Matching Items (11)

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Logarithmic corrections to gravitational entropy and the null energy condition

Description

Using a relation between the thermodynamics of local horizons and the null energy condition, we consider the effects of quantum corrections to the gravitational entropy. In particular, we find that

Using a relation between the thermodynamics of local horizons and the null energy condition, we consider the effects of quantum corrections to the gravitational entropy. In particular, we find that the geometric form of the null energy condition is not affected by the inclusion of logarithmic corrections to the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-01

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Generalized Einstein’s Equations from Wald Entropy

Description

We derive the gravitational equations of motion of general theories of gravity from thermodynamics applied to a local Rindler horizon through any point in spacetime. Specifically, for a given theory

We derive the gravitational equations of motion of general theories of gravity from thermodynamics applied to a local Rindler horizon through any point in spacetime. Specifically, for a given theory of gravity, we substitute the corresponding Wald entropy into the Clausius relation. Our approach works for all diffeomorphism-invariant theories of gravity in which the Lagrangian is a polynomial in the Riemann tensor.

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  • 2016-03-31

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On coupling NEC-violating matter to gravity

Description

We show that effective theories of matter that classically violate the null energy condition cannot be minimally coupled to Einstein gravity without being inconsistent with both string theory and black

We show that effective theories of matter that classically violate the null energy condition cannot be minimally coupled to Einstein gravity without being inconsistent with both string theory and black hole thermodynamics. We argue however that they could still be either non-minimally coupled or coupled to higher-curvature theories of gravity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-16

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Quantum Matter Coupled to Classical Gravity

Description

A problem of interest in theoretical physics is the issue of the evaporation of black holes via Hawking radiation subject to a fixed background. We approach this problem by considering

A problem of interest in theoretical physics is the issue of the evaporation of black holes via Hawking radiation subject to a fixed background. We approach this problem by considering an electromagnetic analogue, where we have substituted Hawking radiation with the Schwinger effect. We treat the case of massless QED in 1+1 dimensions with the path integral approach to quantum field theory, and discuss the resulting Feynman diagrams from our analysis. The results from this thesis may be useful to find a version of the Schwinger effect that can be solved exactly and perturbatively, as this version may provide insights to the gravitational problem of Hawking radiation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Vacua and correlators in hyperbolic de Sitter space

Description

We study the power- and bi-spectrum of vacuum fluctuations in a hyperbolic section of de Sitter space, comparing two states of physical interest: the Bunch-Davies and hyperbolic vacuum. We introduce

We study the power- and bi-spectrum of vacuum fluctuations in a hyperbolic section of de Sitter space, comparing two states of physical interest: the Bunch-Davies and hyperbolic vacuum. We introduce a one-parameter family of de Sitter hyperbolic sections and their natural vacua, and identify a limit in which it reduces to the planar section and the corresponding Bunch-Davies vacuum state. Selecting the Bunch-Davies vacuum for a massless scalar field implies a mixed reduced density matrix in a hyperbolic section of de Sitter space. We stress that in the Bunch-Davies state the hyperbolic de Sitter n-point correlation functions have to match the planar de Sitter n-point correlation functions. The expressions for the planar and hyperbolic Bunch-Davies correlation functions only appear different because of the transformation from planar to hyperbolic coordinates. Initial state induced deviations from the standard inflationary predictions are instead obtained by considering the pure hyperbolic vacuum, as we verify explicitly by computing the power- and bi-spectrum. For the bi-spectrum in the hyperbolic vacuum we find that the corrections as compared to the standard Bunch-Davies result are not enhanced in specific momentum configurations and strongly suppressed for momenta large compared to the hyperbolic curvature scale. We close with some final remarks, in particular regarding the implications of these results for more realistic inflationary bubble scenarios.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-16

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The second law in four-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

Description

The topological contribution of a Gauss–Bonnet term in four dimensions to black hole entropy opens up the possibility of a violation of the second law of thermodynamics in black hole

The topological contribution of a Gauss–Bonnet term in four dimensions to black hole entropy opens up the possibility of a violation of the second law of thermodynamics in black hole mergers. We show, however, that the second law is not violated in the regime where Einstein–Gauss–Bonnet holds as an effective theory and black holes can be treated thermodynamically. For mergers of anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes, the second law appears to be violated even in Einstein gravity; we argue, however, that the second law holds when gravitational potential energy is taken into account.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-08-07

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Derivation of the null energy condition

Description

We derive the null energy condition, understood as a constraint on the Einstein-frame Ricci tensor, from world sheet string theory. For a closed bosonic string propagating in a curved geometry,

We derive the null energy condition, understood as a constraint on the Einstein-frame Ricci tensor, from world sheet string theory. For a closed bosonic string propagating in a curved geometry, the spacetime interpretation of the Virasoro constraint condition is precisely the null energy condition, to leading nontrivial order in the α′ expansion. Thus the deepest origin of the null energy condition lies in world sheet diffeomorphism invariance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-03

