Matching Items (20)

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Magneto-dielectric wire antennas theory and design

Description

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical

There is a pervasive need in the defense industry for conformal, low-profile, efficient and broadband (HF-UHF) antennas. Broadband capabilities enable shared aperture multi-function radiators, while conformal antenna profiles minimize physical damage in army applications, reduce drag and weight penalties in airborne applications and reduce the visual and RF signatures of the communication node. This dissertation is concerned with a new class of antennas called Magneto-Dielectric wire antennas (MDWA) that provide an ideal solution to this ever-present and growing need. Magneto-dielectric structures (μr>1;εr>1) can partially guide electromagnetic waves and radiate them by leaking off the structure or by scattering from any discontinuities, much like a metal antenna of the same shape. They are attractive alternatives to conventional whip and blade antennas because they can be placed conformal to a metallic ground plane without any performance penalty. A two pronged approach is taken to analyze MDWAs. In the first, antenna circuit models are derived for the prototypical dipole and loop elements that include the effects of realistic dispersive magneto-dielectric materials of construction. A material selection law results, showing that: (a) The maximum attainable efficiency is determined by a single magnetic material parameter that we term the hesitivity: Closely related to Snoek's product, it measures the maximum magnetic conductivity of the material. (b) The maximum bandwidth is obtained by placing the highest amount of μ" loss in the frequency range of operation. As a result, high radiation efficiency antennas can be obtained not only from the conventional low loss (low μ") materials but also with highly lossy materials (tan(δm)>>1). The second approach used to analyze MDWAs is through solving the Green function problem of the infinite magneto-dielectric cylinder fed by a current loop. This solution sheds light on the leaky and guided waves supported by the magneto-dielectric structure and leads to useful design rules connecting the permeability of the material to the cross sectional area of the antenna in relation to the desired frequency of operation. The Green function problem of the permeable prolate spheroidal antenna is also solved as a good approximation to a finite cylinder.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Fast numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from PEC and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing

Description

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are

We present fast and robust numerical algorithms for 3-D scattering from perfectly electrical conducting (PEC) and dielectric random rough surfaces in microwave remote sensing. The Coifman wavelets or Coiflets are employed to implement Galerkin’s procedure in the method of moments (MoM). Due to the high-precision one-point quadrature, the Coiflets yield fast evaluations of the most off-diagonal entries, reducing the matrix fill effort from O(N^2) to O(N). The orthogonality and Riesz basis of the Coiflets generate well conditioned impedance matrix, with rapid convergence for the conjugate gradient solver. The resulting impedance matrix is further sparsified by the matrix-formed standard fast wavelet transform (SFWT). By properly selecting multiresolution levels of the total transformation matrix, the solution precision can be enhanced while matrix sparsity and memory consumption have not been noticeably sacrificed. The unified fast scattering algorithm for dielectric random rough surfaces can asymptotically reduce to the PEC case when the loss tangent grows extremely large. Numerical results demonstrate that the reduced PEC model does not suffer from ill-posed problems. Compared with previous publications and laboratory measurements, good agreement is observed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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FDTD Simulation Techniques for Simulation of Very Large 2D and 3D Domains Applied to Radar Propagation over the Ocean

Description

A domain decomposition method for analyzing very large FDTD domains, hundreds of thousands of wavelengths long, is demonstrated by application to the problem of radar scattering in the maritime environment.

