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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the driving force of the human body which allows individuals to move freely. Metabolism is responsible for its creation, and research has indicated that with training, metabolism can be modified to respond more efficiently to aerobic stimulus. During an acute bout of exercise, cardiac output increases to maintain oxygen supply to the body. Oxidative muscle fibers contract to move the body for prolonged periods of time, creating oxidative stress which is managed by the mitochondria which produce the ATP that supplies the muscle fiber, and as the body returns to its resting state, oxygen continues to be consumed in order to return to steady state. Following endurance training, changes in cardiac output, muscle fiber types, mitochondria, substrate utilization, and oxygen consumption following exercise make adaptations to make metabolism more efficient. Resting heart rate decreases and stroke volume increases. Fast twitch muscle fibers shift into more oxidative fibers, sometimes through mitochondrial biogenesis, and more fat is able to be utilized during exercise. The excess postexercise oxygen consumption following exercise bouts is reduced, and return to steady state becomes quicker. In conclusion, endurance training optimizes metabolic response during acute bouts of aerobic exercise.
Resistance training is a modality of exercise that has grown in popularity over the past two decades, particularly for its role in improving muscular fitness by increasing muscular strength, power, and hypertrophy. Due to this increase in demand, more and more people are entering the gym for their first time and eager to learn about the ways to get bigger and stronger as fast as possible. The aim of this summary is to provide evidence-based information that resistance trainers or fitness personnel can use to design an effective training program. In order to optimize your resistance training protocol there are three main areas to focus on: increasing volume, managing intensity, and active recovery.
Given the importance of arm mechanics in sprinting and the utility of F-V profiles, the purpose of the following study was to determine the effects of forearm WR on the horizontal F-V profile during sprinting. To determine the effect of forearm WR on the horizontal F-V profile during sprinting, a cross-sectional, repeated measure within subjects design was used, with athletes assessed both with and without forearm WR. The WR condition used 2% BM attached to the forearms. In a randomized order, subjects performed a series of maximal effort 30 m sprints; two unloaded sprints and four with WR. Three sprints were executed from a block start: one unloaded, and two with WR. The additional three sprints were executed from a split-stance start: one unloaded and two with WR. From this study, 2%BM WR was found to significantly increase sprint times from both block and standing starts. It also significantly decreased V0 and Fsystem from a block start and Psystem from a standing start. The significance from a block start may imply the arm’s greater role during the start and acceleration phases of sprinting during that position. The overloading of V0 from a block start in the F-V profile points to forearm WR as a possible tool for athletes to use during training who are overly force dominant from a block start and need to shift their profile to V0 dominance or balance in general.
Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States and is a result of a several of factors, including an individual's genetics, environment, and societal influences. Of the most important, however, when managing weight is the balance between energy expenditure and energy intake. One's total energy expenditure is constituted of four main components: resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food, non-exercise thermogenesis, and exercise thermogenesis. The most prominent of these is RMR, which accounts for about 60-70% of an individual's total energy expenditure.
Differences in RMR amongst individuals is dependent on a multitude of variables including height, adiposity, age, body mass, training status, and of most importance, fat-free mass (FFM). Research shows that the greater the body size, the greater the RMR. This positive association between height and body mass with RMR is attributed to more massive organ systems needed in order to meet the greater metabolic demands of a bigger individual. Research also supports that age is negatively associated with RMR. This is mostly due to sarcopenia, or the loss of muscle mass. The most important determinant of RMR, however, is FFM. Unlike body mass, FFM only accounts for metabolically active tissues including muscle, bone, blood, and all organs. Fat-free mass has been reported to account for up to 80% of the variance in RMR. Resistance training is shown to increase FFM, which results in increases in RMR. However, there are several elements to a successful, progressive resistance training protocols that result in increases in muscular strength and hypertrophy. Strength and hypertrophy gains result in a greater oxidative capacity of muscle, and consequentially a greater RMR. The most influential factor in muscular strength and hypertrophic resistance training is intensity. Moderate intensity programs are recommended for the nonathletic adult population for safety purposes. An intensity 4 of about 80% 1 RM is appropriate for increases in FFM. Training protocols lasting at least three months and that incorporate whole-body exercises have the greatest effects on FFM and RMR. Most studies show that increases in FFM of 1-2 kg are necessary increase RMR by about 3-8%. Interestingly, RT can produce similar increases in RMR and FFM in obese and overweight populations in leaner individuals. Implementing resistance training has been shown to be an effective method in managing weight and increasing both RMR and FFM.
