Matching Items (11)

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Application of effective medium modeling to plasmonic nanosphere waveguides

Description

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired

A proposed visible spectrum nanoscale imaging method requires material with permittivity values much larger than those available in real world materials to shrink the visible wavelength to attain the desired resolution. It has been proposed that the extraordinarily slow propagation experienced by light guided along plasmon resonant structures is a viable approach to obtaining these short wavelengths. To assess the feasibility of such a system, an effective medium model of a chain of Noble metal plasmonic nanospheres is developed, leading to a straightforward calculation of the waveguiding properties. Evaluation of other models for such structures that have appeared in the literature, including an eigenvalue problem nearest neighbor approximation, a multi- neighbor approximation with retardation, and a method-of-moments method for a finite chain, show conflicting expectations of such a structure. In particular, recent publications suggest the possibility of regions of invalidity for eigenvalue problem solutions that are considered far below the onset of guidance, and for solutions that assume the loss is low enough to justify perturbation approximations. Even the published method-of-moments approach suffers from an unjustified assumption in the original interpretation, leading to overly optimistic estimations of the attenuation of the plasmon guided wave. In this work it is shown that the method of moments approach solution was dominated by the radiation from the source dipole, and not the waveguiding behavior claimed. If this dipolar radiation is removed the remaining fields ought to contain the desired guided wave information. Using a Prony's-method-based algorithm the dispersion properties of the chain of spheres are assessed at two frequencies, and shown to be dramatically different from the optimistic expectations in much of the literature. A reliable alternative to these models is to replace the chain of spheres with an effective medium model, thus mapping the chain problem into the well-known problem of the dielectric rod. The solution of the Green function problem for excitation of the symmetric longitudinal mode (TM01) is performed by numerical integration. Using this method the frequency ranges over which the rod guides and the associated attenuation are clearly seen. The effective medium model readily allows for variation of the sphere size and separation, and can be taken to the limit where instead of a chain of spheres we have a solid Noble metal rod. This latter case turns out to be the optimal for minimizing the attenuation of the guided wave. Future work is proposed to simulate the chain of photonic nanospheres and the nanowire using finite-difference time-domain to verify observed guided behavior in the Green's function method devised in this thesis and to simulate the proposed nanosensing devices.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Refinement of a novel compact waveguide

Description

Presented is a design approach and test of a novel compact waveguide that demonstrated the outer dimensions of a rectangular waveguide through the introduction of parallel raised strips, or flanges,

Presented is a design approach and test of a novel compact waveguide that demonstrated the outer dimensions of a rectangular waveguide through the introduction of parallel raised strips, or flanges, which run the length of the rectangular waveguide along the direction of wave propagation. A 10GHz waveguide was created with outer dimensions of a=9.0mm and b=3.6mm compared to a WR-90 rectangular waveguide with outer dimensions of a=22.86mm and b=10.16mm which the area is over 7 times the area. The first operating bandwidth for a hollow waveguide of dimensions a=9.0mm and b=3.6mm starts at 16.6GHz a 40% reduction in cutoff frequency.

The prototyped and tested compact waveguide demonstrated an operating close to the predicted 2GHz with predicted vs measured injection loss generally within 0.25dB and an overall measured injection loss of approximately 4.67dB/m within the operating bandwidth.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Design methodology for multiport antennas

Description

Multiport antennas offer greater design flexibility than traditional one-port designs. An antenna array is a special case of a multiport antenna. If the antenna's inter-element spacing is electrically small, the

Multiport antennas offer greater design flexibility than traditional one-port designs. An antenna array is a special case of a multiport antenna. If the antenna's inter-element spacing is electrically small, the antenna is capable of achieving superdirectivity. Superdirective antenna arrays are known to be narrow band and have low radiation resistance which leads to low radiation efficiency and high VSWR. However, by increasing the self-impedance of the antenna elements, the radiation resistance is increased but the bandwidth remains narrow. A design methodology is developed using the ability to superimpose electric fields and multi-objective optimization to design antenna feed networks. While the emphasis in this dissertation is on antenna arrays and superdirectivity, the design methodology is general and can be applied to other multiport antennas. The design methodology is used to design a multiport impedance-matching network and optimize both the input impedance and radiation pattern of a two-port superdirective antenna array. It is shown that the multiport impedance-matching network is capable of improving the input impedance of the antenna array while maintaining high directionality. The antenna design is critical for the methodology to improve the bandwidth and radiation characteristics of the array. To double the bandwidth of the two-port impedance matched superdirective antenna array, a three-port Yagi-Uda antenna design is demonstrated. The addition of the extra antenna element does not increase the footprint of the antenna array. The design methodology is then used to design a symmetrical antenna array capable of steering its main beam in two directions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Growth and characterization of III-V phosphide nanowires

Description

Nanowires are 1D rod-like structures which are regarded as the basis for future technologies. III-V nanowires have attracted immense attention because of their stability, crystal quality and wide

Nanowires are 1D rod-like structures which are regarded as the basis for future technologies. III-V nanowires have attracted immense attention because of their stability, crystal quality and wide use. In this work, I focus on the growth and characterization of III-V semiconductor nanowires, in particular GaP, InP and InGaP alloys. These nanowires were grown using a hot wall CVD(Chemical Vapor Deposition) setup and are characterized using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and PL (Photoluminescence) techniques.

