Matching Items (32)

131082-Thumbnail Image.png

Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modelling of Diagnostics for Pandemic Planning Using JAGS Package in R

Description

Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods are a Bayesian approach to predictive statistics, which takes advantage of prior beliefs and conditions as well as the existing data to produce posterior distributions of

Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods are a Bayesian approach to predictive statistics, which takes advantage of prior beliefs and conditions as well as the existing data to produce posterior distributions of relevant parameters. This approach, implementable through the JAGS packaging in R, is promising for its impact on the diagnostics space, which is a critical bottleneck for pandemic planning and rapid response. Specifically, these methods provide the means to optimize diagnostic testing, for example, by determining whether it is best to test individuals in a certain locale once or multiple times. This study compares the expected accuracy of single and double testing under two specific conditions, a general and Icelandic test case, in order to ascertain the validity of MCMC methods in this space and inform decisionmakers and future research in the space. Models based on this platform may eventually be tailored to the priors of specific locales. Additionally, the ability to test multiple regimes of real or simulated data while maintaining uncertainty widens the pool of researchers that can impact the space. In future studies, ensemble methods investigating the full range of parameters and their combinations can be studied.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

136785-Thumbnail Image.png

Exploring the Design of Vibrotactile Cues for Visio-Haptic Sensory Substitution

Description

This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind

This paper presents the design and evaluation of a haptic interface for augmenting human-human interpersonal interactions by delivering facial expressions of an interaction partner to an individual who is blind using a visual-to-tactile mapping of facial action units and emotions. Pancake shaftless vibration motors are mounted on the back of a chair to provide vibrotactile stimulation in the context of a dyadic (one-on-one) interaction across a table. This work explores the design of spatiotemporal vibration patterns that can be used to convey the basic building blocks of facial movements according to the Facial Action Unit Coding System. A behavioral study was conducted to explore the factors that influence the naturalness of conveying affect using vibrotactile cues.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

135798-Thumbnail Image.png

Utilizing Neural Networks to Predict Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Patients

Description

The artificial neural network is a form of machine learning that is highly effective at recognizing patterns in large, noise-filled datasets. Possessing these attributes uniquely qualifies the neural network as

The artificial neural network is a form of machine learning that is highly effective at recognizing patterns in large, noise-filled datasets. Possessing these attributes uniquely qualifies the neural network as a mathematical basis for adaptability in personal biomedical devices. The purpose of this study was to determine the viability of neural networks in predicting Freezing of Gait (FoG), a symptom of Parkinson's disease in which the patient's legs are suddenly rendered unable to move. More specifically, a class of neural networks known as layered recurrent networks (LRNs) was applied to an open- source FoG experimental dataset donated to the Machine Learning Repository of the University of California at Irvine. The independent variables in this experiment \u2014 the subject being tested, neural network architecture, and sampling of the majority classes \u2014 were each varied and compared against the performance of the neural network in predicting future FoG events. It was determined that single-layered recurrent networks are a viable method of predicting FoG events given the volume of the training data available, though results varied significantly between different patients. For the three patients tested, shank acceleration data was used to train networks with peak precision/recall values of 41.88%/47.12%, 89.05%/29.60%, and 57.19%/27.39% respectively. These values were obtained for networks optimized using detection theory rather than optimized for desired values of precision and recall. Furthermore, due to the nature of the experiments performed in this study, these values are representative of the lower-bound performance of layered recurrent networks trained to detect gait freezing. As such, these values may be improved through a variety of measures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

135660-Thumbnail Image.png

Convolutional Neural Networks for Facial Expression Recognition

Description

This paper presents work that was done to create a system capable of facial expression recognition (FER) using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and test multiple configurations and methods. CNNs

This paper presents work that was done to create a system capable of facial expression recognition (FER) using deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and test multiple configurations and methods. CNNs are able to extract powerful information about an image using multiple layers of generic feature detectors. The extracted information can be used to understand the image better through recognizing different features present within the image. Deep CNNs, however, require training sets that can be larger than a million pictures in order to fine tune their feature detectors. For the case of facial expression datasets, none of these large datasets are available. Due to this limited availability of data required to train a new CNN, the idea of using naïve domain adaptation is explored. Instead of creating and using a new CNN trained specifically to extract features related to FER, a previously trained CNN originally trained for another computer vision task is used. Work for this research involved creating a system that can run a CNN, can extract feature vectors from the CNN, and can classify these extracted features. Once this system was built, different aspects of the system were tested and tuned. These aspects include the pre-trained CNN that was used, the layer from which features were extracted, normalization used on input images, and training data for the classifier. Once properly tuned, the created system returned results more accurate than previous attempts on facial expression recognition. Based on these positive results, naïve domain adaptation is shown to successfully leverage advantages of deep CNNs for facial expression recognition.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

