through adding to the limited research surrounding small projects, and suggesting future research regarding using measures of project complexity to differentiate between small and large projects.

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  • 2017-08-24

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Low-Investment Energy Retrofit Framework for Small and Medium Office Buildings

Description

Small and medium office buildings consume a significant parcel of the U.S. building stock energy consumption. Still, owners lack resources and experience to conduct detailed energy audits and retrofit analysis.

Small and medium office buildings consume a significant parcel of the U.S. building stock energy consumption. Still, owners lack resources and experience to conduct detailed energy audits and retrofit analysis. We present an eight-steps framework for an energy retrofit assessment in small and medium office buildings. Through a bottom-up approach and a web-based retrofit toolkit tested on a case study in Arizona, this methodology was able to save about 50% of the total energy consumed by the case study building, depending on the adopted measures and invested capital. While the case study presented is a deep energy retrofit, the proposed framework is effective in guiding the decision-making process that precedes any energy retrofit, deep or light.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05-20

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Investigating Building Construction Process and Developing a Performance Index

Description

A typical building construction process runs through three main consecutive phases: design, construction and operation. Currently, architects and engineers both engage in the creation of environmental designs that adequately reflect

A typical building construction process runs through three main consecutive phases: design, construction and operation. Currently, architects and engineers both engage in the creation of environmental designs that adequately reflect high performance through sustainability and energy efficiency in new buildings. Occupants of buildings have also recently demonstrated a dramatic increase in awareness regarding building operation, energy usage, and indoor air quality. The process of building construction is chronologically located between both the design and the operation phases. However, this phase has not yet been addressed in either understanding contractor behavior or developing innovative sustainable techniques. These two vital aspects have the potential to levy a dramatic impact on enhancing building performance and operational costs.
Repeatedly causing apprehension to the construction industry is a question that posits, “Why is there a gap/delta/inconsistency between the designed EUI, Energy Use Intensity, and the operational EUI”? Building occupants shall not be the only party that bears blame for the delta in energy. It is true, nonetheless, that occupants are part of the reason, but the contractor – as well as the entire construction phase - also remain prime suspects worth investigating. In the present time, research is predominantly focused on occupants (post-occupancy) and designers to educate and control the gap between designed and operational EUI. This research has succeeded in the identification of the construction phase, in conjunction with contractor behaviour, as another main factor for initiating this energy gap. Therefore, not only is the coupling of sustainable strategies to the construction drivers crucial to attaining a sustainable project, but also it is integral to analyzing contractor behavior within each of the construction phases that play a vital role in successfully serving sustainability. Various techniques and approaches will assist contractors in amending their method statements to ensure a sustainable project.
This research correlates an existing project to the two proposed sustainable concepts: 1) Identify cost-saving strategies that may have been implemented or avoided during the construction process, and 2) Evaluate the impacts of implementing these strategies on overall performance. The adopted contexts are to partially foster sustainable architecture concepts to the Contractor process, and then proceed to analyze its cost implication on overall project performance. Results of the validation of this approach verify that when contractors embrace a sustainable construction process the overall project will yield various financial savings. A mixed-use project was utilized to validate these concepts, which indicated three outcomes: firstly, a 25% decrease in manpower for tiling while maintaining the same productivity, thus reflecting a saving of $3,500; next, increasing the productivity of concrete activity, which would shorten the duration of the construction by 45 days and reflect a saving of $1.5 million, and last of all, reducing the overhead costs of labor camps by efficiently orienting temporary shelters, which reveals a reduction in cooling and heating that returned a saving of approximately $10,000. This research develops a comprehensive evidence-based study that addresses the above-mentioned gap in the construction phase, which targets to yield a multi-dimensional tool that will allow: 1) integrating critical thinking and decision-making approaches regarding contractor behavior, and 2) adopting innovative sustainable construction methods that reflect reduction in operating costs.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05-20

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Building Management System Integration: Energy Data Analytics

Description

This paper describes the research done to quantify the relationship between external air temperature and energy consumption and internal air temperature and energy consumption. The study was conducted on a

This paper describes the research done to quantify the relationship between external air temperature and energy consumption and internal air temperature and energy consumption. The study was conducted on a LEED Gold certified building, College Avenue Commons, located on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. It includes information on the background of previous studies in the area, some that agree with the research hypotheses and some that take a different path. Real-time data was collected hourly for energy consumption and external air temperature. Intermittent internal air temperature was collected by undergraduate researcher, Charles Banke. Regression analysis was used to prove two research hypotheses. The authors found no correlation between external air temperature and energy consumption, nor did they find a relationship between internal air temperature and energy consumption. This paper also includes recommendations for future work to improve the study.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Leveraging Building Information Modeling to Support Building Portfolio Management: A Case Study

