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Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in Insulin Resistant Latinos with the Metabolic Syndrome

Description

Although insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is well-characterized, the role of circulating whole blood in the metabolic syndrome phenotype is not well understood. We set out to test the hypothesis

Although insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is well-characterized, the role of circulating whole blood in the metabolic syndrome phenotype is not well understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that genes involved in inflammation, insulin signaling and mitochondrial function would be altered in expression in the whole blood of individuals with metabolic syndrome. We further wanted to examine whether similar relationships that we have found previously in skeletal muscle exist in peripheral whole blood cells. All subjects (n=184) were Latino descent from the Arizona Insulin Resistance registry. Subjects were classified based on the metabolic syndrome phenotype according to the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III. Of the 184 Latino subjects in the study, 74 were classified with the metabolic syndrome and 110 were without. Whole blood gene expression profiling was performed using the Agilent 4x44K Whole Human Genome Microarray. Whole blood microarray analysis identified 1,432 probes that were altered in expression ≥1.2 fold and P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg in the metabolic syndrome subjects. KEGG pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways including ribosome, oxidative phosphorylation and MAPK signaling (all Benjamini-Hochberg P<0.05). Whole blood mRNA expression changes observed in the microarray data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Transcription factor binding motif enrichment analysis revealed E2F1, ELK1, NF-kappaB, STAT1 and STAT3 significantly enriched after Bonferroni correction (all P<0.05). The results of the present study demonstrate that whole blood is a useful tissue for studying the metabolic syndrome and its underlying insulin resistance although the relationship between blood and skeletal muscle differs.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12-17

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Ethnicity and elevated liver transaminases among newly diagnosed children with type 2 diabetes

Description

Background
To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27

Background
To examine the influence of ethnicity on liver transaminases among adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
A retrospective medical chart review of 57 (30 males and 27 females) newly diagnosed patients with T2DM. Ethnicity was determined by self-report and height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were obtained using standard clinical procedures. Fasting levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were collected prior to the initiation of any therapy.
Results
Age, gender, height, weight, BMI, and HbA1c did not differ between ethnic groups. Compared to African-Americans, Hispanics had significantly higher ALT (23.9 ± 3.4 vs. 107.8 ± 20.3, p=0.002) and AST (17.7 ± 2.5 vs. 71.1 ± 15.7, p<0.001) and were significantly more likely to have ALT values above the upper limit of normal (20% vs. 71%, p=0.005) and twice the upper limit of normal (0% vs. 39%, p=0.05) as well as AST values above the upper limit of normal (0% vs. 53%, p=0.002). No differences in ALT or AST were found between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites or between African-Americans and non-Hispanic whites.
Conclusions
These preliminary findings suggest that Hispanic children with T2DM may be at higher risk for developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and indicate that a comprehensive hepatic evaluation is warranted in this population. Future studies that incorporate more precise and proximal measures of liver health are warranted in this population.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-11-07