Matching Items (10)

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The Effect of Priming Biblical Benevolence on Prosocial Behavior Rabia Memon

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Religion and the belief in supernatural agents have been assumed to play an important role in encouraging prosocial behavior. However, different studies conducted have shown a complex relation between religion

Religion and the belief in supernatural agents have been assumed to play an important role in encouraging prosocial behavior. However, different studies conducted have shown a complex relation between religion and prosociality. For example, Darley & Batson (1973) found that religious people do not always help strangers. In the present study, Christian participants were primed with benevolent commandments attributed to either the Bible or past historical figures or secular, non-benevolent quotes (control). I then measured their willingness to help pick up envelopes dropped by either a Muslim (wearing a hijab) or non-Muslim confederate woman. The results show that subjects primed with Bible or presidential quotes about benevolence were more likely to be helpful to the Muslim confederate than those in the control group. Differences between the Bible and presidential condition were not significant. I conclude that an authority, whether it be a president or God, promoting benevolence can increase prosocial behaviors toward out-group members.

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Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Friending Your Future: "" An Ecological Approach to Increasing Future Self-Continuity

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The benefits of earning a college degree are clear, yet nearly half of first-time, full-time college students do not complete their degree within 6 years. Completing college is no simple

The benefits of earning a college degree are clear, yet nearly half of first-time, full-time college students do not complete their degree within 6 years. Completing college is no simple task and students must regularly make decisions not to prefer the smaller, immediate rewards over the larger, future reward of graduation (i.e. temporal discounting). Recent research shows initial support that temporal discounting can be reduced by heightening future self-continuity. This thesis study pilot tested an ecological, scalable approach to increase future-self continuity by heightening three components, similarity, vividness and positivity, within the framework of social media. Participants completed measures of these components before and after simulating the creation of a social media profile for themselves 10 years after college graduation. A significant increase in perceived similarity to the future self from Time 1 to Time 2 was detected in a within-subjects test. The findings in this study are encouraging and may inform the development of interventions aimed at increasing future self-continuity in college students.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Effects of Pain Intensity on Goal Schemas and Goal Pursuit: A Daily Diary Study

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Objective: Although the adverse effects of chronic pain on work productivity and daily life pursuits are clear, the within-person dynamics of pain, goal cognition, and engagement in work-related and lifestyle

Objective: Although the adverse effects of chronic pain on work productivity and daily life pursuits are clear, the within-person dynamics of pain, goal cognition, and engagement in work-related and lifestyle goals remain uncharted. This study investigated the impact of pain intensity (assessed on 3 occasions each day) and goal-related schematic thinking (ratings of importance, planning, and goal pursuit opportunities, assessed only in the morning) on afternoon and evening work and lifestyle goal pursuit. Methods: A community sample of working adults with chronic pain (N = 131) were screened and interviewed about their work and lifestyle goals and completed a 21-day telephonic diary. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate within-person and between-person effects. Results: At the within-person level, morning pain intensity was inversely related to schematic cognition concerning work and lifestyle goals, whereas, at the between-person level, morning pain intensity varied positively with schematic thinking about work goals as well with afternoon lifestyle goal pursuit. At both the between- and within- analytic levels, morning goal schemas were positively associated with the pursuit of each type of goal in the afternoon and again in the evening. Moreover, positive carry-over effects of morning goal schemas on next day afternoon goal pursuit were observed. Conclusions: Whereas morning pain intensity exhibited inconsistent effects across analytic levels, morning goal-related schematic thinking consistently predicted goal pursuit across analytic levels, type of goal, and time of day. These findings have implications for treatment and prevention of pain’s potentially deleterious effects on workplace and lifestyle goals.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-01

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Associations Between Financial Stress and Interpersonal Events: A Daily Diary Study of Middle-Aged Adults and Their Life Circumstances

Description

This study examined the relationships between daily negative financial events and positive and negative interpersonal events, as well as the moderating effects of life circumstances, for a sample of 182

This study examined the relationships between daily negative financial events and positive and negative interpersonal events, as well as the moderating effects of life circumstances, for a sample of 182 adults between the age of 40 and 65 providing 30 days of diary data collected between 2008 and 2011. There was a significant and positive relationship between daily negative interpersonal events and daily levels of both negative interpersonal events and positive interpersonal events; these relationships varied by income, employment status, parenting roles, and the experience of major financial challenges over the previous year. The moderating effect of income was nonlinear but its effect disappeared when the interaction between major financial challenges over the previous year and daily negative financial events was entered into the model. The results were interpreted in the context of the stress proliferation and resource mobilization theoretical models and directions for future studies were delineated with respect to individual- and community-level factors that influence the role of financial events on the daily social worlds of middle-aged adults.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12-01

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Volunteering by Older Adults and Risk of Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

