Matching Items (13)

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Dismantling Legal Constraints to Contraception in the 1900s

Description

In the late nineteenth century, the Comstock Act of 1873 made the distribution of contraception illegal and classified contraception as an obscenity. Reflecting the predominant attitude towards contraception at the

In the late nineteenth century, the Comstock Act of 1873 made the distribution of contraception illegal and classified contraception as an obscenity. Reflecting the predominant attitude towards contraception at the time, the Comstock Act was the first federal anti-obscenity law that targeted contraception. However, social acceptance of birth control changed at the turn of the twentieth century. In this thesis, I analyzed legislation, advocates, and literature pertinent to that social change to report on the events leading up to the decriminalization of contraception. Because of the complexity of social history, I used legislation and court cases to track pivotal movements that reflected a change in the accessibility and acceptability of birth control. I focused on the efforts of two prominent birth control advocates, Margaret Sanger and Mary Dennett, and analyzed the impact of their efforts in that social movement. I learned that they incited court cases that questioned the validity of the Comstock Act and helped influence societal acceptance of birth control. Through my research, I discovered that the medicalization of contraception influenced its decriminalization and acceptance by society.

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  • 2017-05

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ASSESSING EVENT LOGISTICS OF THE SPRING 2018 ETHICS & INNOVATION SYMPOSIUM

Description

At Arizona State University (ASU), there is a perceived lack of interdisciplinary symposiums for student presenters and a lack of understanding about the university's "#1 in Innovation" title awarded by

At Arizona State University (ASU), there is a perceived lack of interdisciplinary symposiums for student presenters and a lack of understanding about the university's "#1 in Innovation" title awarded by U.S. News & World report. In addition, ASU focuses on advertising innovation in a few select fields, such as astronomy and space exploration. To address these issues, a team of Lincoln Undergraduate Scholars planned an Ethics & Innovation Symposium with the theme of "Defining Our Future" for April 11, 2018. I chose to conduct a post-event analysis of logistics, successes, and failures. This additional evaluation was meant to serve as a measure of the symposium's sustainability for future years. This thesis addresses the methods of event planning (incl. marketing, gathering student presenters, catering, room reservation), results, and analysis of outcomes specifically for the Ethics & Innovation Symposium. Overall, the thesis document will benefit anyone interested in planning some event at the university level. Additional reference documents are included in this report to provide help with creating a general checklist, developing marketing deliverables, and contacting university departments/organizations.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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From Monsters to Medicine: A Historical Analysis of Changes in the Field of Teratology Over the Twentieth Century

Description

This project focuses on the history of how teratogens, or agents which have the potential to cause birth defects, have been understood and tested for teratogenic potential in the US

This project focuses on the history of how teratogens, or agents which have the potential to cause birth defects, have been understood and tested for teratogenic potential in the US over the twentieth century. Prior to this time, teratogen studies were primarily concerned with cataloguing defects rather than exploring possible causes. At the turn of the twentieth century, experimental teratogen studies with the aim of elucidating mechanisms commenced. However, these early studies did not aim to discover human pregnancy outcomes and ways to prevent them, but simply focused on the results of exposing pregnant mammals to various physical and chemical insults. My project documents the change in understanding of teratogens over the twentieth century, the advancement of testing methods, and the causes of these advancements. Through the Embryo Project at Arizona State University (embryo.asu.edu), a digital encyclopedia for topics related to embryology, development, and reproductive medicine, I wrote ten encyclopedic articles that focused on chemical mechanisms of various teratogens, testing limitations in animal models, and legal and regulatory responses to well-known teratogens. As an extension of my previous work, this project bridges the current gap in research and focuses on contextualizing major events in the field of teratology to determine how these events led to various shifts in the understanding of birth defects and their causes, and how those conceptual shifts led to the creation of teratological testing guidelines. Results show that throughout the twentieth century, there are four distinct shifts in the understanding of teratogens: the first being 1900-1945, the second being 1946-1960, the third being 1961-1980, and the fourth being 1981-2000.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Influenza Pandemic Preparedness in the Public Health Sector: How to Improve on Existing Pandemic Preparedness Plans of the Medical Community

Description

Influenza is a viral infection with the potential to infect millions worldwide. In the case of such a pandemic outbreak, direct patient interaction is handled by the medical community, composed

