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An Observational Study of the Motivation of Long Distance Cyclists During Faith Based Charity Ride

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This observational study explored the motivational factors for recreational cyclists participating in a charity cycling event held by a Christian based nonprofit, the Fuller Center. Participants (n=22; men: n=10; women: n=12) cycled at least one 302 mile segment of a

This observational study explored the motivational factors for recreational cyclists participating in a charity cycling event held by a Christian based nonprofit, the Fuller Center. Participants (n=22; men: n=10; women: n=12) cycled at least one 302 mile segment of a bike ride distancing the whole West Coast (1,657 miles). The purpose of the study was to determine the motives for the cyclists' participation and to then classify those motives as intrinsic or extrinsic. A scale used to measure motivation of marathoners was transcribed to match those of the cycling participants to assess motivation. The participants were divided into 4 groups based on self-reported experience levels, and it was shown that across all types of experience levels, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivators were expressed but with greater emphasis on intrinsic factors. The most commonly indicated intrinsic motivation subcategories were life meaning, personal goal achievement, and affiliation, with affiliation being recognized by every individual. The most commonly indicated extrinsic subcategories were competition, recognition, health orientation, and weight concern. Though each rider's story was signature to the individual, the very specific religious background and philanthropic mission of the Fuller Center Bike Adventure weighed heavily into each individual's motivation alongside the classified intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this research offered valuable data about motivation of recreational cyclists but future studies should focus on a less specific population.

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2018-05

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Relating Reactive Stepping Characteristics to Falls in Older Community Dwelling Adults

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Background: Falls are a leading cause of injury in older adults with roughly 1 in 4 American's over the age of 65 experiencing a fall. Research that looks at reactive stepping, or the steps a person takes when they encounter

Background: Falls are a leading cause of injury in older adults with roughly 1 in 4 American's over the age of 65 experiencing a fall. Research that looks at reactive stepping, or the steps a person takes when they encounter a loss of balance, is sparse. Whether a specific aspect of reactive stepping can be linked to falls has yet to be determined. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which reactive stepping characteristics may be correlated with falls in from community dwelling older adults. Methods: 54 older adults (11 fallers & 43 non-fallers) underwent 3 "postural perturbations", in which they leaned back into the testers hands and were released, resulting in one or more reactive steps. Inertial sensors (APDM, inc.) were used to measure participant movement and Quantify reactive steps. Step length and step latency, which is the time it takes for an individual to perform a step, were the primary outcomes measured, along with time to stabilization, number of steps taken, and time until first foot strike. Results: Neither step length or step latency were significantly different in fallers compared to non-fallers (p=0.537 and p=0.431, respectively). However, four square step test was significantly different between the populations (p= 0.045). Conclusions: These results showed that four square step test may be more closely related to falls than step length or latency. When performing fall prevention training, or working with an individual at risk for falling, it may be more beneficial to focus on four square step test and the changes in direction associated with it, as opposed to other stepping characteristics in order to improve their fall risk.

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2018-05

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Assisted Cycle Therapy (ACT) Did Not Improve Depression in Older Adults with Down Syndrome

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The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on depression in older adults with Down Syndrome (DS). We predicted that older adults with Down Syndrome would see an improvement in their depressive symptoms after ACT and Voluntary Cycling (VC). However, we predicted there would be a greater improvement in depressive symptoms after ACT in comparison to VC. Depression was measured using a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory 2 (CDI 2) due to the low mental age of our participant population. Twenty-one older adults with DS were randomly assigned to one of three interventions, which took place over an eight-week period of time. Eleven older adults with DS completed the ACT intervention, which is stationary cycling on a recumbent bicycle with the assistance of a motor to maintain a cadence at least 35% greater than the rate of voluntary cycling. Nine participants completed the voluntary cycling intervention, where they cycled at a cadence of their choosing. One participant composed our no cycling control group. No intervention group reached results that achieved a conventional level of significance. However, there was a trend for depression to increase after 8 weeks throughout all three intervention groups. We did see a slightly slower regression of depression in the ACT group than the VC and control. Our results were discussed with respect to social and cognitive factors relevant to older adults with DS and the subjective nature of the CDI2. This study brings attention to the lack of accurate measures and standardized research methods created for populations with intellectual disabilities in regards to research.

