Matching Items (55)

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Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna with Built in Self-Test Unit: Analysis of Trace Error Simulation

Description

The capstone portion of this project was to use the established STaR antennas and add a Built in Self-Test system to ensure the quality of the signals being received. This part of the project required a MatLab simulation to be

The capstone portion of this project was to use the established STaR antennas and add a Built in Self-Test system to ensure the quality of the signals being received. This part of the project required a MatLab simulation to be built, a layout created, and a PCB designed for fabrication. In theory, the test BiST unit will allow the gain and delay of the transmitted signal and then cancel out unneeded interference for the received signal. However, this design required multiple paths to maintain the same lengths to keep the signals in phase for comparison. The purpose of this thesis is to show the potential drop-offs of the quality of the signals from being out of phase due to the wires that should be similar, being off by a certain percentage. This project will calculate the theoretical delay of all wires being out of sync and then add this delay to the established MatLab simulation. This report will show the relationship between the error of the received variables and what the actual generated values. And, the last part of the document will demonstrate the simulation by creating a signal and comparing it to its received counterpart. The end result of the study showed that the percent error between what is seen and what is expected is near insignificant and, hence, not an issue with regards to the quality of the project.

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2016-05

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Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna: Analysis of Measurement Accuracy on Performance

Description

The purpose of the Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna project is to design a test circuit that will allow us to use an antenna to both send out and receive a signal at the same time on the same frequency.

The purpose of the Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Antenna project is to design a test circuit that will allow us to use an antenna to both send out and receive a signal at the same time on the same frequency. The test circuit will generate DC voltage levels that we can use to solve for the gain and delay of the transmit interference, so we will then be able to cancel out the unwanted signal from the received signal. With a theoretically perfect setup, the transmitted signal will be able to be completely isolated from the received signal, leaving us with only what we want at the output. In practice, however, this is not the case. There are many variables that will affect the integrity of the DC output of the test signal. As the output voltage level deviates from its theoretical perfect measurement, the precision to which we are able to solve for the gain and delay values decreases. The focus of this study is to estimate the effect of using a digital measurement tool to measure the output of the test circuit. Assuming a voltmeter with 1 volt full range, simulations were run using measurements stored at different bit resolutions, from 8-bit storage up to 16-bit storage. Since the physical hardware for the Simultaneous Transmit and Receive test circuit is not currently available, these tests were performed with an edited version of the Matlab simulation created for the Senior Design project. The simulation was run 2000 times over each bit resolution to get a wide range of generated values, then the error from each run was analyzed to come to a conclusion on the effect of the digital measurement on the design. The results of these simulations as well as further details of the project and testing are described inside this document.

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2016-05

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Simultaneous Transmit and Receive: Noise Analysis on Performance

Description

The Built-In Self-Test for Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (BIST for STAR) will be able to solve the challenges of transmitting and receiving at the same time at the same frequency. One of the major components is the STAR antenna which

The Built-In Self-Test for Simultaneous Transmit and Receive (BIST for STAR) will be able to solve the challenges of transmitting and receiving at the same time at the same frequency. One of the major components is the STAR antenna which transmits and receives along the same pathway. The main problem with doing both on the same path is that the transmit signal is usually much stronger in power compared to the received signal. The transmit signal has echoes and leakages that cause self-interference, preventing the received signal from being properly obtained. The solution developed in this project is the BIST component, which will help calculate the functional gain and phase offset of the interference signal and subtract it from the pathway so that the received signal remains. The functions of the proposed circuit board can be modeled in Matlab, where an emulation code generates a random, realistic functional gain and delay for the interference. From the generated values, the BIST for STAR was simulated to output what the measurements would be given the strength of the input signal and a controlled delay. The original Matlab code models an ideal environment directly recalculating the functional gain and phase from the given measurements in a second Matlab script. The actual product will not be ideal; a possible source of error to be considered is the effect of thermal noise. To observe the effect of noise on the BIST for STAR's performance, the Matlab code was expanded upon to include a component for thermal noise, and a method of analyzing the results of the board.

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2016-05

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Novel Solar Array Interface Electronics for Maximum PV Power Extraction

Description

Current technology does not allow for the full amount of power produced by solar arrays (PV) on spacecraft to be utilized. The arrays are designed with non-reconfigurable architectures and sent on fifteen to twenty year long missions. They cannot be

Current technology does not allow for the full amount of power produced by solar arrays (PV) on spacecraft to be utilized. The arrays are designed with non-reconfigurable architectures and sent on fifteen to twenty year long missions. They cannot be changed once they are in space, so the arrays are designed for the end of life. Throughout their lifetime, solar arrays can degrade in power producing capabilities anywhere from 20% to 50%. Because there is such a drastic difference in the beginning and end of life power production, and because they cannot be reconfigured, a new design has been found necessary in order to increase power production. Reconfiguration allows the solar arrays to achieve maximum power producing capabilities at both the beginning and end of their lives. With the potential to increase power production by 50%, the reconfiguration design consists of a switching network to be able to utilize any combination of cells. The design for reconfiguration must meet the power requirements of the solar array. This thesis will explore different designs for reconfiguration, as well as possible switches for implementation. It will also review other methods to increase power production, as well as discuss future work in this field.