In the first chapter, Indium Phosphide nanowires were grown using elemental sources (In and P powders). I consider the various kinds of InP morphologies grown using this method. The effect of source temperature on the stoichiometry and optical properties of nanowires is studied. Lasing behavior has been seen in InP nanostructures, showing superior material quality of InP.

InGaP alloy nanowires were grown using compound and elemental sources. Nanowires grown using compound sources have significant oxide incorporation and showed kinky morphology. Nanowires grown using elemental sources had no oxide and showed better optical quality. Also, these samples showed a tunable alloy composition across the entire substrate covering more than 50% of the InGaP alloy system. Integrated intensity showed that the bandgap of the nanowires changed from indirect to direct bandgap with increasing Indium composition. InGaP alloy nanowires were compared with Gallium Phosphide nanowires in terms of PL emission, using InGaP nanowires it is possible to grow nanowires free of defects and oxygen impurities, which are commonly encountered in GaP nanowires.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Holographic Metasurface Leaky Wave Antennas

Description

Articially engineered two-dimensional materials, which are widely known as

metasurfaces, are employed as ground planes in various antenna applications. Due to

their nature to exhibit desirable electromagnetic behavior, they are also used

Articially engineered two-dimensional materials, which are widely known as

metasurfaces, are employed as ground planes in various antenna applications. Due to

their nature to exhibit desirable electromagnetic behavior, they are also used to design

waveguiding structures, absorbers, frequency selective surfaces, angular-independent

surfaces, etc. Metasurfaces usually consist of electrically small conductive planar

patches arranged in a periodic array on a dielectric covered ground plane. Holographic

Articial Impedance Surfaces (HAISs) are one such metasurfaces that are capable of

forming a pencil beam in a desired direction, when excited with surface waves. HAISs

are inhomogeneous surfaces that are designed by modulating its surface impedance.

This surface impedance modulation creates a periodical discontinuity that enables a

part of the surface waves to leak out into the free space leading to far-eld radia-

tion. The surface impedance modulation is based on the holographic principle. This

dissertation is concentrated on designing HAISs with

Desired polarization for the pencil beam

Enhanced bandwidth

Frequency scanning

Conformity to curved surfaces

HAIS designs considered in this work include both one and two dimensional mod-

ulations. All the designs and analyses are supported by mathematical models and

HFSS simulations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Metasurface-Based Optoelectronic Devices for Polarization Detection and Ultrafast Optical Modulation

Description

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes

Optical metasurfaces, i.e. artificially engineered arrays of subwavelength building blocks supporting abrupt and substantial light confinement, was employed to demonstrate a novel generation of devices for circularly polarized detection, full-Stokes polarimetry and all-optical modulation with ultra-compact footprint and chip-integrability.

Optical chirality is essential for generation, manipulation and detection of circularly polarized light (CPL), thus finds many applications in quantum computing, communication, spectroscopy, biomedical diagnosis, imaging and sensing. Compared to natural chiral materials, chiral metamaterials and metasurfaces enable much stronger chirality on subwavelength scale; therefore, they are ideal for device miniaturization and system integration. However, they are usually associated with low performance due to limited fabrication tolerance and high dissipation mainly caused by plasmonic materials. Here, a bio-inspired submicron-thick chiral metamaterial structure was designed and demonstrated experimentally with high contrast (extinction ratio >35) detection of CPL with different handedness and high efficiency (>80%) of the overall device. Furthermore, integration of left- and right-handed CPL detection units with nanograting linear polarization filters enabled full-Stokes polarimetry of arbitrarily input polarization states with high accuracy and very low insertion loss, all on a submillimeter single chip. These unprecedented highly efficient and high extinction ratio devices pave the way for on-chip polarimetric measurements.