Influenza is a viral infection with the potential to infect millions worldwide. In the case of such a pandemic outbreak, direct patient interaction is handled by the medical community, composed of hospitals, medical professionals, and the policies that regulate them. The medical community is responsible not only for treating infected individuals, but preventing the spread of influenza to healthy individuals. Given this responsibility, the medical community has drafted preparedness plans laying down guidelines for action in the case of an influenza pandemic. This project reviewed these preparedness plans for hospitals in Arizona as well as reviewing the literature produced by the Department of Health and Human Services to guide these plans. The review revealed that the medical community is woefully unprepared to handle the number of infected individuals, projected to be close to 90 million. Plans are disorganized, outdated, and nonexistent. The conclusions of this thesis offer suggestions for pandemic policy improvement.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Twilight Sleep and its Contributions in Shaping Perceptions of Childbirth

Description

Twilight Sleep was a technique originally developed by physicians in Germany in the early 20th century as a novel way to address parturient women’s fear and aversion to pain endured

Twilight Sleep was a technique originally developed by physicians in Germany in the early 20th century as a novel way to address parturient women’s fear and aversion to pain endured during labor and childbirth. Using a combination of amnestic and analgesic agents such as scopolamine and morphine to synergistically suppress pregnant women’s memories, physicians Carl Gauss and Bernhard Krönig enabled women to give birth free of pain, or more accurately any memories of pain.

Despite widespread use throughout Europe, Twilight Sleep initially experienced less popularity and more resistance in the United States where doctors were wary of the potential health risks that Twilight Sleep brought upon women and infants. Some adverse effects caused by incorrect doses of scopolamine and morphine included hallucinations and uncontrolled thrashing in women and depressed respiration in infants. Thus, Twilight Sleep’s status as a vogue topic in obstetrics during the first half of the 20th century came about due to the work of affluent and educated American women. While lacking formal medical training, a subset of women became experts in the matter of Twilight Sleep by traveling to Germany to experience and investigate Twilight Sleep firsthand then disseminating their findings through published books and articles.

This thesis explores the impact of Twilight Sleep on women and physicians and their perceptions of childbirth. Twilight Sleep empowered women to take on a more active role in shaping the medical care they received rather than accepting that childbirth as a natural event associated with physical and mental trauma and high risk of mortality. For doctors, the debate regarding Twilight Sleep’s safety and efficacy affirmed a ubiquitous notion that childbirth ought to be seen as a pathological rather than natural event. By considering childbirth a medical condition that necessitated treatment, physicians had to evaluate their duties to their patients. In empowering women to be involved in making medical decisions and forcing physicians to balance their medical training with their patients’ needs, Twilight Sleep helped to establishing more reciprocal doctor-patient relationships.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Communicating Medical Information to College Students

Description

Most individuals entering college are taking responsibility for their own health for the first time. Students are used to having a parent or guardian nearby to diagnose and provide remedies

Most individuals entering college are taking responsibility for their own health for the first time. Students are used to having a parent or guardian nearby to diagnose and provide remedies for common health issues. Entering college, whether in a different city or just down the road, means they must assume those responsibilities themselves. Navigating that transition can be difficult for college students. A large majority of students turn to internet health resources, such as WebMD, for health information. However, studies show that despite overall internet savvy, college students are not very skilled at finding legitimate health information online. Therefore, a health resource designed specifically for college students would be a valuable resource for many students at ASU. Working with local Phoenix physician Doug Lakin, I and a team of other Barrett students revised Dr. Lakin's healthcare guide, Thrive 101: Health & Wellness for College Students. I was responsible for the guide's second chapter, which provides information on specific illnesses and injuries. I conducted a literature review to discover the best practices for communicating medical information. I found that using short sentences, simple words, bullet point lists, numbered lists, and subheadings improved the effectiveness of a health resource. I also found that health information seekers want resources to be tailored specifically for them. They want personalized resources. Personalization means including health information that the intended reader wants, excluding the health information the reader does not want, as well as featuring personal anecdotes from individuals like the reader dealing with health problems like the reader's. I applied what I discovered to Thrive 101. I reorganized the chapter I was assigned, incorporating subheadings and clear organization of the information. I also eliminated information I judged irrelevant to college students and brainstormed what information was missing that college students would benefit from. At this time, the revision team has not gotten to the point where we are researching and writing new information, but we do have lists of items we want to include. The information already in the guide I reformatted into bulleted and numbered lists where possible. As with the new information, we have not begun to revise the guide on a prose level, shortening the sentences and simplifying the vocabulary, but we intend to work into the summer to finish our revisions.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Surprising Religious and Republican Roots to Planned Parenthood: An Arizona Case Study