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2018-05

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Review of Autism Treatment Research

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As the prevalence and awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increases, so does the variety of treatment options for primary symptoms (social interaction, communication, behavior) and secondary symptoms (anxiety, hyperactivity, GI problems, and insomnia). Various treatments, from Adderall to Citalopram

As the prevalence and awareness of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) increases, so does the variety of treatment options for primary symptoms (social interaction, communication, behavior) and secondary symptoms (anxiety, hyperactivity, GI problems, and insomnia). Various treatments, from Adderall to Citalopram to Flax Seed Oil promise relief for these symptoms. However, very little research has actually been done on some of these treatments. Additionally, the research that has been done fails to compare these treatments against one another in terms of symptom relief. The Autism Treatment Effectiveness Survey, written by Dr. James Adams, director of the Autism/Asperger's Research Program at ASU, and graduate student/program coordinator Devon Coleman, aims to fill this gap. The survey numerically rates medications based on benefit and adverse effects, in addition to naming specific symptoms that are impacted by the treatments. However, the survey itself was retrospective in nature and requires further evidence to support its claims. Therefore, the purpose of this research paper is to evaluate evidence related to the results of the survey. After the performing an extensive literature review of over 70 different treatments, it appears that the findings of the Autism Treatment Effectiveness Survey are generally well supported. There were a few minor discrepancies regarding the primary benefitted symptom, but there was not enough of a conflict to discount the information from the survey. As research is still ongoing, conclusions cannot yet be drawn for Nutritional Supplements, although the current data looks promising.

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2018-05

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The Effects of Sleep Efficiency on Serum Osteocalcin in College-Aged Individuals

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Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is

Osteoporosis is a medical condition that leads to decreased bone mineral density, resulting in increased fracture risk.1 Research regarding the relationship between sleep and bone mass is limited and has primarily been studied in elderly adults. While this population is most affected by osteoporosis, adolescents are the most proactive population in terms of prevention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep efficiency and serum osteocalcin in college-aged individuals as a means of osteoporosis prevention. Thirty participants ages 18-25 years (22 females, 8 males) at Arizona State University were involved in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected during one week via self-recorded sleep diaries, quantitative ActiWatch, DEXA imaging, and serum blood draws to measure the bone biomarker osteocalcin. Three participants were excluded from the study as outliers. The median (IQR) for osteocalcin measured by ELISA was 11.6 (9.7, 14.5) ng/mL. The average sleep efficiency measured by actigraphy was 88.3% ± 3.0%. Regression models of sleep efficiency and osteocalcin concentration were not statistically significant. While the addition of covariates helped explain more of the variation in serum osteocalcin concentration, the results remained insignificant. There was a trend between osteocalcin and age, suggesting that as age increases, osteocalcin decreases. This was a limited study, and further investigation regarding the relationship between sleep efficiency and osteocalcin is warranted.

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2018-05

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Metabolic Adaptations to Aerobic Exercise: A Review

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the driving force of the human body which allows individuals to move freely. Metabolism is responsible for its creation, and research has indicated that with training, metabolism can be modified to respond more efficiently to aerobic

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the driving force of the human body which allows individuals to move freely. Metabolism is responsible for its creation, and research has indicated that with training, metabolism can be modified to respond more efficiently to aerobic stimulus. During an acute bout of exercise, cardiac output increases to maintain oxygen supply to the body. Oxidative muscle fibers contract to move the body for prolonged periods of time, creating oxidative stress which is managed by the mitochondria which produce the ATP that supplies the muscle fiber, and as the body returns to its resting state, oxygen continues to be consumed in order to return to steady state. Following endurance training, changes in cardiac output, muscle fiber types, mitochondria, substrate utilization, and oxygen consumption following exercise make adaptations to make metabolism more efficient. Resting heart rate decreases and stroke volume increases. Fast twitch muscle fibers shift into more oxidative fibers, sometimes through mitochondrial biogenesis, and more fat is able to be utilized during exercise. The excess postexercise oxygen consumption following exercise bouts is reduced, and return to steady state becomes quicker. In conclusion, endurance training optimizes metabolic response during acute bouts of aerobic exercise.

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2018-05

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Patient and Provider Perceptions of mHealth Technologies in Clinical Settings

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Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in confronting whether or not patients will utilize the tools at