All-optical modulation is widely used for optical interconnects, communication, information processing, and ultrafast spectroscopy. Yet, there’s deficiency of ultrafast, compact and energy-efficient solutions all in one device. Here, all-optical modulation of light in the near- and mid-infrared regimes were experimentally demonstrated based on a graphene-integrated plasmonic nanoantenna array. The remarkable feature of the device design is its simultaneous near-field enhancement for pump and probe (signal) beams, owing to the localized surface plasmon resonance excitation, while preserving the ultrafast photocarrier relaxation in graphene. Hence, a distinct modulation at 1560nm with record-low pump fluence (<8μJ/cm^2) was reported with ~1ps response time. Besides, relying on broadband interaction of graphene with incident light, a first-time demonstration of graphene-based all-optical modulation in mid-infrared spectral region (6-7μm) was reported based on the above double-enhancement design concept. Relying on the tunability of metasurface design, the proposed device can be used for ultrafast optical modulation from near-infrared to terahertz regime.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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High-Directive Metasurface Printed Antennas for Low-Profile Applications

Description

Since the advent of High Impedance Surfaces (HISs) and metasurfaces, researchers

have proposed many low profile antenna configurations. HISs possess in-phase reflection, which reinforces the radiation, and enhances the directivity and

Since the advent of High Impedance Surfaces (HISs) and metasurfaces, researchers

have proposed many low profile antenna configurations. HISs possess in-phase reflection, which reinforces the radiation, and enhances the directivity and matching bandwidth of radiating elements. Most of the proposed dipole and loop element designs that have used HISs as a ground plane, have attained a maximum directivity of 8 dBi. While HISs are more attractive ground planes for low profile antennas, these HISs result in a low directivity as compared to PEC ground planes. Various studies have shown that Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC) ground planes are capable of achieving higher directivity, at the expense of matching efficiency, when the spacing

between the radiating element and the PEC ground plane is less than 0.25 lambda. To establish an efficient ground plane for low profile applications, PEC (Perfect Electric Conductor) and PMC (Perfect Magnetic Conductor) ground planes are examined in the vicinity of electric and magnetic radiating elements. The limitation of the two ground planes, in terms of radiation efficiency and the impedance matching, are discussed. Far-field analytical formulations are derived and the results are compared with full-wave EM simulations performed using the High-Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). Based on PEC and PMC designs, two engineered ground planes are proposed.

The designed ground planes depend on two metasurface properties; namely in-phase reflection and excitation of surface waves. Two ground plane geometries are considered. The first one is designed for a circular loop radiating element, which utilizes a

circular HIS ring deployed on a circular ground plane. The integration of the loop element with the circular HIS ground plane enhances the maximum directivity up to 10.5 dB with a 13% fractional bandwidth. The second ground plane is designed for a square loop radiating element. Unlike the first design, rectangular HIS patches are utilized to control the excitation of surface waves in the principal planes. The final design operates from 3.8 to 5 GHz (27% fractional bandwidth) with a stable broadside maximum realized gain up to 11.9 dBi. To verify the proposed designs, a prototype was fabricated and measurements were conducted. A good agreement between simulations and measurements was observed. Furthermore, multiple square ring elements are embedded within the periodic patches to form a surface wave planar antenna array. Linear and circular polarizations are proposed and compared to a conventional square ring array. The implementation of periodic patches results in a better matching bandwidth and higher broadside gain compared to a conventional array.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Optical characterization and lasing study of nanowires

Description

Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) structures with diameter on the nanometer scales with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio. Nanowires of various materials including semiconductors, dielectrics and metals have been intensively researched

Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) structures with diameter on the nanometer scales with a high length-to-diameter aspect ratio. Nanowires of various materials including semiconductors, dielectrics and metals have been intensively researched in the past two decades for applications to electrical and optical devices. Typically, nanowires are synthesized using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) approach, which allows defect-free 1D growth despite the lattice mismatch between nanowires and substrates. Lattice mismatch issue is a serious problem in high-quality thin film growth of many semiconductors and non-semiconductors. Therefore, nanowires provide promising platforms for the applications requiring high crystal quality materials.

With the 1D geometry, nanowires are natural optical waveguides for light guiding and propagation. By introducing feedback mechanisms to nanowire waveguides, such as the cleaved end facets, the nanowires can work as ultra-small size lasers. Since the first demonstration of the room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire lasers in 2001, the nanowire lasers covering from ultraviolet to mid infrared wavelength ranges have been intensively studied. This dissertation focuses on the optical characterization and laser fabrication of two nanowire materials: erbium chloride silicate nanowires and composition-graded CdSSe semiconductor alloy nanowires.

Chapter 1 – 5 of this dissertation presents a comprehensive characterization of a newly developed erbium compound material, erbium chloride silicate (ECS) in a nanowire form. Extensive experiments demonstrated the high crystal quality and excellent optical properties of ECS nanowires. Optical gain higher than 30 dB/cm at 1.53 μm wavelength is demonstrated on single ECS nanowires, which is higher than the gain of any reported erbium materials. An ultra-high Q photonic crystal micro-cavity is designed on a single ECS nanowire towards the ultra-compact lasers at communication wavelengths. Such ECS nanowire lasers show the potential applications of on-chip photonics integration.

