Matching Items (19)

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Startle-evoked movement in multi-jointed, two-dimensional reaching tasks

Description

Previous research has shown that a loud acoustic stimulus can trigger an individual's prepared movement plan. This movement response is referred to as a startle-evoked movement (SEM). SEM has been

Previous research has shown that a loud acoustic stimulus can trigger an individual's prepared movement plan. This movement response is referred to as a startle-evoked movement (SEM). SEM has been observed in the stroke survivor population where results have shown that SEM enhances single joint movements that are usually performed with difficulty. While the presence of SEM in the stroke survivor population advances scientific understanding of movement capabilities following a stroke, published studies using the SEM phenomenon only examined one joint. The ability of SEM to generate multi-jointed movements is understudied and consequently limits SEM as a potential therapy tool. In order to apply SEM as a therapy tool however, the biomechanics of the arm in multi-jointed movement planning and execution must be better understood. Thus, the objective of our study was to evaluate if SEM could elicit multi-joint reaching movements that were accurate in an unrestrained, two-dimensional workspace. Data was collected from ten subjects with no previous neck, arm, or brain injury. Each subject performed a reaching task to five Targets that were equally spaced in a semi-circle to create a two-dimensional workspace. The subject reached to each Target following a sequence of two non-startling acoustic stimuli cues: "Get Ready" and "Go". A loud acoustic stimuli was randomly substituted for the "Go" cue. We hypothesized that SEM is accessible and accurate for unrestricted multi-jointed reaching tasks in a functional workspace and is therefore independent of movement direction. Our results found that SEM is possible in all five Target directions. The probability of evoking SEM and the movement kinematics (i.e. total movement time, linear deviation, average velocity) to each Target are not statistically different. Thus, we conclude that SEM is possible in a functional workspace and is not dependent on where arm stability is maximized. Moreover, coordinated preparation and storage of a multi-jointed movement is indeed possible.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Asking New Questions With Old Data: The Centralized Open-Access Rehabilitation Database for Stroke

Description

Background: This paper introduces a tool for streamlining data integration in rehabilitation science, the Centralized Open-Access Rehabilitation database for Stroke (SCOAR), which allows researchers to quickly visualize relationships among variables,

Background: This paper introduces a tool for streamlining data integration in rehabilitation science, the Centralized Open-Access Rehabilitation database for Stroke (SCOAR), which allows researchers to quickly visualize relationships among variables, efficiently share data, generate hypotheses, and enhance clinical trial design.

Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched according to inclusion criteria leaving 2,892 titles that were further screened to 514 manuscripts to be screened by full text, leaving 215 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the database (489 independent groups representing 12,847 patients). Demographic, methodological, and statistical data were extracted by independent coders and entered into SCOAR.

Results: Trial data came from 114 locations in 27 different countries and represented patients with a wide range of ages, 62 year [41; 85] [shown as median (range)] and at various stages of recovery following their stroke, 141 days [1; 3372]. There was considerable variation in the dose of therapy that patients received, 20 h [0; 221], over interventions of different durations, 28 days [10; 365]. There was also a lack of common data elements (CDEs) across trials, but this lack of CDEs was most pronounced for baseline assessments of patient impairment and severity of stroke.

Conclusion: Data integration across hundreds of RCTs allows clinicians and researchers to quickly visualize data from the history of the field and lays the foundation for making SCOAR a living database to which researchers can upload new data as trial results are published. SCOAR is a useful tool for clinicians and researchers that will facilitate data visualization, data sharing, the finding of relevant past studies, and the design of clinical trials by enabling more accurate and comprehensive power analyses. Furthermore, these data speak to the need for CDEs specific to stroke rehabilitation in randomized controlled trials.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-09-20

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Comparing Protocols for Extracting, Amplifying, and Imaging ApoE ε4 Allele: Preliminary work for understanding Alzheimer’s Disease in asymptomatic individuals

Description

This thesis aimed to develop a consistent protocol used to effectively image the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele, which is a known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The

This thesis aimed to develop a consistent protocol used to effectively image the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 allele, which is a known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The research team used methods to extract DNA from saliva samples, amplify the DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and image the results using gel electrophoresis and a transilluminator. Extensive literature review was used to optimize these techniques. Future studies will use these methods of characterizing the ApoE ε4 allele as preliminary work towards the goal of integrating this protocol into ongoing research in aging within the Motor Rehabilitation and Learning (MRL) Lab on Arizona State University’s campus.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Delays in reticulospinal system are correlated with deficits in motor learning in older adults.