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2018-05

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Efficient test strategies for Analog/RF circuits

Description

Test cost has become a significant portion of device cost and a bottleneck in high volume manufacturing. Increasing integration density and shrinking feature sizes increased test time/cost and reduce observability. Test engineers have to put a tremendous effort in order

Test cost has become a significant portion of device cost and a bottleneck in high volume manufacturing. Increasing integration density and shrinking feature sizes increased test time/cost and reduce observability. Test engineers have to put a tremendous effort in order to maintain test cost within an acceptable budget. Unfortunately, there is not a single straightforward solution to the problem. Products that are tested have several application domains and distinct customer profiles. Some products are required to operate for long periods of time while others are required to be low cost and optimized for low cost. Multitude of constraints and goals make it impossible to find a single solution that work for all cases. Hence, test development/optimization is typically design/circuit dependent and even process specific. Therefore, test optimization cannot be performed using a single test approach, but necessitates a diversity of approaches. This works aims at addressing test cost minimization and test quality improvement at various levels. In the first chapter of the work, we investigate pre-silicon strategies, such as design for test and pre-silicon statistical simulation optimization. In the second chapter, we investigate efficient post-silicon test strategies, such as adaptive test, adaptive multi-site test, outlier analysis, and process shift detection/tracking.

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Date Created
2012

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Programmable analog device array (PANDA): transistor-level analog emulation

Description

The design and development of analog/mixed-signal (AMS) integrated circuits (ICs) is becoming increasingly expensive, complex, and lengthy. Rapid prototyping and emulation of analog ICs will be significant in the design and testing of complex analog systems. A new approach, Programmable

The design and development of analog/mixed-signal (AMS) integrated circuits (ICs) is becoming increasingly expensive, complex, and lengthy. Rapid prototyping and emulation of analog ICs will be significant in the design and testing of complex analog systems. A new approach, Programmable ANalog Device Array (PANDA) that maps any AMS design problem to a transistor-level programmable hardware, is proposed. This approach enables fast system level validation and a reduction in post-Silicon bugs, minimizing design risk and cost. The unique features of the approach include 1) transistor-level programmability that emulates each transistor behavior in an analog design, achieving very fine granularity of reconfiguration; 2) programmable switches that are treated as a design component during analog transistor emulating, and optimized with the reconfiguration matrix; 3) compensation of AC performance degradation through boosting the bias current. Based on these principles, a digitally controlled PANDA platform is designed at 45nm node that can map AMS modules across 22nm to 90nm technology nodes. A systematic emulation approach to map any analog transistor to 45nm PANDA cell is proposed, which achieves transistor level matching accuracy of less than 5% for ID and less than 10% for Rout and Gm. Circuit level analog metrics of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) emulated by PANDA, match to those of the original designs in 22nm and 90nm nodes with less than a 5% error. Several other 90nm and 22nm analog blocks are successfully emulated by the 45nm PANDA platform, including a folded-cascode operational amplifier and a sample-and-hold module (S/H). Further capabilities of PANDA are demonstrated by the first full-chip silicon of PANDA which is implemented on 65nm process This system consists of a 24×25 cell array, reconfigurable interconnect and configuration memory. The voltage and current reference circuits, op amps and a VCO with a phase interpolation circuit are emulated by PANDA.

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Date Created
2013

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Energy-Efficient Electoral System for Underwater Sea Turtle Image Recognition

Description

This paper presents work that was done to develop an energy-efficient electoral and frame count system for underwater sea turtle image and video recognition using convolutional neural networks, deep learning framework, and the Python programming language. An underwater sea turtle

This paper presents work that was done to develop an energy-efficient electoral and frame count system for underwater sea turtle image and video recognition using convolutional neural networks, deep learning framework, and the Python programming language. An underwater sea turtle image recognition program is essential to protect turtles from the threat of bycatch - sea turtles are accidentally caught when fishermen aim for a different type of underwater species. This underwater image recognition system is used to detect the presence of sea turtles, then different kinds of acoustic and light stimuli are used to warn the turtles of approaching danger to reduce bycatch. This image detection system will be placed on a fishing boat to run on a machine at all times (24 hours and 7 days a week). A live video capture from a low-power underwater camera that is attached to the boat will be sent to the image detection system on the machine to analyze the presence of sea turtles in each frame of the video. To lower the computational time and energy of the machine, an energy-efficient electoral and frame count system is implemented on this image detection system.