Description

Building information modeling (BIM) has already sparked changes in design and construction practices, ranging from new methods to coordinate work during design to supporting paperless construction sites where crews use

Building information modeling (BIM) has already sparked changes in design and construction practices, ranging from new methods to coordinate work during design to supporting paperless construction sites where crews use handheld devices in lieu of paper plans. It is seen as the starting point for the larger picture, virtual design and construction (VDC). While some research has explored the feasibility of using BIM for Facilities Management (FM) this practice is yet to become widely accepted and integrated. This paper explores how VDC could improve the operations of a Facilities Management department at a large state university. Specifically, the authors examine the degree to which institutional requirements foster BIM use during building operations, the ability of models to interface with existing FM software, and the willingness of FM executives to incorporate BIM into their processes. The authors also discuss the sorts of information contained in building models that FM could find most useful, and highlight those pieces of information required for FM that many building models do not contain. Finally, the paper closes with a set of recommendations about how to create building models that more seamlessly integrate into existing Facilities Management processes at the university studied, in order to draw a set of recommendations that may apply more broadly to state universities and similar institutions.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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The Plastic Problem

Description

This project is focused on local scale sustainability. The goal is to understand the impact of small unsustainable actions of people, and hopefully create a change in their habits. The

This project is focused on local scale sustainability. The goal is to understand the impact of small unsustainable actions of people, and hopefully create a change in their habits. The focus was plastic usage, such as the use of water bottles, grocery bags, or even the packaging that our food and other products typically come in. Plastic has become an integral part of lives, where we do not even think of our actions as we stuff our leftover grocery bags in its designated drawer. My goal throughout this project was to guide people to an environmentally conscious lifestyle by increasing the likelihood of recycling on the ASU campus. I created an interactive informative presentation that focused on recycling and preventing plastic and unwanted trash from ending up in landfills and oceans. The presentation was given to a small group of participants along with two surveys. There was a survey provided before the presentation to gauge a participant's present recycling habits then there was a survey that was given some time after the presentation to track if certain recycling habits had changed due to the presentation. The post presentation survey did report that there were changes to some of the participants' recycling habits. The research provides suggestions to help increase recycling and waste prevention based off surveys that were widely distributed on campus. The top three suggestions that would help make recycling more prevalent on campus are: education on the subject, more accessibility to recycling bins, and creating an incentive program.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Fantasyland Expansion: Construction Report Document

Description

This Fantasyland expansion is a proposed 302,000 square foot development west of Harbor Boulevard and south of the Parade Route. This plot of land caught the eye of Performance Imagineering,

This Fantasyland expansion is a proposed 302,000 square foot development west of Harbor Boulevard and south of the Parade Route. This plot of land caught the eye of Performance Imagineering, the latest and greatest firm in theme park consulting, as it is currently home to Autopia, a massive drivable car ride for guests. Although this large portion of land is currently considered part of Tomorrowland, this proposition suggests otherwise. With the exponential growth of action and adventure themed attractions in the park, it comes time to revive the original Disney themes of love and fantasy. This proposal does so by introducing princesses from some of Disney's most successful intellectual property of late, to the Disneyland Resort.

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Date Created
  • 2020-12

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ENGINEERING THE ENVIRONMENT: COMPARISON OF THE ARAL SEA AND FLORIDA EVERGLADES TO DETERMINE EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE ENGINEERING APPROACHES AND EARTH SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT

Description

As the demand for natural resources increases with population growth, importance has been placed on environmental issues due to increasing pressure on land, water, air, and raw materials. In order

As the demand for natural resources increases with population growth, importance has been placed on environmental issues due to increasing pressure on land, water, air, and raw materials. In order to sustain the environment and natural resources, sustainable engineering and earth systems engineering and management (ESEM) is vital for future populations. The Aral Sea and the Florida Everglades are both regions that are heavily impacted by human design decisions. Comparing and analyzing the implications and outcomes of these human design decisions allows conclusions to be made regarding how earth systems engineering and management can be best accomplished. The Aral Sea, located in central Asia between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, is a case study of an ecosystem that has collapsed under the pressure of agricultural expansion. This has caused extensive economic, health, agricultural, and environmental impacts. The Everglades in southern Florida is a case study where the ecosystem has evolved from its original state, rather than collapsed, due to human settlement and water resource demand. In order to determine effective sustainable engineering approaches, the case studies will be evaluated using ESEM principles. These principles are used as guidance in executing better practice of sustainable engineering. When comparing the two case studies, it appears that the Everglades is an adequate representation of effective ESEM approaches, while the Aral Sea is not reflective of effective approaches. When practicing ESEM, it is critical that the principles be applied as a whole rather than individually. While the ESEM principles do not guarantee success, they offer an effective guide to dealing with the complexity and uncertainty in many of today's systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12