Matching Items (20)

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Government incentives and how they encourage manufacturing facilities to adopt environmental management systems: a look at the efficiency of policy tools

Description

Traditional methods of environmental regulation and enforcement have been questioned over the last decade. Due to the number of environmental regulations, and subsequent cost of enforcement, governments have begun to incentivize the adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs). These

Traditional methods of environmental regulation and enforcement have been questioned over the last decade. Due to the number of environmental regulations, and subsequent cost of enforcement, governments have begun to incentivize the adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs). These management systems encourage companies to better manage their environmental performance voluntarily. It is the purpose of this study to list the types of government incentives that have been used and categorize them into three groups based off of their characteristics. Ten incentive types were identified and put into three categories; (a) reducing the barriers to EMS adoption; (b) enhancing benefits derived from EMS adoption, and (c) rewarding EMS implementers with reduced enforcement. The research shows that each category of incentives encourages different manufacturing facilities to adopt EMSs. Using data from previously conducted case studies and surveys to determine what type of manufacturing facilities are affected, this study finds that government incentives have been shown to have a measurable impact on the decision makers of manufacturing facilities to adopt an EMS. The study concludes that a combination of traditional environmental regulation used with targeted incentives provide the most efficient use of resources by governments.

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2011

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Fabrication and evaluation of hematite modified granular activated carbon (GAC) media for arsenic removal from groundwater

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The goal of the study was twofold: (i) to investigate the synthesis of hematite-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) by hydrolysis of Fe (III) and (ii) to assess the effectiveness of the fabricated media in removal of arsenic from water. Fe-GAC

The goal of the study was twofold: (i) to investigate the synthesis of hematite-impregnated granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) by hydrolysis of Fe (III) and (ii) to assess the effectiveness of the fabricated media in removal of arsenic from water. Fe-GAC was synthesized by hydrolysis of Fe(III) salts under two Fe (III) initial dosages (0.5M and 2M) and two hydrolysis periods (24 hrs and 72 hrs). The iron content of the fabricated Fe-GAC media ranged from 0.9% to 4.4% Fe/g of the dry media. Pseudo-equilibrium batch test data at pH = 7.7±0.2 in 1mM NaHCO3 buffered ultrapure water and challenge groundwater representative of the Arizona Mexico border region were fitted to a Freundlich isotherm model. The findings suggested that the arsenic adsorption capacity of the metal (hydr)oxide modified GAC media is primarily controlled by the surface area of the media, while the metal content exhibited lesser effect. The adsorption capacity of the media in the model Mexican groundwater matrix was significantly lower for all adsorbent media. Continuous flow short bed adsorber tests (SBA) demonstrated that the adsorption capacity for arsenic in the challenge groundwater was reduced by a factor of 3 to 4 as a result of the mass transport effects. When compared on metal basis, the iron (hydr)oxide modified media performed comparably well as existing commercial media for treatment of arsenic. On dry mass basis, the fabricated media in this study removed less arsenic than their commercial counterparts because the metal content of the commercial media was significantly higher.

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2011

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Impact of copper nanoparticles on inactivation and toxicity pathway on model bacteria

Description

Nanotechnology is a scientific field that has recently expanded due to its applications in pharmaceutical and personal care products, industry and agriculture. As result of this unprecedented growth, nanoparticles (NPs) have become a significant environmental contaminant, with potential to impact

