Matching Items (52)

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Activity of Lactobacillus brevis Alcohol Dehydrogenase on Primary and Secondary Alcohol Biofuel Precursors

Description

The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Lactobacillus brevis LB19 (LbADH) was studied with respect to its ability to reduce a series of 3- through 5-carbon 2-alkanones and aldehydes of relevance

The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Lactobacillus brevis LB19 (LbADH) was studied with respect to its ability to reduce a series of 3- through 5-carbon 2-alkanones and aldehydes of relevance as biofuel precursors. Although active on all substrates tested, LbADH displays a marked preference for longer chain substrates. Interestingly, however, 2-alkanones were found to impose substrate inhibition towards LbADH, whereas aldehyde substrates rendered no such effect. Inhibition caused by 2-alkanones was furthermore found to intensify with increasing chain length. Despite demonstrating both primary and secondary ADH activities, a preliminary sequence analysis suggests that LbADH remains distinct from other, previously characterized primary-secondary ADHs. In addition to further characterizing the substrate range of this industrially important enzyme, this study suggests that LbADH has the potential to serve as a useful enzyme for the engineering of various novel alcohol biofuel pathways.

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  • 2015-08-05

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Augmenting Protocols for In-situ Separation of Biocompounds.

Description

In our modern world the source of for many chemicals is to acquire and refine oil. This process is becoming an expensive to the environment and to human health. Alternative

In our modern world the source of for many chemicals is to acquire and refine oil. This process is becoming an expensive to the environment and to human health. Alternative processes for acquiring the final product have been developed but still need work. One product that is valuable is butanol. The normal process for butanol production is very intensive but there is a method to produce butanol from bacteria. This process is better because it is more environmentally safe than using oil. One problem however is that when the bacteria produce too much butanol it reaches the toxicity limit and stops the production of butanol. In order to keep butanol from reaching the toxicity limit an adsorbent is used to remove the butanol without harming the bacteria. The adsorbent is a mesoporous carbon powder that allows the butanol to be adsorbed on it. This thesis explores different designs for a magnetic separation process to extract the carbon powder from the culture.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Engineering a Co-Culture of Bacteria and Yeast for the Production of Renewable p-Coumaric Acid

Description

p-Coumaric acid is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its versatile properties. While prevalent in nature, harvesting the compound from natural sources is inefficient, requiring large

p-Coumaric acid is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries due to its versatile properties. While prevalent in nature, harvesting the compound from natural sources is inefficient, requiring large quantities of producing crops and numerous extraction and purification steps. Thus, the large-scale production of the compound is both difficult and costly. This research aims to produce p-coumarate directly from renewable and sustainable glucose using a co-culture of Yeast and E. Coli. Methods used in this study include: designing optimal media for mixed-species microbial growth, genetically engineering both strains to build the production pathway with maximum yield, and analyzing the presence of p-Coumarate and its pathway intermediates using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). To date, the results of this project include successful integration of C4H activity into the yeast strain BY4741 ∆FDC1, yielding a strain that completely consumed trans-cinnamate (initial concentration of 50 mg/L) and produced ~56 mg/L p-coumarate, a resting cell assay of the co-culture that produced 0.23 mM p-coumarate from an initial L-Phenylalanine concentration of 1.14 mM, and toxicity tests that confirmed the toxicity of trans-cinnamate to yeast for concentrations above ~50 mg/L. The hope for this project is to create a feasible method for producing p-Coumarate sustainably.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Enhancing the Expression Levels of Fabs in Escherichia coli

Description

Enhancing the expression levels of Fabs (antigen-binding antibody fragments) in Escherichia coli is a difficult field that has a variety of potential exciting implications. The field has grown substantially in