Athletes often train consecutive days in a row without a period of rest long enough to fully
recover before the next training session. Regular muscle soreness usually resolves in a week, but rarely do athletes get that time to recover. While muscle recovery is important for optimizing daily functioning, it is also of growing importance for athletes to optimize their athletic performance. Cold water immersion is a common technique used to improve muscle recovery. Whether CWI improves the body’s physiological recovery response or impacts the individual’s psychological recovery is unknown, but research has shown that cold water immersion performed at 10-15 degrees Celsius and immersion times between 5 and 15 minutes are better for muscle recovery than passive recovery.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe similarities and differences within soccer players during a 5-10-5 agility drill between the first and second change of direction. Overall body mechanics and center of mass position relative to the feet were assessed within players. Methods: A total of 6 soccer players participated in the study. Each player ran through the 5-10-5 agility drill 10 times. All trials were video recorded and oriented to include the whole drill. Data was assessed using the program Kinovea (open-source) for 5 out of the 6 players. One player was excluded due to not meeting the inclusion criteria. The metrics assessed were total time to complete the task, the change of direction time, the time it took for the lag leg to stop moving laterally to the planting of the lead leg, and the leg angle. All tasks, except for total task time, were assessed for both the first and second change of direction. An individual analysis was performed for each player in order to obtain observational differences between the first and second change of direction for players. Results: The total task time determined the order of the players, thus the fastest player became player 1 and the slowest player 5. Players 1, 2, 4, and 5 were all found to have a statistical significance in change of direction time. When statistically significant the change of direction time was faster for the second change of direction. The slower players, player 4 and 5, had a statistically significant difference in leg angle, with the leg angle being larger for the first change of direction. Player 3 had no significant differences between any of the metrics. When looking closer at the faster players an observable difference in center of mass position relative to the feet was observed. The second change of direction showed the center of mass being positioned further anterior to the feet, and better mechanics were used to slow down and prepare to change direction. Discussion: The center of mass position relative to the feet could likely explain why the second change of direction was faster for 4 out of the 5 players. With the current information from the present study it could be adapted to help coaches instruct players to incorporate better mechanics into their change of direction tasks, and possibly improve their agility. This study could be improved by using multiple camera angles, high definition cameras, body markers, and force plates. By using these tools information could be obtained about variables that impact change of direction tasks but were not measured in the current study.
Swing dancing is a form of partnered dancing that has a focus on social interactions. The purpose of this study is to determine how social factors and intrinsic motivation effect how college age students perceive how much energy exertion swing dancing requires compared to traditional exercise. 20 ASU students were split into 10 female-male couples. The participants first completed a 30-minute session of social dancing and then a week later completed a 30-minute session of cycling on a stationary bike. Physiological data was collected using a Polar heart rate (HR) monitor wristwatch and chest strap. The HR of participants was taken after a period of rest and every five minutes during swing dancing and cycling. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured based on a Borg scale (6-20). RPE was taken after a period of rest and every five minutes during swing dancing and cycling. After both physiological sessions a psychological survey was distributed measuring the social factors of dancing, the intrinsic motivation of dancing, and the intrinsic motivation of traditional exercise. There was no significant difference between average HR during rest (p=0.34) or during the two types of exercises (p=0.26). There also was no significant difference in RPE during rest (p=0.33) or during the two types of exercises (p=0.46). At the same intensity participants perceived swing dancing to require as much energy exertion as cycling. Participants were significantly more intrinsically motivated to swing dance compared to traditional exercise. Participants reported high levels of social factors while swing dancing and these social factors had a moderately positive effect on intrinsic motivation for swing dancing. People are more intrinsically motivated to engage in swing dancing over traditional exercise and this may be due to the high social factors found in partnered dancing. Swing dancing is a form of exercise that can be used to reach the recommended level of physical activity.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare cardiovascular responses of two different types of yoga (Vinyasa Flow and Meditative).
Methods: 9 female college students (age 18-24) were assigned to two yoga sessions, Vinyasa Flow and Meditative yoga. Each participant attended one session of each type of yoga, where their cardiovascular responses were measured both pre and post yoga session. Heart rate, Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE), and blood pressure were all measured.
Results: Meditative yoga showed a significant difference in the acute response of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and RPE. Vinyasa Flow yoga showed a significant difference the acute response of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and RPE. Heart rate was significantly different when comparing measurements before each yoga session. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and RPE were all significantly different when comparing acute measurements after each respective session. Significance was set to p < 0.05.
Conclusions: Overall, the hypothesis was supported that there was a difference in cardiovascular measurements. Meditative yoga was better at significantly decreasing blood pressure acutely, whereas Vinyasa Flow yoga increased blood pressure acutely. This suggests that Meditative yoga could be suggested over Vinyasa Flow yoga for certain individuals with hypertension. Differences between the yoga practices were found and the cardiovascular effects of different yoga practices can be better understood due to this research.
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of yoga intensity on stress in a population of college-aged females. Stress has been shown to negatively impact health both physically and mentally, therefore it is imperative that there is a way to combat these negative health effects. Participants included females between the ages of 18-25 who had been participating in physical activity 3-5 days per week (n=11). Stress was measured by a Stress Indicators Questionnaire, which was modified to fit the aim of the study. The yoga classes were displayed through a program called YogaGlo. The data was scored and analyzed with a modified scoring guideline based off of the questionnaire guidelines and with the use of Excel. The results showed that there was a statistically significant effect of both low (p value= 0.02) and high (p value= 0.01) intensity yoga on stress. There was not a statistically significant effect between yoga intensity on stress (p value= 0.3). The results from this study should be used for further research on yoga and various aspects of mental health, such as anxiety and depression, with a female population of all ages.
Psychological stress is thought to arise from appraisal processes that ascribe threat-related meaning to experiences that tax or exceed our coping ability (Gianaros & Wager, 2015). Gianaros & Wager (2015) found that there is a positive correlation between brain-body pathways which link psychological stress and physical health. The stress response includes sympathetic nervous system activation, which is equitable to the fight-or-flight response and increases heart rate and blood pressure (Al’Absi et al., 2016). Stress affects multiple physiological systems including the immune and reproductive systems. Cardiovascular disease is one of the main risks of prolonged stress, with research indicated an association between stress and a significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease (Backe et al., 2012; Rosengren et al., 2004). With cardiovascular disease being a main contributor to illness and death in the United States, it is crucial that the disease is prevented or treated.