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Organizational volunteering has been touted as an effective strategy for older adults to help themselves while helping others. Extending previous reviews, we carried out a meta-analysis of the relation between

Organizational volunteering has been touted as an effective strategy for older adults to help themselves while helping others. Extending previous reviews, we carried out a meta-analysis of the relation between organizational volunteering by late-middle-aged and older adults (minimum age = 55 years old) and risk of mortality. We focused on unadjusted effect sizes (i.e., bivariate relations), adjusted effect sizes (i.e., controlling for other variables such as health), and interaction effect sizes (e.g., the joint effect of volunteering and religiosity). For unadjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 47%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 38% to 55%. For adjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 24%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 16% to 31%. For interaction effect sizes, we found preliminary support that as public religiosity increases, the inverse relation between volunteering and mortality risk becomes stronger. The discussion identifies several unresolved issues and directions for future research.

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Date Created
  • 2013-09-05

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The role of adult attachment anxiety in the relation between cognitions and daily pain in Fibromyalgia patients

Description

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients.

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients. However, relatively few studies have explored the dynamic relation between pain and pain-related cognitions within a day, and no studies have tested the moderating role of relationship attachment on the within-day cognition—pain association in chronic pain patients. The objectives of this study were to: 1) assess whether late morning pain flares predicted changes in afternoon positive and negative pain-related cognitive appraisals, and whether these changes in turn predicted end-of-day pain, and 2) explore whether adult attachment anxiety moderated the pain-cognition relation in individuals with chronic pain due to fibromyalgia. One hundred and seventy four partnered individuals with fibromyalgia completed initial assessments of demographics and attachment anxiety, and subsequently completed electronic assessments of pain intensity and positive and negative cognitive pain-related appraisals three times a day for three weeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling established that a latent negative cognitive appraisal factor (encompassing shared variance from catastrophizing, pain irritation, and self-criticism related to pain) mediated the link between late morning and end-of-day pain intensity, in line with the hypothesis. Analyses also provided some support for a mediating role for a positive cognitive appraisal factor (a composite of pain control, pain self-efficacy, and feeling pain without reacting) in the daily course of pain; the mediated effect for positive appraisals was weaker than the mediated effect of negative appraisals, but was sustained in a model that included negative appraisals. Inconsistent with prediction, attachment anxiety did not moderate the within-day links between pain and cognitions. These findings establish the dynamic links within day between pain and pain-related cognitions, and highlight the potential impact of both negative and positive cognitions on daily pain regulation. They point to the value of broadening cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies for chronic pain patients to target not only negative but also positive cognitions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Resilience profiles and postpartum depression in low-Income Mexican American women

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The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing

The primary aim of this study was to investigate resilient profiles in low-income Mexican American (MA) mothers. MA mothers are part of an under researched population, the fastest growing ethnic minority group, and have the highest birth rate in the United States, presenting a significant public health concern. The transition to motherhood can be an emotionally and physically complex time for women, particularly in the context of a stressful low-income environment. Although most low-income women navigate this transition well, a significant number of mothers develop moderate to severe depressive symptoms. The proposed research investigated profiles of resilience during the prenatal period using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis. In alignment with current resilience theories, several domains of resilience were investigated including psychological, social, and cultural adherence (e.g., maintaining specific cultural traditions). Concurrent prenatal depressive symptoms and stress were correlated with the profiles in order to establish validity. Six week postpartum depressive symptoms and physiological processes (e.g., overall cortisol output, heart rate variability, and sleep) were also predicted by the prenatal resilient profiles. The resulting data revealed three separate profiles: low-resource, high-resource Anglo, and high-resource Mexican. These resilience profiles had differential associations with concurrent depressive symptoms and stress, such that women in the high-resource profiles reported less depressive symptoms and stress prenatally. Further, profile differences regarding cortisol output, resting heart rate variability, were also found, but there were no differences in insomnia symptoms. Profile classification also moderated the effects of prenatal economic stress on postpartum depressive symptoms, such that women in the high-resource Mexican profile were at risk for higher postpartum depressive symptoms under high economic stress compared to the high-resource Anglo group, which demonstrated a more resilient response. Overall, the results suggest the presence of multiple clusters of prenatal resilience within a sample of MA mothers facing health disparities, with various effects on perinatal mental health and postpartum physiological processes. The results also highlight the need for multi-dimensional models of resilience and the possible implications for interventions.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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The influence of benefit finding on activity limitation and everyday adaptation to chronic pain

Description

In rehabilitation settings, activity limitation can be a significant barrier to recovery. This study sought to examine the effects of state and trait level benefit finding, positive affect, and catastrophizing