Enhancing the expression levels of Fabs (antigen-binding antibody fragments) in Escherichia coli is a difficult field that has a variety of potential exciting implications. The field has grown substantially in the past twenty years. The main area of difficulty is facilitating the entry of the antibody fragments into the periplasm of E. Coli, where the antibody fragments can be successfully expressed. Entry into the periplasm is difficult for antibody fragments due to their inability to fold in any other section besides the periplasm. Therefore it is necessary for the antibody to enter the periplasm in an unfolded state. Background research was done into inspecting the three primary methods of periplasmic entry: the Sec-dependent pathway, the SRP-dependent pathway (signal recognition particle) and the TAT-dependent pathway (twin arginine translocase). The Sec-dependent and SRP-dependent pathways were deemed more viable for expressing antibodies due to their ability to transfer an unfolded protein into the periplasm, which the TAT-dependent pathway cannot do. Academic research showed that the Sec-dependent and SRP-dependent pathways were equally viable methods, with more research being done into the Sec-dependent pathway, particularly of the OmpA signal sequence. Physical experiments were done using typical cloning procedures with slight modifications to the ligation step (Gibson Assembly was performed instead of normal ligation). These physical experiments showed that the Sec-dependent and SRP-dependent pathways were equally viable methods of periplasmic entry. The A4 and C6 antibodies were successfully expressed using these pathways. These antibodies were expressed on an SDS gel using 10% SDS. It was hypothesized that with further experimental modifications, using different signal sequences, Fabs can be expressed at higher and more consistent level.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Literature Review to Analyze Pathway Bottlenecks for the Microbial Production of Flavonoids

Description

The development of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the microbial production of high-value products has made this bacterium an industrial workhorse. This metabolically engineered microbe is capable of accumulating and secreting flavonoids,

The development of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the microbial production of high-value products has made this bacterium an industrial workhorse. This metabolically engineered microbe is capable of accumulating and secreting flavonoids, a class of high functioning compounds found in plants. In human health, flavonoids are known to have powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral properties which has led the growing interest to produce these compounds commercially. Recent literature seeks to overcome potential pathway bottlenecks to optimize flavonoid production by regulating protein expression within the central carbon, shikimate, chorismate, and fatty acid synthesis pathways. This paper reviews engineering strategies performed to increase the precursor titers of malonyl-CoA, phenylalanine, and tyrosine for increased flavonoid production.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Engineering High Yield Production of L-Serine in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

Description

Cyanobacteria have the potential to efficiently produce L-serine, an industrially important amino acid, directly from CO2 and sunlight, which is a more sustainable and inexpensive source of energy as compared

Cyanobacteria have the potential to efficiently produce L-serine, an industrially important amino acid, directly from CO2 and sunlight, which is a more sustainable and inexpensive source of energy as compared to current methods. The research aims to engineer a strain of Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 that increases L-serine production by mutating regulatory mechanisms that natively inhibit its production and encoding an exporter. While an excess of L-serine was not found in the supernatant of the cell cultures, with further fine tuning of the metabolic pathway and culture conditions, high titers of L-serine can be found. With the base strain engineered, the work can be extended and optimized by deleting degradation pathways, tuning gene expression levels, optimizing growth conditions, and investigating the effects of nitrogen supplementation for the strain.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Identification of aromatic-inducible promoters and heterologous biosensors as tuning elements for styrene production in E. coli

Description

One of the primary bottlenecks to chemical production in biological organisms is the toxicity of the chemical. Overexpression of efflux pumps has been shown to increase tolerance to aromatic compounds