Computing Platform for Context Aware Smart Objects for Stroke Rehabilitation

Description

In order to regain functional use of affected limbs, stroke patients must undergo intense, repetitive, and sustained exercises. For this reason, it is a common occurrence for the recovery of

In order to regain functional use of affected limbs, stroke patients must undergo intense, repetitive, and sustained exercises. For this reason, it is a common occurrence for the recovery of stroke patients to suffer as a result of mental fatigue and boredom. For this reason, serious games aimed at reproducing the movements patients practice during rehabilitation sessions, present a promising solution to mitigating patient psychological exhaustion. This paper presents a system developed at the Center for Cognitive Ubiquitous Computing (CubiC) at Arizona State University which provides a platform for the development of serious games for stroke rehabilitation. The system consists of a network of nodes called Smart Cubes based on the Raspberry Pi (model B) computer which have an array of sensors and actuators as well as communication modules that are used in-game. The Smart Cubes are modular, taking advantage of the Raspberry Pi's General Purpose Input/Output header, and can be augmented with additional sensors or actuators in response to the desires of game developers and stroke rehabilitation therapists. Smart Cubes present advantages over traditional exercises such as having the capacity to provide many different forms of feedback and allowing for dynamically adapting games. Smart Cubes also present advantages over modern serious gaming platforms in the form of their modularity, flexibility resulting from their wireless network topology, and their independence of a monitor. Our contribution is a prototype of a Smart Cube network, a programmable computing platform, and a software framework specifically designed for the creation of serious games for stroke rehabilitation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

158127-Thumbnail Image.png

Accessible Retail Shopping For The Visually Impaired Using Deep Learning

Description

Over the past decade, advancements in neural networks have been instrumental in achieving remarkable breakthroughs in the field of computer vision. One of the applications is in creating assistive technology

Over the past decade, advancements in neural networks have been instrumental in achieving remarkable breakthroughs in the field of computer vision. One of the applications is in creating assistive technology to improve the lives of visually impaired people by making the world around them more accessible. A lot of research in convolutional neural networks has led to human-level performance in different vision tasks including image classification, object detection, instance segmentation, semantic segmentation, panoptic segmentation and scene text recognition. All the before mentioned tasks, individually or in combination, have been used to create assistive technologies to improve accessibility for the blind.

This dissertation outlines various applications to improve accessibility and independence for visually impaired people during shopping by helping them identify products in retail stores. The dissertation includes the following contributions; (i) A dataset containing images of breakfast-cereal products and a classifier using a deep neural (ResNet) network; (ii) A dataset for training a text detection and scene-text recognition model; (iii) A model for text detection and scene-text recognition to identify product images using a user-controlled camera; (iv) A dataset of twenty thousand products with product information and related images that can be used to train and test a system designed to identify products.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158120-Thumbnail Image.png

Language Image Transformer

Description

Humans perceive the environment using multiple modalities like vision, speech (language), touch, taste, and smell. The knowledge obtained from one modality usually complements the other. Learning through several modalities helps

Humans perceive the environment using multiple modalities like vision, speech (language), touch, taste, and smell. The knowledge obtained from one modality usually complements the other. Learning through several modalities helps in constructing an accurate model of the environment. Most of the current vision and language models are modality-specific and, in many cases, extensively use deep-learning based attention mechanisms for learning powerful representations. This work discusses the role of attention in associating vision and language for generating shared representation. Language Image Transformer (LIT) is proposed for learning multi-modal representations of the environment. It uses a training objective based on Contrastive Predictive Coding (CPC) to maximize the Mutual Information (MI) between the visual and linguistic representations. It learns the relationship between the modalities using the proposed cross-modal attention layers. It is trained and evaluated using captioning datasets, MS COCO, and Conceptual Captions. The results and the analysis offers a perspective on the use of Mutual Information Maximisation (MIM) for generating generalizable representations across multiple modalities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

158117-Thumbnail Image.png

Zero Shot Learning for Visual Object Recognition with Generative Models

Description

Visual object recognition has achieved great success with advancements in deep learning technologies. Notably, the existing recognition models have gained human-level performance on many of the recognition tasks. However, these

Visual object recognition has achieved great success with advancements in deep learning technologies. Notably, the existing recognition models have gained human-level performance on many of the recognition tasks. However, these models are data hungry, and their performance is constrained by the amount of training data. Inspired by the human ability to recognize object categories based on textual descriptions of objects and previous visual knowledge, the research community has extensively pursued the area of zero-shot learning. In this area of research, machine vision models are trained to recognize object categories that are not observed during the training process. Zero-shot learning models leverage textual information to transfer visual knowledge from seen object categories in order to recognize unseen object categories.