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Holography in Rindler space

Description

This thesis addresses certain quantum aspects of the event horizon using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence is profound since it describes a quantum theory of gravity in d + 1

This thesis addresses certain quantum aspects of the event horizon using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence is profound since it describes a quantum theory of gravity in d + 1 dimensions from the perspective of a dual quantum field theory living in d dimensions. We begin by considering Rindler space which is the part of Minkowski space seen by an observer with a constant proper acceleration. Because it has an event horizon, Rindler space has been studied in great detail within the context of quantum field theory. However, a quantum gravitational treatment of Rindler space is handicapped by the fact that quantum gravity in flat space is poorly understood. By contrast, quantum gravity in anti-de Sitter space (AdS), is relatively well understood via the AdS/CFT correspondence. Taking this cue, we construct Rindler coordinates for AdS (Rindler-AdS space) in d + 1 spacetime dimensions. In three spacetime dimensions, we find novel one-parameter families of stationary vacua labeled by a rotation parameter β. The interesting thing about these rotating Rindler-AdS spaces is that they possess an observer-dependent ergoregion in addition to having an event horizon. Turning next to the application of AdS/CFT correspondence to Rindler-AdS space, we posit that the two Rindler wedges in AdSd+1 are dual to an entangled conformal field theory (CFT) that lives on two boundaries with geometry R × Hd-1. Specializing to three spacetime dimensions, we derive the thermodynamics of Rindler-AdS space using the boundary CFT. We then probe the causal structure of the spacetime by sending in a time-like source and observe that the CFT “knows” when the source has fallen past the Rindler horizon. We conclude by proposing an alternate foliation of Rindler-AdS which is dual to a CFT living in de Sitter space. Towards the end, we consider the concept of weak measurements in quantum mechanics, wherein the measuring instrument is weakly coupled to the system being measured. We consider such measurements in the context of two examples, viz. the decay of an excited atom, and the tunneling of a particle trapped in a well, and discuss the salient features of such measurements.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Topics in cosmology and gravitation

Description

Two ideas that extends on the theory of General Relativity are introduced and then the phenomenology they can offer is explored. The first idea shows how certain types of $f(R)$

Two ideas that extends on the theory of General Relativity are introduced and then the phenomenology they can offer is explored. The first idea shows how certain types of $f(R)$ gravity allows for traversable wormholes among its vacuum solutions. This is surprising to find in such simple setting as these type of solutions usually requires fairly complex constructions to satisfy the equations of motion of a gravitational theory. The second idea is the matter bounce description of the early universe where a fairly unique feature of the model is identified. Consequences of this feature could allow the paradigm to distinguish itself from other alternative descriptions, such as inflation, through late time observations. An explicit example of this claim is worked out by studying a model involving an interaction in the dark sector. Results of a more astrophysical nature, where a careful analysis of the morphology of blazar halos is performed, are also presented in the Appendix. The analysis determined that the $Q$-statistic is an appropriate tool to probe the properties of the intergalactic magnetic fields responsible for the halos formation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Emergence of Spacetime: From Entanglement to Einstein

Description

Here I develop the connection between thermodynamics, entanglement, and gravity. I begin by showing that the classical null energy condition (NEC) can arise as a consequence of the second law

Here I develop the connection between thermodynamics, entanglement, and gravity. I begin by showing that the classical null energy condition (NEC) can arise as a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics applied to local holographic screens. This is accomplished by essentially reversing the steps of Hawking's area theorem, leading to the Ricci convergence condition as an input, from which an application of Einstein's equations yields the NEC. Using the same argument, I show logarithmic quantum corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula do not alter the form of the Ricci convergence condition, but obscure its connection to the NEC. Then, by attributing thermodynamics to the stretched horizon of future lightcones -- a timelike hypersurface generated by a collection of radially accelerating observers with constant and uniform proper acceleration -- I derive Einstein's equations from the Clausius relation. Based on this derivation I uncover a local first law of gravity, connecting gravitational entropy to matter energy and work. I then provide an entanglement interpretation of stretched lightcone thermodynamics by extending the entanglement equilibrium proposal. Specifically I show that the condition of fixed volume can be understood as subtracting the irreversible contribution to the thermodynamic entropy. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, I then provide a microscopic explanation of the 'thermodynamic volume' -- the conjugate variable to the pressure in extended black hole thermodynamics -- and reveal the super-entropicity of three-dimensional AdS black holes is due to the gravitational entropy overcounting the number of available dual CFT states. Finally, I conclude by providing a recent generlization of the extended first law of entanglement, and study its non-trivial 2+1- and 1+1-dimensional limits. This thesis is self-contained and pedagogical by including useful background content relevant to emergent gravity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020