In rehabilitation settings, activity limitation can be a significant barrier to recovery. This study sought to examine the effects of state and trait level benefit finding, positive affect, and catastrophizing on activity limitation among individuals with a physician-confirmed diagnosis of either Osteoarthritis (OA), Fibromyalgia (FM), or a dual diagnosis of OA/FM. Participants (106 OA, 53 FM, and 101 OA/FM) who had no diagnosed autoimmune disorder, a pain rating above 20 on a 0-100 scale, and no involvement in litigation regarding their condition were recruited in the Phoenix metropolitan area for inclusion in the current study. After initial questionnaires were completed, participants were trained to complete daily diaries on a laptop computer and instructed to do so a half an hour before bed each night for 30 days. In each diary, participants rated their average daily pain, benefit finding, positive affect, catastrophizing, and activity limitation. A single item, "I thought about some of the good things that have come from living with my pain" was used to examine the broader construct of benefit finding. It was hypothesized that state and trait level benefit finding would have a direct relation with activity limitation and a partially mediated relationship, through positive affect. Multilevel modeling with SAS PROC MIXED revealed that benefit finding was not directly related to activity limitation. Increases in benefit finding were associated, however, with decreases in activity limitation through a significant mediated relationship with positive affect. Individuals who benefit find had a higher level of positive affect which was associated with decreased activity limitation. A suppression effect involving pain and benefit finding at the trait level was also found. Pain appeared to increase the predictive validity of the relation of benefit finding to activity limitation. These findings have important implications for rehabilitation psychologists and should embolden clinicians to encourage patients to increase positive affect by employing active approach-oriented coping strategies like benefit finding to reduce activity limitation.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Do daily fluctuations in interpersonal experiences moderate the relation between catastrophizing and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic pain?

Description

Prevailing models describing coping with chronic pain posit that it is a complex day-to-day process that can involve psychosocial factors, including cognitive appraisals about pain, interpersonal challenges such as distressed

Prevailing models describing coping with chronic pain posit that it is a complex day-to-day process that can involve psychosocial factors, including cognitive appraisals about pain, interpersonal challenges such as distressed social relationships, and reduced engagement in enjoyable experiences. Few studies, however, have applied a process-oriented approach to elaborate the relations between key pain-related appraisals, social environmental factors, and self-efficacy, a key self-appraisal for successful adaptation to chronic pain. This study used within-day daily diary methodology to test the following hypotheses: (a) increases in morning pain catastrophizing predict decreases in end of day pain self-efficacy; (b) increases in perceived stressfulness of interpersonal relations occurring during the day exacerbate the negative effects of morning catastrophizing on end-of-day pain self-efficacy; and (c) increases in perceived enjoyment of interpersonal relations occurring during the day mitigate the negative effects of morning pain catastrophizing on end of day pain self-efficacy. Within-day measures, including morning pain catastrophizing, afternoon interpersonal stress and enjoyment ratings, and end-of-day pain self-efficacy, were collected for 21 days via an automated phone system from 223 participants with widespread chronic pain. The use of diary data allowed for examination of time-varying processes related to pain adaptation. Results of multilevel regression models indicated that, consistent with prediction, increases in morning pain catastrophizing and predicted decreases in end-of-day pain self-efficacy. Contrary to prediction, changes in midday interpersonal enjoyment and stress did not moderate the within-day catastrophizing-efficacy relation. Rather increases in midday enjoyment and stable individual differences in enjoyment predicted end-of-day efficacy. Overall, findings suggest a within-day relation between pain cognition and social context and subsequent self-efficacy, and highlight potential targets for intervention in chronic pain.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Parent-child relationships and parental tactic use: the socialization of physical activity within the context of an expectancy-value model

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The purpose of this study was to expand on existing parental socialization models of youth achievement motivation for engaging in physical activity. This study examined the extent to which youth

The purpose of this study was to expand on existing parental socialization models of youth achievement motivation for engaging in physical activity. This study examined the extent to which youth affective reactions and expectancy-value beliefs mediated the relation between parental influence tactics and youth physical activity. More specifically, the direct and indirect effects of parents' positive, negative and sedentary-control tactics, the direct effect of parents' desire to change their child's physical activity, and the moderating role of the socio-emotional climate on the relation between parental influence tactics and child outcomes were investigated. Data were collected from 171 4th, 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th grade students and their parents. Pedometers were used to collect youth physical activity data and all participants completed questionnaires. Youth expectancy-value beliefs and negative affective reactions to parental influence tactics were both positively related to youth physical activity. Path analyses revealed that youth expectancy-value beliefs and negative affective reactions fully mediated the direct effects of positive and negative parental influence tactics on youth physical activity, respectively. Moreover, parents' desire to change their child's physical activity was negatively related to parent's use of positive influence tactics. Although several moderators were examined, none were statistically significant (lowest p >.05). The results suggest that additional explanatory power is gained by including a broader range of parental influence tactics and youth affective reactions in models of achievement motivation. The findings are in accord with prior recommendations made to parents with sedentary children.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011