Nanotechnology is a scientific field that has recently expanded due to its applications in pharmaceutical and personal care products, industry and agriculture. As result of this unprecedented growth, nanoparticles (NPs) have become a significant environmental contaminant, with potential to impact various forms of life in environment. Metal nanoparticles (mNPs) exhibit unique properties such as increased chemical reactivity due to high specific surface area to volume ratios. Bacteria play a major role in many natural and engineered biogeochemical reactions in wastewater treatment plants and other environmental compartments. I have evaluated the laboratory isolates of E. coli, Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas; wastewater isolates of E. coli and Bacillus; and pathogenic isolate of E. coli for their response to 50 & 100 nm sized Cu nanoparticles (CuNPs). Bactericidal tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses, and probable toxicity pathways assays were performed. The results indicate that under continuous mixing conditions, CuNPs are effective in inactivation of the selected bacterial isolates. In general, exposure to CuNPs resulted in 4 to >6 log reduction in bacterial population within 2 hours. Based on the GR, LDH and MTT assays, bacterial cells showed different toxicity elicitation pathways after exposure to CuNPs. Therefore, it can be concluded that the laboratory isolates are good candidates for predicting the behavior of environmental isolates exposed to CuNPs. Also, high inactivation values recorded in this study suggest that the presence of CuNPs in different environmental compartments may have an impact on pollutants attenuation and wastewater biological treatment processes. These results point towards the need for an in depth investigation of the impact of NPs on the biological processes; and long-term effect of high load of NPs on the stability of aquatic and terrestrial ecologies.

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2012

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LEED certification: gold standard or gold star

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Since its launch by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification has been postured as the "gold standard" for environmentally conscious, sustainable building design, construction and operations. However, as a "living measurement", one

Since its launch by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification has been postured as the "gold standard" for environmentally conscious, sustainable building design, construction and operations. However, as a "living measurement", one which requires ongoing evaluation and reporting of attainment and compliance with LEED certification requirements, there is none. Once awarded, LEED certification does not have a required reporting component to effectively track continued adherence to LEED standards. In addition, there is no expiry tied to the certification; once obtained, a LEED certification rating is presumed to be a valid representation of project certification status. Therefore, LEED lacks a requirement to demonstrate environmental impact of construction materials and building systems over the entire life of the project. Consequently, LEED certification is merely a label rather than a true representation of ongoing adherence to program performance requirements over time. Without continued monitoring and reporting of building design and construction features, and in the absence of recertification requirements, LEED is, in reality, a gold star rather than a gold standard. This thesis examines the lack of required ongoing monitoring, reporting, or recertification requirements following the award by the USGBC of LEED certification; compares LEED with other international programs which do have ongoing reporting or recertification requirements; demonstrates the need and benefit of ongoing reporting or recertification requirements; and explores possible methods for implementation of mandatory reporting requirements within the program.

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2013

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Research on the issues and solutions of China's law of prevention and control of atmospheric pollution

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ABSTRACT In recent years, the total amount of air pollutant emissions in China was reduced year by year, but pollution is still very serious, especially in some big cities where the environmental pollution has worsened in the last 20 years.

ABSTRACT In recent years, the total amount of air pollutant emissions in China was reduced year by year, but pollution is still very serious, especially in some big cities where the environmental pollution has worsened in the last 20 years. The "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Atmospheric Pollution" ( LPCAP) was established in 1987. With the development of industrialization and air pollution changes, it had been revised twice in 1995 and 2000.The third revision of the law began in 2009 which was included in the "Eleventh five-year National People's Congress Standing legislative plan" and the State Council's 2009 legislative program. At present, the third revision of the LPCAP is in progress and MEP has completed the manuscript of the revised draft of the law. The purpose of this study is to explore the current situation of China's air pollution, as well as history of LPCAP, analysis of amendments in atmospheric legislation and the achievements of the LPCAP. Combined with China current situation, the research exposed some urgent problems of the Chinese atmospheric legislation which are related to: fã The issues of the regional Total Emission Control (TEC) policy and division. fã The issues of allocation of pollutant emission allowances and trade policy fã The issues of improving the pollution emission permit system. fã The issues of the mobile source emissions management. fã The issues of fuel management. fã The issues of the guarantee measures of the implementation of the LPCAP. In addition, the study compares the LPCAP with the U.S. CAA to offer some solutions for the third revised law and tries to find a fundamental solution for the flaws of China's existing Atmospheric Pollution Prevention legal system to be more Operable. As a result, the gap in air quality in China and the developed countries of the world will be narrowed and China will be better positioned for sustainable development.