Description

Motor skill acquisition, the process by which individuals practice and consolidate movement to become faster, more accurate and efficient, declines with age. Initial skill acquisition is dominated by cortical structures;

Motor skill acquisition, the process by which individuals practice and consolidate movement to become faster, more accurate and efficient, declines with age. Initial skill acquisition is dominated by cortical structures; however as learning proceeds, literature from rodents and songbirds suggests that there is a transition away from cortical execution. Recent evidence indicates that the reticulospinal system plays an important role in integration and retention of learned motor skills. The brainstem has known age-rated deficits including cell shrinkage & death. Given the role of the reticulospinal system in skill acquisition and older adult’s poor capacity to learn, it begs the question: are delays in the reticulospinal system associated with older adult’s poor capacity to learn?
Our objective was to evaluate if delays in the reticulospinal system (measured via the startle reflex) are correlated to impairment of motor learning in older adults. We found that individuals with fast startle responses resembling those of younger adults show the most learning and retention of that learning while individuals with delayed startle responses show the least. Moreover, linear regression analysis indicated that startle onset latency exists within a continuum of learning outcomes suggesting that startle onset latency may be a sensitive measure to predict learning deficits in older adults. As there exists no method to determine an individual’s relative learning capacity, these results open the possibility of startle, which is an easy and inexpensive behavioral measure, being used to predict learning deficits in older adults to facilitate better dosing during rehabilitation therapy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Relating Reactive Stepping Characteristics to Falls in Older Community Dwelling Adults

Description

Background: Falls are a leading cause of injury in older adults with roughly 1 in 4 American's over the age of 65 experiencing a fall. Research that looks at reactive

Background: Falls are a leading cause of injury in older adults with roughly 1 in 4 American's over the age of 65 experiencing a fall. Research that looks at reactive stepping, or the steps a person takes when they encounter a loss of balance, is sparse. Whether a specific aspect of reactive stepping can be linked to falls has yet to be determined. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which reactive stepping characteristics may be correlated with falls in from community dwelling older adults. Methods: 54 older adults (11 fallers & 43 non-fallers) underwent 3 "postural perturbations", in which they leaned back into the testers hands and were released, resulting in one or more reactive steps. Inertial sensors (APDM, inc.) were used to measure participant movement and Quantify reactive steps. Step length and step latency, which is the time it takes for an individual to perform a step, were the primary outcomes measured, along with time to stabilization, number of steps taken, and time until first foot strike. Results: Neither step length or step latency were significantly different in fallers compared to non-fallers (p=0.537 and p=0.431, respectively). However, four square step test was significantly different between the populations (p= 0.045). Conclusions: These results showed that four square step test may be more closely related to falls than step length or latency. When performing fall prevention training, or working with an individual at risk for falling, it may be more beneficial to focus on four square step test and the changes in direction associated with it, as opposed to other stepping characteristics in order to improve their fall risk.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Using kinematic data to identify movement patterns shared between tasks: A way to explain transfer

Description

In motor training, transfer is defined as the gain/loss of performance in one task as a result of training on another. In our laboratory, we have observed that training on

In motor training, transfer is defined as the gain/loss of performance in one task as a result of training on another. In our laboratory, we have observed that training on a multi-joint coordination task (which simulates arm and wrist movement when feeding) transfers to a dexterity task (which simulates finger and hand movement when dressing), such that there are improvements in the dexterity task that emerge without having trained on that specific task. More recently, we have shown that the dexterity task transfers to the multi-joint coordination task. These collective findings suggest that there are shared movement patterns between these two functional motor tasks that may yield this bi-directional transfer effect. Therefore, the objective of this thesis project was to collect kinematic data of the hand to use in future principal component analyses to better understand the underlying mechanism of transfer between these two functional motor tasks. The joint angles of the hand were recorded during twenty second trials of the multi-joint coordination task and the dexterity task. The ranges of motion for the joints in the hand during naïve performance of both motor tasks were analyzed. From a linear regression analysis, we observe that the hand’s ranges of motion were strongly correlated between the two tasks, which suggests that these two functionally different tasks may share movement patterns in terms of joint angles. This similarity of joint angles of the hand may play a role in why we observe this bi-directional transfer between the dexterity and multi-joint coordination tasks. Following neurological injury, patients participate in physical therapy in order to retrain their nervous system to restore lost motor function(s). If patients can only practice a limited number of activities in therapy, our data suggest that other activities may also improve through transfer of training. Kinematic data collection may inform how much a patient improves with motor training and why there may be an improvement in untrained motor tasks.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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StartReact and its Effect on Functional Upper Extremity Motor Tasks

Description

The phenomenon known as startReact is the fast, involuntary execution of a planned movement triggered by a startling acoustic stimulus. StartReact has previously been analyzed in simple motor movements such