A domain decomposition method for analyzing very large FDTD domains, hundreds of thousands of wavelengths long, is demonstrated by application to the problem of radar scattering in the maritime environment. Success depends on the elimination of artificial scattering from the “sky” boundary and is ensured by an ultra-high-performance absorbing termination which eliminates this reflection at angles of incidence as shallow as 0.03 degrees off grazing. The two-dimensional (2D) problem is used to detail the features of the method. The results are cross-validated by comparison to a parabolic equation (PE) method and surface integral equation method on a 1.7km sea surface problem, and to a PE method on propagation through an inhomogeneous atmosphere in a 4km-long space, both at X-band. Additional comparisons are made against boundary integral equation and PE methods from the literature in a 3.6km space containing an inhomogeneous atmosphere above a flat sea at S-band. The applicability of the method to the three-dimensional (3D) problem is shown via comparison of a 2D solution to the 3D solution of a corridor of sea. As a technical proof of the scalability of the problem with computational power, a 5m-wide, 2m-tall, 1050m-long 3D corridor containing 321.8 billion FDTD cells has been simulated at X-band. A plane wave spectrum analysis of the (X-band) scattered fields produced by a 5m-wide, 225m-long realistic 3D sea surface, and the 2D analog surface obtained by extruding a 2D sea along the width of the corridor, reveals the existence of out-of-plane 3D phenomena missed by the traditional 2D analysis. The realistic sea introduces random strong flashes and nulls in addition to a significant amount of cross-polarized field. Spatial integration using a dispersion-corrected Green function is used to reconstruct the scattered fields outside of the computational FDTD space which would impinge on a 3D target at the end of the corridor. The proposed final approach is a hybrid method where 2D FDTD carries the signal for the first tens of kilometers and the last kilometer is analyzed in 3D.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Refinement of a novel compact waveguide

Description

Presented is a design approach and test of a novel compact waveguide that demonstrated the outer dimensions of a rectangular waveguide through the introduction of parallel raised strips, or flanges,

Presented is a design approach and test of a novel compact waveguide that demonstrated the outer dimensions of a rectangular waveguide through the introduction of parallel raised strips, or flanges, which run the length of the rectangular waveguide along the direction of wave propagation. A 10GHz waveguide was created with outer dimensions of a=9.0mm and b=3.6mm compared to a WR-90 rectangular waveguide with outer dimensions of a=22.86mm and b=10.16mm which the area is over 7 times the area. The first operating bandwidth for a hollow waveguide of dimensions a=9.0mm and b=3.6mm starts at 16.6GHz a 40% reduction in cutoff frequency.

The prototyped and tested compact waveguide demonstrated an operating close to the predicted 2GHz with predicted vs measured injection loss generally within 0.25dB and an overall measured injection loss of approximately 4.67dB/m within the operating bandwidth.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Analysis, simulation and measurements of CBS antennas loaded with non-uniformly biased ferrite material

Description

When ferrite materials are used in antenna designs, they introduce some interesting and unique performance characteristics. One of the attractive features, for example, is the ability to reconfigure the center

When ferrite materials are used in antenna designs, they introduce some interesting and unique performance characteristics. One of the attractive features, for example, is the ability to reconfigure the center frequency of the antenna. In addition, ferrite materials also introduce a number of challenges in the modeling and simulation of such antennas. In order for the ferrite material to be useful in an antenna design, it usually is subjected to an external magnetic field. This field induces the internal magnetic field inside the ferrite material. The internal field plays a pivotal role in the radiation characteristics of the antenna. Thus, from the numerical point of view, accurate computation of this field is critical to the overall accuracy of the analysis. Usually the internal field is non-uniform and its computation is often a rather complex and non-trivial task. Therefore, to facilitate the modeling, simplifying assumptions, which introduce some kind of averaging, are often made. In this study, ferrite-loaded cavity-backed slot antennas are used to demonstrate that averaging procedures can lead to very unsatisfactory results. For instance, it is common practice to assume that the external field is uniform by averaging its distribution. One of the pivotal points in this study is the demonstration that the external magnetic field plays a very significant role and should be included in the modeling without averaging, if the accurate results are to be attained. Results presented in this study clearly support this argument. A procedure which avoids such averaging is presented and verified by comparing simulations with measurements. In contrast to the previous formulations, the modeling methodology developed in this dissertation leads to accurate results which compare very well with measurements for both uniform and non-uniform field distributions. The utility of this methodology is especially evident for the case when the magnetic field is severely non-uniform.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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On Enhancing Microgrid Control and the Optimal Design of a Modular Solid-State Transformer with Grid-Forming Inverter

Description

This dissertation covers three primary topics and relates them in context. High frequency transformer design, microgrid modeling and control, and converter design as it pertains to the other topics are