Generative models have recently gained popularity as they synthesize unseen visual features and convert zero-shot learning into a classical supervised learning problem. These generative models are trained using seen classes and are expected to implicitly transfer the knowledge from seen to unseen classes. However, their performance is stymied by overfitting towards seen classes, which leads to substandard performance in generalized zero-shot learning. To address this concern, this dissertation proposes a novel generative model that leverages the semantic relationship between seen and unseen categories and explicitly performs knowledge transfer from seen categories to unseen categories. Experiments were conducted on several benchmark datasets to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model for both zero-shot learning and generalized zero-shot learning. The dissertation also provides a unique Student-Teacher based generative model for zero-shot learning and concludes with future research directions in this area.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

151926-Thumbnail Image.png

Building adaptive computational systems for physiological and biomedical data

Description

In recent years, machine learning and data mining technologies have received growing attention in several areas such as recommendation systems, natural language processing, speech and handwriting recognition, image processing and

In recent years, machine learning and data mining technologies have received growing attention in several areas such as recommendation systems, natural language processing, speech and handwriting recognition, image processing and biomedical domain. Many of these applications which deal with physiological and biomedical data require person specific or person adaptive systems. The greatest challenge in developing such systems is the subject-dependent data variations or subject-based variability in physiological and biomedical data, which leads to difference in data distributions making the task of modeling these data, using traditional machine learning algorithms, complex and challenging. As a result, despite the wide application of machine learning, efficient deployment of its principles to model real-world data is still a challenge. This dissertation addresses the problem of subject based variability in physiological and biomedical data and proposes person adaptive prediction models based on novel transfer and active learning algorithms, an emerging field in machine learning. One of the significant contributions of this dissertation is a person adaptive method, for early detection of muscle fatigue using Surface Electromyogram signals, based on a new multi-source transfer learning algorithm. This dissertation also proposes a subject-independent algorithm for grading the progression of muscle fatigue from 0 to 1 level in a test subject, during isometric or dynamic contractions, at real-time. Besides subject based variability, biomedical image data also varies due to variations in their imaging techniques, leading to distribution differences between the image databases. Hence a classifier learned on one database may perform poorly on the other database. Another significant contribution of this dissertation has been the design and development of an efficient biomedical image data annotation framework, based on a novel combination of transfer learning and a new batch-mode active learning method, capable of addressing the distribution differences across databases. The methodologies developed in this dissertation are relevant and applicable to a large set of computing problems where there is a high variation of data between subjects or sources, such as face detection, pose detection and speech recognition. From a broader perspective, these frameworks can be viewed as a first step towards design of automated adaptive systems for real world data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

158278-Thumbnail Image.png

Generalized Domain Adaptation for Visual Domains

Description

Humans have a great ability to recognize objects in different environments irrespective of their variations. However, the same does not apply to machine learning models which are unable to generalize

Humans have a great ability to recognize objects in different environments irrespective of their variations. However, the same does not apply to machine learning models which are unable to generalize to images of objects from different domains. The generalization of these models to new data is constrained by the domain gap. Many factors such as image background, image resolution, color, camera perspective and variations in the objects are responsible for the domain gap between the training data (source domain) and testing data (target domain). Domain adaptation algorithms aim to overcome the domain gap between the source and target domains and learn robust models that can perform well across both the domains.

This thesis provides solutions for the standard problem of unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) and the more generic problem of generalized domain adaptation (GDA). The contributions of this thesis are as follows. (1) Certain and Consistent Domain Adaptation model for closed-set unsupervised domain adaptation by aligning the features of the source and target domain using deep neural networks. (2) A multi-adversarial deep learning model for generalized domain adaptation. (3) A gating model that detects out-of-distribution samples for generalized domain adaptation.

The models were tested across multiple computer vision datasets for domain adaptation.

The dissertation concludes with a discussion on the proposed approaches and future directions for research in closed set and generalized domain adaptation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020