One of the primary bottlenecks to chemical production in biological organisms is the toxicity of the chemical. Overexpression of efflux pumps has been shown to increase tolerance to aromatic compounds such as styrene and styrene oxide. Tight control of pump expression is necessary to maximize titers and prevent excessive strain on the cells. This study aimed to identify aromatic-sensitive native promoters and heterologous biosensors for construction of closed-loop control of efflux pump expression in E. coli. Using a promoter library constructed by Zaslaver et al., activation was measured through GFP output. Promoters were evaluated for their sensitivity to the addition of one of four aromatic compounds, their "leaking" of signal, and their induction threshold. Out of 43 targeted promoters, 4 promoters (cmr, mdtG, yahN, yajR) for styrene oxide, 2 promoters (mdtG, yahN) for styrene, 0 promoters for 2-phenylethanol, and 1 promoter for phenol (pheP) were identified as ideal control elements in aromatic bioproduction. In addition, a series of three biosensors (NahR, XylS, DmpR) known to be inducible by other aromatics were screened against styrene oxide, 2-phenylethanol, and phenol. The targeted application of these biosensors is aromatic-induced activation of linked efflux pumps. All three biosensors responded strongly in the presence of styrene oxide and 2-phenylethanol, with minor activation in the presence of phenol. Bioproduction of aromatics continues to gain traction in the biotechnology industry, and the continued discovery of aromatic-inducible elements will be essential to effective pathway control.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Cheminformatic-based characterization of malate and lactate export networks

Description

Fermentative bioproduction is an efficient production avenue for many small organic acids with less greenhouse gas emissions than petrochemical conversion. Export of these organic acids from the cell is proposed

Fermentative bioproduction is an efficient production avenue for many small organic acids with less greenhouse gas emissions than petrochemical conversion. Export of these organic acids from the cell is proposed to be mediated by networks of transmembrane transport proteins. However characterization of full transporter networks or the substrate promiscuity of individual transporters is often incomplete. Here, we used a cheminformatic approach to predict previously unknown native activity of E. coli transporters based on substrate promiscuity. Experimental validation in characterized several major putative malate exporters, whereas others were characterized as weak putative lactate exporters. The lactate export network remains incompletely characterized and might be mediated by a large, evolved network of promiscuous transporters.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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A Study of an Inclusion Observed Under Transmission Electron Microscopy in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

Description

Transmission electron microscopy has been used to identify poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules in cyanobacteria for over 40 years. Electron-transparent (sometimes containing a slightly electron-dense area in the inclusions) or slightly electron-dense

Transmission electron microscopy has been used to identify poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules in cyanobacteria for over 40 years. Electron-transparent (sometimes containing a slightly electron-dense area in the inclusions) or slightly electron-dense spherical inclusions found in transmission electron micrographs of cyanobacteria are often assumed to be PHB granules. The aim of this study was to test this assumption in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and to determine whether all inclusions of this kind are indeed PHB granules. Based on the results gathered, it is concluded that not all of the slightly electron-dense spherical inclusions are PHB granules in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. This result is potentially applicable to other cyanobacteria.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Improving Biochemical Production in Escherichia coli through Nutrient Limitation

Description

Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is used widely in metabolic engineering due to its ability to grow at a fast rate and to be cultured easily. E. coli can

Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is used widely in metabolic engineering due to its ability to grow at a fast rate and to be cultured easily. E. coli can be engineered to produce many valuable chemicals, including biofuels and L-Phenylalanine—a precursor to many pharmaceuticals. Significant cell growth occurs in parallel to the biosynthesis of the desired biofuel or biochemical product, and limits product concentrations and yields. Stopping cell growth can improve chemical production since more resources will go toward chemical production than toward biomass. The goal of the project is to test different methods of controlling microbial uptake of nutrients, specifically phosphate, to dynamically limit cell growth and improve biochemical production of E. coli, and the research has the potential to promote public health, sustainability, and environment. This can be achieved by targeting phosphate transporter genes using CRISPRi and CRISPR, and they will limit the uptake of phosphate by targeting the phosphate transporter genes in DNA, which will stop transcriptions of the genes. In the experiment, NST74∆crr∆pykAF, a L-Phe overproducer, was used as the base strain, and the pitA phosphate transporter gene was targeted in the CRISPRi and CRISPR systems with the strain with other phosphate transporters knocked out. The tested CRISPRi and CRISPR mechanisms did not stop cell growth or improved L-Phe production. Further research will be conducted to determine the problem of the system. In addition, the CRISPRi and CRISPR systems that target multiple phosphate transporter genes will be tested in the future as well as the other method of stopping transcriptions of the phosphate transporter genes, which is called a tunable toggle switch mechanism.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05