Description

Planned Parenthood, one of the United States' largest providers of reproductive health services, has campaigned for decades to secure women's reproductive rights in the political sphere. However, few scholars have

Planned Parenthood, one of the United States' largest providers of reproductive health services, has campaigned for decades to secure women's reproductive rights in the political sphere. However, few scholars have written on the social and political history that preceded the general religious and Republican hostility toward the organization in the twenty-first century. Through Planned Parenthood's growth in the mid-twentieth century, both political parties and many religious organizations pushed for family planning and access to contraception as solutions to population growth and poverty. Arizona was used as a case study to examine the broader context of the shift in the ideas of political parties and religious organizations surrounding the reproductive rights movement from the start of the twentieth century until the 1980s. The historical trajectory of the shifting religious and political support for Planned Parenthood Arizona was demonstrated using both a literature review and archival research. Throughout the early 1900s, Republicans advocated for limited governmental intrusion into citizens' lives, which extended to women's reproduction, where contraception was seen as a private decision between a woman and her doctor. That changed in the late twentieth century when religious concerns exacerbated the political discussion following the legalization of abortion in 1973 and the appointment of Ronald Regan in 1981, one of the first outspoken pro-life presidents. Planned Parenthood faced increasing criticism from religious organizations and the Republican Party. The social and political history surrounding Planned Parenthood Arizona illustrates the interplay between politics and the reproductive rights movement throughout the twentieth century. The contextualization of major historical events during the development of Planned Parenthood Arizona gives insight into the current political and religious beliefs regarding the reproductive rights movement.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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An Analysis of the Medical Scribe Experience and the Role of Narrative Medicine for Pre-Medical Students

Description

The medical scribe industry is relatively new and populated with pre-medical students trying to gain the necessary experience to be considered qualified candidates for medical school. However, with the emergence

The medical scribe industry is relatively new and populated with pre-medical students trying to gain the necessary experience to be considered qualified candidates for medical school. However, with the emergence of any new industry, there are bound to be flaws in the infrastructure of the position. I chose to investigate the discrepancies between what medical scribe companies were advertising to attract pre-medical students and what pre-medical students reported that they were gaining from the experience. I used qualitative content analysis and a deductive research design based on my own experience and the experience of my fellow scribes. I looked at how medical scribing affected pre-medical students and what struggles they faced when working as a medical scribe. I found that while students reported many negative components of scribing, and that medical scribing companies did not prepare their applicants well for those challenges, most scribes still expressed a significant education benefit to the experience which outweigh the drawbacks. Lastly, I propose the importance of narrative medicine in helping to deal with the hardships of the position and how narrative medicine can serve as a tool for self-reflection on the path to making the next generation of physicians.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Visualizing the Embryo: Establishing Procedures for Digital image Production with the Embryo Project

Description

The Embryo Project (EP) Encyclopedia is an online database that has consolidated hundreds of development-related research articles, with subcategories addressing the context of such research. These articles are written by

The Embryo Project (EP) Encyclopedia is an online database that has consolidated hundreds of development-related research articles, with subcategories addressing the context of such research. These articles are written by undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals in the fields of biology, history, and other fields, and are intended for a diverse audience of readers from both biology and non-biology related backgrounds. As the EP addresses a public audience, it is imperative to utilize all possible means to share the information that each article covers. Until 2013, the EP Encyclopedia did not present images in articles as no formal protocol for image development existed. I have created an image style guide that outlines the basic steps of creating and submitting an image that can complement an EP article and can enhance a reader's understanding of the discussed concept. In creating this style guide, I investigated similar protocols used by other scientific journals and medical professionals. I also used different programs and based my style guide off of the procedures I used in Adobe Illustrator CS6.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Abortion: An objective lens at the formation of the polarization and stigma

Description

Abortion is a highly controversial procedure, and it has divided the country into two factions: pro-life and pro-choice. This intense debate is marred by anger through protests and violent actions

Abortion is a highly controversial procedure, and it has divided the country into two factions: pro-life and pro-choice. This intense debate is marred by anger through protests and violent actions against supporters of abortion. With all of the tension surrounding the moral significance of the abortion issue, the question arises: How did specific figureheads, events, and contributing factors lead to the generation of the stigma and polarization surrounding the dichotomy of pro-life versus pro-choice abortion stances in the United States of America?

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Date Created
  • 2015-05