Mobile health or "mHealth" defines a broad spectrum of medical or public health practice supported by mobile devices. The patient's perception of mobile health applications is the key point in confronting whether or not patients will utilize the tools at their disposal As such, the primary aim of this study was to examine participant feedback through quantitative and qualitative measures using the Therapy Evaluation Questionnaire and a patient interview, respectively, to further understand the patient rated acceptability of using BeWell24 and SleepWell24 for improving health outcomes. For BeWell24, it was hypothesized that patients who received the Multicomponent version would report higher acceptability scores than those randomized to the Health Education version. Furthermore, in regard to SleepWell24, it was hypothesized that the SleepWell24 patient would provide positive feedback and suggestions regarding their own experience with the SleepWell24 app. Data from this thesis was pulled from two ongoing randomized controlled trials currently being conducted at the Phoenix Veteran Affairs Health Care Service (PVACHS) and Mayo Clinic hospitals. Means, standard deviations, frequencies, and percentages were commuted to summarize demographics and TEQ scores. In addition, key concepts from a qualitative interview with a SleepWell24 participant were derived. The results showed a greater acceptability of the multicomponent versions of BeWell24 and SleepWell24 but a lower TEQ score of perceived usability. mHealth implementations pose a potential to become an important part of the health sector for establishing innovative approaches to delivering care, and while benefits have been highly praised, it is clear that the perceptions of mHealth must be positive if the technology is to transcend into a practical clinical setting.

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2018-05

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

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Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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2018-05

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The History, Evolution, and Development of Wedding Cakes

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A key component to American weddings is the wedding cake and the number of customs associated with it. The History, Evolution, and Development of Wedding Cakes is a creative project that hopes to answer why the wedding cake is such

A key component to American weddings is the wedding cake and the number of customs associated with it. The History, Evolution, and Development of Wedding Cakes is a creative project that hopes to answer why the wedding cake is such an iconic item and what it represents. A historical study details the evolution from its origin to present day while a comparison of wedding cakes (or wedding cake analogs) from other cultures explores their role(s) across the globe. It was found that while little regard is given to the symbolism of the wedding cake today, its presence persists in some shape or form as it continues to evolve. Cultural variations were recreated to reflect personal interpretations of contemporary designs in addition to an original design of a contemporary-rustic American wedding cake.

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2018-05

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Assessment of Upper Limb Function and the Underlying Movement Strategies with Potential Application to Rotator Cuff Tears

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Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears (RCT) have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal rotation of the shoulder (Vidt et al., 2016). The leading

Introduction: Individuals with rotator cuff tears (RCT) have been found to compensate in their movement patterns by using lower thoracohumeral elevation angles during certain tasks, as well as increased internal rotation of the shoulder (Vidt et al., 2016). The leading joint hypothesis (LJH) suggests there is one leading joint that creates the foundation for the entire limb motion, and there are other subordinate joints that monitor the passive interaction torque (IT) and create a net torque (NT) aiding to limb motions required for the task. This experiment hopes to establish a better understanding of joint control strategies during a wide range of arm movements. Based off of the LJH, we hypothesize that when a subject has a rotator cuff tear, their performance of planar and three- dimensional motions should be altered not only at the shoulder, which is often the leading joint, but also at other joints on the arm such as the elbow and wrist.

Methods: There were 3 groups of participants: healthy younger adults (age 21.74 ± 1.97), healthy older adult controls (age 69.53 ± 6.85), and older adults with a RCT (age 64.33 ± 4.04). All three groups completed strength testing, horizontal drawing and pointing tasks, and three-dimensional (3D) activities of daily living (ADLs). Kinematic and kinetic variables of the arm were obtained during horizontal and 3D tasks using data from 13 reflective markers placed on the arm and trunk, 8 motion capture cameras, and Cortex motion capture software (Motion Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, CA). During these tasks, electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on 12 muscles along the arm that affect shoulder, elbow, and wrist rotation. Strength testing tasks were measured using a dynamometer. All strength testing and 3D tasks were completed for three trials and horizontal tasks were completed for two trials.

Results: Results of the younger adult participants showed that during the forward portion of seven 3D tasks, there were four phases of different joint control mechanics seen in a majority of the movements. These phases included active rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow joint, active rotation of the shoulder with passive rotation of the elbow, passive rotation of the shoulder with active rotation of the elbow, and passive rotation of both the shoulder and the elbow. Passive rotation during movements was a result of gravitational torque (GT) on the different segments of the arm and IT caused as a result the multi-joint structure of human limbs. The number of tested participants for the healthy older adults and RCT older adults groups is not yet high enough to produce significant results and because of this their results are not reported in this article.

Discussion: Through the available results, multiple phases were found where one or both of the joints of the arm moved passively which further supports the LJH and extends it to include 3D movements. This article is a part of a bigger project which hopes to get a better understanding of how older adults adjust to large passive torques acting on the arm during 3D movements and how older adults with RCTs compensate for the decreased strength, the decreased range of motion (ROM), and the pain that accompany these types of tears. Hopefully the results of this experiment lead to more research toward better understanding how to treat patients with RCTs.

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2018-05