This dissertation covers three primary topics and relates them in context. High frequency transformer design, microgrid modeling and control, and converter design as it pertains to the other topics are each investigated, establishing a summary of the state-of-the-art at the intersection of the three as a baseline. The culminating work produced by the confluence of these topics is a novel modular solid-state transformer (SST) design, featuring an array of dual active bridge (DAB) converters, each of which contains an optimized high-frequency transformer, and an array of grid-forming inverters (GFI) suitable for centralized control in a microgrid environment. While no hardware was produced for this design, detailed modeling and simulation has been completed, and results are contextualized by rigorous analysis and comparison with results from published literature. The main contributions to each topic are best presented by topic area. For transformers, contributions include collation and presentation of the best-known methods of minimum loss high-frequency transformer design and analysis, descriptions of the implementation of these methods into a unified design script as well as access to an example of such a script, and the derivation and presentation of novel tools for analysis of multi-winding and multi-frequency transformers. For microgrid modeling and control, contributions include the modeling and simulation validation of the GFI and SST designs via state space modeling in a multi-scale simulation framework, as well as demonstration of stable and effective participation of these models in a centralized control scheme under phase imbalance. For converters, the SST design, analysis, and simulation are the primary contributions, though several novel derivations and analysis tools are also presented for the asymmetric half bridge and DAB.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Gain and loss factor for conical horns, and impact of ground plane edge diffractions on radiation patterns of uncoated and coated circular aperture antennas

Description

Horn antennas have been used for over a hundred years. They have a wide variety of uses where they are a basic and popular microwave antenna for many practical applications,

Horn antennas have been used for over a hundred years. They have a wide variety of uses where they are a basic and popular microwave antenna for many practical applications, such as feed elements for communication reflector dishes on satellite or point-to-point relay antennas. They are also widely utilized as gain standards for calibration and gain measurement of other antennas.

The gain and loss factor of conical horns are revisited in this dissertation based on

spherical and quadratic aperture phase distributions. The gain is compared with published classical data in an attempt to confirm their validity and accuracy and to determine whether they were derived based on spherical or quadratic aperture phase distributions. In this work, it is demonstrated that the gain of a conical horn antenna obtained by using a spherical phase distribution is in close agreement with published classical data. Moreover, more accurate expressions for the loss factor, to account for amplitude and phase tapers over the horn aperture, are derived. New formulas for the design of optimum gain conical horns, based on the more accurate spherical aperture phase distribution, are derived.

To better understand the impact of edge diffractions on aperture antenna performance, an extensive investigation of the edge diffractions impact is undertaken in this dissertation for commercial aperture antennas. The impact of finite uncoated and coated PEC ground plane edge diffractions on the amplitude patterns in the principal planes of circular apertures is intensively examined. Similarly, aperture edge diffractions of aperture antennas without ground planes are examined. Computational results obtained by the analytical model are compared with experimental and HFSS-simulated results for all cases studied. In addition, the impact of the ground plane size, coating thickness, and relative permittivity of the dielectric layer on the radiation amplitude in the back region has been examined.

This investigation indicates that the edge diffractions do impact the main forward lobe pattern, especially in the E plane. Their most significant contribution appears in far side and back lobes. This work demonstrates that the finite edge contributors must be considered to obtain more accurate amplitude patterns of aperture antennas.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Development of deformable electronics using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based fabrication technologies

Description

This dissertation presents my work on development of deformable electronics using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based fabrication technologies. In recent years, deformable electronics are coming to revolutionize the functionality of microelectronics