The phenomenon known as startReact is the fast, involuntary execution of a planned movement triggered by a startling acoustic stimulus. StartReact has previously been analyzed in simple motor movements such as finger abduction tasks, hand grasp tasks, and elbow extension tasks. More complex movements have also been analyzed, but there have been limited studies that look into functional complex tasks that require end-point accuracy. The objective of this project was to assess the ability to elicit startReact in tasks that simulate activities of daily living like feeding or picking up a glass of water. We hypothesized that a startReact response would be present in complex functional tasks, but the response would not be as accurate due to the increase in speed. Five subjects performed a simulated feeding task by moving kidney beans from one target to another where the end target changed in diameter as well as, a simulated drinking task where the subject moved a cup full of beads from one target to another. The hypothesis was supported due to a significant difference between no stimulus and stimulus trials for tricep muscle onset time, duration time, and the accuracy parameters of amount of beans dropped and weight in beads dropped. The results coincided with previous studies where subjects compensated for the change in diameter by increasing reaction time as the target diameter size decreased. The data obtained contradicted a previous study in relation to the duration time between the tasks due to our smallest diameter size having a faster duration time in comparison to the other diameter sizes. This study provides preliminary data that could assist researchers and clinicians in improving physical therapy methods for patients with impaired upper extremity motor movements.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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The Post Stroke Journey: A Survey Study of the Effects of Family Support and Psychological Factors on Rehabilitation Goals

Description

Stroke is the fifth most common cause of death in America and a leading cause of long-term adult disability, affecting more than 795,000 people a year ("American Stroke Association: A

Stroke is the fifth most common cause of death in America and a leading cause of long-term adult disability, affecting more than 795,000 people a year ("American Stroke Association: A Division of the American Heart Association"). Many of these individuals experience persistent difficulty with the execution of daily tasks as a direct consequence of a stroke. A key factor in the successful recovery of a stroke survivor is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation sessions can start within two days of the stroke if the patient is in stable condition, and often continues long after their release from the hospital ("American Stroke Association: A Division of the American Heart Association"). The rehabilitation sessions are driven by a team of rehabilitation care professionals which includes, but is not limited to a physical therapist, occupational therapist, and speech-language pathologist. These professionals are available to the stroke survivor as resources to assist in developing and organizing ways to achieve independence as opposed to dependence. Ultimately, a stroke survivor’s family typically provides the most important long-term support during recovery and rehabilitation ("American Stroke Association: A Division of the American Heart Association"). However, there is very little research that focuses on the impact that local family can have on the stroke survivor’s establishment and achievement of goals throughout their recovery and rehabilitation. This study examines this gap in knowledge.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Impact of a Starting Acoustic Stimulus and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Reaction Times in Unimpaired Adults

Description

Motor skill acquisition, the process by which individuals practice and consolidate
movement to become faster, more accurate and efficient, declines with age. Initial skill acquisition is dominated by cortical structures;

Motor skill acquisition, the process by which individuals practice and consolidate
movement to become faster, more accurate and efficient, declines with age. Initial skill acquisition is dominated by cortical structures; however as learning proceeds, literature from
rodents and songbirds suggests that there is a transition away from cortical execution. Recent
evidence indicates that the reticulospinal system plays an important role in integration and
retention of learned motor skills. The brainstem has known age-rated deficits including cell
shrinkage & death. Given the role of the reticulospinal system in skill acquisition and older
adult’s poor capacity to learn, it begs the question: are delays in the reticulospinal system
associated with older adult’s poor capacity to learn?
Our objective was to evaluate if delays in the reticulospinal system (measured via the
startle reflex) and corticospinal system (measured via Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) are correlated to impairment of motor learning in older adults. We found that individuals with fast startle responses resembling those of younger adults show the most improvement and retention while individuals with delayed startle responses show the least. We also found that there was no relationship between MEP latencies and improvement and retention. Moreover, linear regression analysis indicated that startle onset latency exists within a continuum of learning outcomes suggesting that startle onset latency may be a sensitive measure to predict learning deficits in older adults. As there exists no method to determine an individual’s relative learning capacity, these results open the possibility of startle, which is an easy and inexpensive behavioral measure and can be used to determine learning deficits in older adults to facilitate better dosing during rehabilitation therapy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Impacts of Age on Neuropsychological Task Performance

Description

The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological

The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility of the current data set. It was hypothesized that older adults’ scores on the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) would decrease from their initial visit to their one year follow-up visit and that greater overall age is associated with worse performance. Overall, the older adults with a follow-up visit in this study experienced greater decline on the RBANS DMI than on the RBANS total scaled score. There seems to be a negative trend in which individuals with higher first-visit VCI scores experience greater improvement on the first trial of the motor task with the non-dominant hand. The same trend can be seen in DMI scores where higher initial DMI scores are associated with greater improvement on the first non-dominant hand trial of the motor task. This initial trend suggests that visuospatial scores have an association with long-term change in the motor task. The number of participants in this data set were limited, thus more data will be needed to increase confidence in conclusions about these relationships in the future.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05