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2019-05

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Novel rail clamp architectures and their systematic design

Description

Rail clamp circuits are widely used for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in semiconductor products today. A step-by-step design procedure for the traditional RC and single-inverter-based rail clamp circuit and the design, simulation, implementation, and operation of two novel rail clam

Rail clamp circuits are widely used for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in semiconductor products today. A step-by-step design procedure for the traditional RC and single-inverter-based rail clamp circuit and the design, simulation, implementation, and operation of two novel rail clamp circuits are described for use in the ESD protection of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits. The step-by-step design procedure for the traditional circuit is technology-node independent, can be fully automated, and aims to achieve a minimal area design that meets specified leakage and ESD specifications under all valid process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) conditions. The first novel rail clamp circuit presented employs a comparator inside the traditional circuit to reduce the value of the time constant needed. The second circuit uses a dynamic time constant approach in which the value of the time constant is dynamically adjusted after the clamp is triggered. Important metrics for the two new circuits such as ESD performance, latch-on immunity, clamp recovery time, supply noise immunity, fastest power-on time supported, and area are evaluated over an industry-standard PVT space using SPICE simulations and measurements on a fabricated 40 nm test chip.

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Date Created
2016

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An electrical stimulus based built in self test (BIST) circuit for capacitive MEMS accelerometer

Description

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the fastest growing field in silicon industry. Low cost production is key for any company to improve their market share. MEMS testing is challenging since input to test a MEMS device require

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the fastest growing field in silicon industry. Low cost production is key for any company to improve their market share. MEMS testing is challenging since input to test a MEMS device require physical stimulus like acceleration, pressure etc. Also, MEMS device vary with process and requires calibration to make them reliable. This increases test cost and testing time. This challenge can be overcome by combining electrical stimulus based testing along with statistical analysis on MEMS response for electrical stimulus and also limited physical stimulus response data. This thesis proposes electrical stimulus based built in self test(BIST) which can be used to get MEMS data and later this data can be used for statistical analysis. A capacitive MEMS accelerometer is considered to test this BIST approach. This BIST circuit overhead is less and utilizes most of the standard readout circuit. This thesis discusses accelerometer response for electrical stimulus and BIST architecture. As a part of this BIST circuit, a second order sigma delta modulator has been designed. This modulator has a sampling frequency of 1MHz and bandwidth of 6KHz. SNDR of 60dB is achieved with 1Vpp differential input signal and 3.3V supply

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Date Created
2013

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Extraction of RF transceiver system parameters and impairments through detailed analytical modeling combined with a genetic algorithm approach

Description

ABSTRACT To meet stringent market demands, manufacturers must produce Radio Frequency (RF) transceivers that provide wireless communication between electronic components used in consumer products at extremely low cost. Semiconductor manufacturers are in a steady race to increase integration levels through

ABSTRACT To meet stringent market demands, manufacturers must produce Radio Frequency (RF) transceivers that provide wireless communication between electronic components used in consumer products at extremely low cost. Semiconductor manufacturers are in a steady race to increase integration levels through advanced system-on-chip (SoC) technology. The testing costs of these devices tend to increase with higher integration levels. As the integration levels increase and the devices get faster, the need for high-calibre low cost test equipment become highly dominant. However testing the overall system becomes harder and more expensive. Traditionally, the transceiver system is tested in two steps utilizing high-calibre RF instrumentation and mixed-signal testers, with separate measurement setups for transmitter and receiver paths. Impairments in the RF front-end, such as the I/Q gain and phase imbalance and nonlinearity, severely affect the performance of the device. The transceiver needs to be characterized in terms of these impairments in order to guarantee good performance and specification requirements. The motivation factor for this thesis is to come up with a low cost and computationally simple extraction technique of these impairments. In the proposed extraction technique, the mapping between transmitter input signals and receiver output signals are used to extract the impairment and nonlinearity parameters. This is done with the help of detailed mathematical modeling of the transceiver. While the overall behavior is nonlinear, both linear and nonlinear models to be used under different test setups are developed. A two step extraction technique has been proposed in this work. The extraction of system parameters is performed by using the mathematical model developed along with a genetic algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The technique yields good extraction results with reasonable error. It uses simple mathematical operation which makes the extraction fast and computationally simple when compared to other existing techniques such as traditional two step dedicated approach, Nonlinear Solver (NLS) approach, etc. It employs frequency domain analysis of low frequency input and output signals, over cumbersome time domain computations. Thus a test method, including detailed behavioral modeling of the transceiver, appropriate test signal design along with a simple algorithm for extraction is presented.

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Date Created
2011