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2012

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Evaluating the need for regulations due to the impact of nitrosamines in public drinking water systems

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The purpose of drinking water regulations is to keep our drinking water safe from contaminants. This research reviewed federal regulation including the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) regulatory process, the public health effects of six nitrosamines in drinking water, analyzes of

The purpose of drinking water regulations is to keep our drinking water safe from contaminants. This research reviewed federal regulation including the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) regulatory process, the public health effects of six nitrosamines in drinking water, analyzes of occurrence data from Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR 2) and suggests how nitrosamines can be regulated. Currently only total trihalomethanes (THM) and haloacetic acids (HA) are regulated at the federal level. However, California has notification action levels and Massachusetts has guidelines of 10 ng/L for nitrosamine concentration. Nitrosamine data collected under the UCMR 2 were analyzed to assess the occurrence and the effect of disinfectant type and source water type. The data showed that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in drinking water at concentrations higher than the minimum reporting level (MRL) of 2 ng/L. Four nitrosamines including N-nitroso-diethylamine (NDEA), N-nitroso-di-n-butylamine (NDBA), N-nitroso-methylethylamine (NMEA) and N-nitroso-pyrrolidine (NPYR) and very low detections. N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine (NDPA) was not detected in the sample analyses. NDMA was primarily detected in public water systems using chloramines other than chlorine.

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2012

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Preliminary concepts for developing childhood education in emergency preparedness

Description

Being properly prepared is one of the keys to surviving an emergency or a disaster. In order to be prepared, people need appropriate education in preparedness, which includes elements of prevention, and planning. There is a definite need to better

Being properly prepared is one of the keys to surviving an emergency or a disaster. In order to be prepared, people need appropriate education in preparedness, which includes elements of prevention, and planning. There is a definite need to better prepare our nation's citizens in order for them to safely respond in times of a disaster. It also seems likely that the earlier concepts and skills are learned, the easier those concepts and skills would be to remember and the more proficient one would become in implementing them. Therefore, it seems appropriate to teach emergency preparedness concepts and skills early on in the educational process. This means that significant efforts need to be directed toward learning, what impediments currently exist, what is helpful, and how preparedness concepts and skills can be taught to our children. A survey was distributed to third, fourth, and fifth grade teachers, asking them questions about emergency preparedness lessons in the classroom. Results indicated that the majority of teachers would be willing to teach emergency preparedness if the curriculum met current academic standards and they were given adequate resources to teach this subject. This study provides ideas, concepts and motivation for teachers to use in a cross-curricular approach to teaching emergency preparedness in the classroom. This is accomplished by presenting examples of newly developed curriculum/lesson plans that meet state academic standards, based on the current Community Emergency Response Team program and on children's fiction literature for the appropriate age group. A list of literature that could be used in this development is also provided in this study.

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2011

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The potential of coastal marine filtration as a feedstock source for biodiesel

Description

Second-generation biofuel feedstocks are currently grown in land-based systems that use valuable resources like water, electricity and fertilizer. This study investigates the potential of near-shore marine (ocean) seawater filtration as a source of planktonic biomass for biofuel production. Mixed marine

Second-generation biofuel feedstocks are currently grown in land-based systems that use valuable resources like water, electricity and fertilizer. This study investigates the potential of near-shore marine (ocean) seawater filtration as a source of planktonic biomass for biofuel production. Mixed marine organisms in the size range of 20µm to 500µm were isolated from the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) seawater filtration system during weekly backwash events between the months of April and August, 2011. The quantity of organic material produced was determined by sample combustion and calculation of ash-free dry weights. Qualitative investigation required density gradient separation with the heavy liquid sodium metatungstate followed by direct transesterification and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) produced. A maximum of 0.083g/L of dried organic material was produced in a single backwash event and a study average of 0.036g/L was calculated. This equates to an average weekly value of 7,674.75g of dried organic material produced from the filtration of approximately 24,417,792 liters of seawater. Temporal variations were limited. Organic quantities decreased over the course of the study. Bio-fouling effects from mussel overgrowth inexplicably increased production values when compared to un-fouled seawater supply lines. FAMEs (biodiesel) averaged 0.004% of the dried organic material with 0.36ml of biodiesel produced per week, on average. C16:0 and C22:6n3 fatty acids comprised the majority of the fatty acids in the samples. Saturated fatty acids made up 30.71% to 44.09% and unsaturated forms comprised 55.90% to 66.32% of the total chemical composition. Both quantities and qualities of organics and FAMEs were unrealistic for use as biodiesel but sample size limitations, system design, geographic and temporal factors may have impacted study results.