Chapter 6 – 7 presents the design and demonstration of dynamical color-controllable lasers on a single CdSSe alloy nanowire. Through the defect-free VLS growth, engineering of the alloy composition in a single nanowire is achieved. The alloy composition of CdSxSe1-x uniformly varies along the nanowire axis from x=1 to x=0, giving the opportunity of multi-color lasing in a monolithic structure. By looping the wide-bandgap end of the alloy nanowire through nanoscale manipulation, the simultaneous two-color lasing at green and red colors are demonstrated. The 107 nm wavelength separation of the two lasing colors is much larger than the gain bandwidth of typical semiconductors. Since the two-color lasing shares the output port, the color of the total lasing output can be controlled dynamically between the two fundamental colors by changing the relative output power of two lasing colors. Such multi-color lasing and continuous color tuning in a wide spectral range would eventually enable color-by-design lasers to be used for lighting, display and many other applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Object-based PON access and tandem networking

Description

The upstream transmission of bulk data files in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) arises from a number of applications, such as data back-up and multimedia file upload. Existing upstream transmission

The upstream transmission of bulk data files in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) arises from a number of applications, such as data back-up and multimedia file upload. Existing upstream transmission approaches lead to severe delays for conventional packet traffic when best-effort file and packet traffic are mixed. I propose and evaluate an exclusive interval for bulk transfer (EIBT) transmission strategy that reserves an EIBT for file traffic in an EPON polling cycle. I optimize the duration of the EIBT to minimize a weighted sum of packet and file delays. Through mathematical delay analysis and verifying simulation, it is demonstrated that the EIBT approach preserves small delays for packet traffic while efficiently serving bulk data file transfers. Dynamic circuits are well suited for applications that require predictable service with a constant bit rate for a prescribed period of time, such as demanding e-science applications. Past research on upstream transmission in passive optical networks (PONs) has mainly considered packet-switched traffic and has focused on optimizing packet-level performance metrics, such as reducing mean delay. This study proposes and evaluates a dynamic circuit and packet PON (DyCaPPON) that provides dynamic circuits along with packet-switched service. DyCaPPON provides (i) flexible packet-switched service through dynamic bandwidth allocation in periodic polling cycles, and (ii) consistent circuit service by allocating each active circuit a fixed-duration upstream transmission window during each fixed-duration polling cycle. I analyze circuit-level performance metrics, including the blocking probability of dynamic circuit requests in DyCaPPON through a stochastic knapsack-based analysis. Through this analysis I also determine the bandwidth occupied by admitted circuits. The remaining bandwidth is available for packet traffic and I analyze the resulting mean delay of packet traffic. Through extensive numerical evaluations and verifying simulations, the circuit blocking and packet delay trade-offs in DyCaPPON is demonstrated. An extended version of the DyCaPPON designed for light traffic situation is introduced in this article as well.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Fabrication and characterization of metallic cavity nanolasers

Description

Nanolasers represents the research frontier in both the areas of photonics and nanotechnology for its interesting properties in low dimension physics, its appealing prospects in integrated photonics, and other on-chi

Nanolasers represents the research frontier in both the areas of photonics and nanotechnology for its interesting properties in low dimension physics, its appealing prospects in integrated photonics, and other on-chip applications. In this thesis, I present my research work on fabrication and characterization of a new type of nanolasers: metallic cavity nanolasers. The last ten years witnessed a dramatic paradigm shift from pure dielectric cavity to metallic cavity in the research of nanolasers. By using low loss metals such as silver, which is highly reflective at near infrared, light can be confined in an ultra small cavity or waveguide with sub-wavelength dimensions, thus enabling sub-wavelength cavity lasers. Based on this idea, I fabricated two different kinds of metallic cavity nanolasers with rectangular and circular geometries with InGaAs as the gain material and silver as the metallic shell. The lasing wavelength is around 1.55 μm, intended for optical communication applications. Continuous wave (CW) lasing at cryogenic temperature under current injection was achieved on devices with a deep sub-wavelength physical cavity volume smaller than 0.2 λ3. Improving device fabrication process is one of the main challenges in the development of metallic cavity nanolasers due to its ultra-small size. With improved fabrication process and device design, CW lasing at room temperature was demonstrated as well on a sub-wavelength rectangular device with a physical cavity volume of 0.67 λ3. Experiments verified that a small circular nanolasers supporting TE¬01 mode can generate an azimuthal polarized laser beam, providing a compact such source under electrical injection. Sources with such polarizations could have many special applications. Study of digital modulation of circular nanolasers showed that laser noise is an important factor that will affect the data rate of the nanolaser when used as the light source in optical interconnects. For future development, improving device fabrication processes is required to improve device performance. In addition, techniques need to be developed to realize nanolaser/Si waveguide integration. In essence, resolving these two critical issues will finally pave the way for these nanolasers to be used in various practical applications.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014