This dissertation presents my work on development of deformable electronics using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based fabrication technologies. In recent years, deformable electronics are coming to revolutionize the functionality of microelectronics seamlessly with their application environment, ranging from various consumer electronics to bio-medical applications. Many researchers have studied this area, and a wide variety of devices have been fabricated. One traditional way is to directly fabricate electronic devices on flexible substrate through low-temperature processes. These devices suffered from constrained functionality due to the temperature limit. Another transfer printing approach has been developed recently. The general idea is to fabricate functional devices on hard and planar substrates using standard processes then transferred by elastomeric stamps and printed on desired flexible and stretchable substrates. The main disadvantages are that the transfer printing step may limit the yield. The third method is "flexible skins" which silicon substrates are thinned down and structured into islands and sandwiched by two layers of polymer. The main advantage of this method is post CMOS compatible. Based on this technology, we successfully fabricated a 3-D flexible thermal sensor for intravascular flow monitoring. The final product of the 3-D sensor has three independent sensing elements equally distributed around the wall of catheter (1.2 mm in diameter) with 120° spacing. This structure introduces three independent information channels, and cross-comparisons among all readings were utilized to eliminate experimental error and provide better measurement results. The novel fabrication and assembly technology can also be applied to other catheter based biomedical devices. A step forward inspired by the ancient art of folding, origami, which creating three-dimensional (3-D) structures from two-dimensional (2-D) sheets through a high degree of folding along the creases. Based on this idea, we developed a novel method to enable better deformability. One example is origami-enabled silicon solar cells. The solar panel can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintain reasonable good performance (less than 30% output power density drop) upon 40 times cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach can be readily applied to other functional devices, ranging from sensors, displays, antenna, to energy storage devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Asymptotic and numerical algorithms in applied electromagnetism

Description

Asymptotic and Numerical methods are popular in applied electromagnetism. In this work, the two methods are applied for collimated antennas and calibration targets, respectively. As an asymptotic method, the diffracted

Asymptotic and Numerical methods are popular in applied electromagnetism. In this work, the two methods are applied for collimated antennas and calibration targets, respectively. As an asymptotic method, the diffracted Gaussian beam approach (DGBA) is developed for design and simulation of collimated multi-reflector antenna systems, based upon Huygens principle and independent Gaussian beam expansion, referred to as the frames. To simulate a reflector antenna in hundreds to thousands of wavelength, it requires 1E7 - 1E9 independent Gaussian beams. To this end, high performance parallel computing is implemented, based on Message Passing Interface (MPI). The second part of the dissertation includes the plane wave scattering from a target consisting of doubly periodic array of sharp conducting circular cones by the magnetic field integral equation (MFIE) via Coiflet based Galerkin's procedure in conjunction with the Floquet theorem. Owing to the orthogonally, compact support, continuity and smoothness of the Coiflets, well-conditioned impedance matrices are obtained. Majority of the matrix entries are obtained in the spectral domain by one-point quadrature with high precision. For the oscillatory entries, spatial domain computation is applied, bypassing the slow convergence of the spectral summation of the non-damping propagating modes. The simulation results are compared with the solutions from an RWG-MLFMA based commercial software, FEKO, and excellent agreement is observed.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Skin tissue terahertz imaging for fingerprint biometrics

Description

Fingerprints have been widely used as a practical method of biometrics authentication or identification with a significant level of security. However, several spoofing methods have been used in the last

Fingerprints have been widely used as a practical method of biometrics authentication or identification with a significant level of security. However, several spoofing methods have been used in the last few years to bypass fingerprint scanners, thus compromising data security. The most common attacks occur by the use of fake fingerprint during image capturing. Imposters can build a fake fingerprint from a latent fingerprint left on items such as glasses, doorknobs, glossy paper, etc. Current mobile fingerprint scanning technology is incapable of differentiating real from artificial fingers made from gelatin molds and other materials. In this work, the adequacy of terahertz imaging was studied as an alternative fingerprint scanning technique that will enhance biometrics security by identifying superficial skin traits. Terahertz waves (0.1 – 10 THz) are a non-ionizing radiation with significant penetration depth in several non-metallic materials. Several finger skin features, such as valley depth and sweat ducts, can possibly be imaged by employing the necessary imaging topology. As such, two imaging approaches 1) using quasi-optical components and 2) using near-field probing were investigated. The numerical study is accomplished using a commercial Finite Element Method tool (ANSYS, HFSS) and several laboratory experiments are conducted to evaluate the imaging performance of the topologies. The study has shown that terahertz waves can provide high spatial resolution images of the skin undulations (valleys and ridges) and under certain conditions identify the sweat duct pattern.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017