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2011

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Study of collocated sources of air pollution and the potential for circumventing regulatory major source permitting requirements near Sun City, Arizona

Description

The following research is a regulatory and emissions analysis of collocated sources of air pollution as they relate to the definition of "major, stationary, sources", if their emissions were amalgamated. The emitting sources chosen for this study are seven facilities

The following research is a regulatory and emissions analysis of collocated sources of air pollution as they relate to the definition of "major, stationary, sources", if their emissions were amalgamated. The emitting sources chosen for this study are seven facilities located in a single, aggregate mining pit, along the Aqua Fria riverbed in Sun City, Arizona. The sources in question consist of Rock Crushing and Screening plants, Hot Mix Asphalt plants, and Concrete Batch plants. Generally, individual facilities with emissions of a criteria air pollutant over 100 tons per year or 70 tons per year for PM10 in the Maricopa County non-attainment area would be required to operate under a different permitting regime than those with emissions less than stated above. In addition, facility's that emit over 25 tons per year or 150 pounds per hour of NOx would trigger Maricopa County Best Available Control Technology (BACT) and would be required to install more stringent pollution controls. However, in order to circumvent the more stringent permitting requirements, some facilities have "collocated" in order to escape having their emissions calculated as single source, while operating as a single, production entity. The results of this study indicate that the sources analyzed do not collectively emit major source levels of emissions; however, they do trigger year and daily BACT for NOx. It was also discovered that lack of grid power contributes to the use of generators, which is the main source of emissions. Therefore, if grid electricity was introduced in outlying areas of Maricopa County, facilities could significantly reduce the use of generator power; thereby, reducing pollutants associated with generator use.

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2011

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A survey of the use of homemade overpressure chemical devices in several cities in the United States: determining the impact on the United States

Description

Homemade overpressure chemical devices, commonly known as bottle bombs, are a current topic in the news media. These homemade overpressure chemical devices are a variety of homemade chemical bombs which are constructed by youth for amusement, mischief, or misbehaviors. These

Homemade overpressure chemical devices, commonly known as bottle bombs, are a current topic in the news media. These homemade overpressure chemical devices are a variety of homemade chemical bombs which are constructed by youth for amusement, mischief, or misbehaviors. These bombs are made from common household chemicals. The media is frequently presenting stories about the dangers of these homemade overpressure chemical devices. The media reports that this trend is spurred by the use of YouTube and other social media. As a result of the amount of information about homemade overpressure chemical devices on YouTube and other social media, youths can quickly learn how to fabricate and use these devices. However, these youths, like many in the community, are unaware of the hazards or legal consequences associated with this activity. At this time, reliable information about this form of homemade chemical bombs is limited. Therefore, this research project will explore the culture, fabrication, legality, and risks associated with these homemade chemical bombs. Then, the research will determine if the construction of these devices is a national problem as suggested by the news media and first responder organizations with an annually increasing number incidents, property damage, and injuries. The Center for Disease Control's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report for the week of July 18, 2003 presented the last and only known scientific attempt to determine the impact of homemade overpressure chemical devices on society. However, the Center for Disease Control was not able to get an accurate determination of the trends associated with homemade overpressure chemical devices due to the limitations of the data it reviewed. This research project looks at the data available from national databases, municipal databases, and the first responders of nine cities to determine the impact that Homemade Overpressure Chemical Devices are having on these communities within the United States. The research concluded that the number of Homemade Overpressure Chemical Devices cannot be gathered from either a national database or municipal databases. Interviews with first responders indicate that all areas of the United States are experiencing some Homemade Overpressure Chemical Device activity. However, this activity usually remains low until spurred on in a fad-like pattern.

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2011