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Soft Robotics: A Quasi-Passive Knee Brace to Assist in Lifting

Description

This research evaluated soft robotic knee brace designs that were intended to reduce the risk of injury, chronic pain, and osteoarthritis in laborers tasked with repetitive lifting. A soft robotic quasi-passive system was proposed due to energy efficiency, comfortability, and

This research evaluated soft robotic knee brace designs that were intended to reduce the risk of injury, chronic pain, and osteoarthritis in laborers tasked with repetitive lifting. A soft robotic quasi-passive system was proposed due to energy efficiency, comfortability, and weight. The researcher developed three quasi-passive knee brace systems that would store energy when the user attempted a squat lift and release the energy when the user stood up. The first design focused on using clamped layered leaf springs to create an increased resistive force when the user bends at the knee. The researchers found that because of the unideal clamping of the springs the design failed to produce a significant increase to the forces the user experienced. The second design used a change in length of the layered leaf springs to provide a significant change in force. Through simple tests, the researchers found that the design did create a change in force significant enough to warrant further testing of the design in the future. The third and final design was inspired by a previous honors thesis by Ryan Bellman, this design used pre-stretched elastic bands to create an increased bending moment. Through experimental testing, the researchers found that the elastic bands created a factor increase of 8 from a non-loaded test. Further work would include prototyping a knee brace design and developing a method to allow the user to stretch and unstretch the elastic bands at will. In conclusion, design 2 and design 3 have the potential to significantly increase the well being of workers and increase their knee longevity.

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2019-05

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Analysis and Simulation of Wiseman Hypocycloid Engine

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This research studies an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion engines, which was proposed by the Wiseman Technologies Inc. Their design involved replacing the crankshaft with a hypocycloid gear assembly. The unique hypocycloid gear arrangement allowed the piston

This research studies an alternative to the slider-crank mechanism for internal combustion engines, which was proposed by the Wiseman Technologies Inc. Their design involved replacing the crankshaft with a hypocycloid gear assembly. The unique hypocycloid gear arrangement allowed the piston and connecting rod to move in a straight line creating a perfect sinusoidal motion, without any side loads. In this work, the Wiseman hypocycloid engine was modeled in a commercial engine simulation software and compared to slider-crank engine of the same size. The engine’s performance was studied, while operating on diesel, ethanol, and gasoline fuel. Furthermore, a scaling analysis on the Wiseman engine prototypes was carried out to understand how the performance of the engine is affected by increasing the output power and cylinder displacement.

It was found that the existing 30cc Wiseman engine produced about 7% less power at peak speeds than the slider-crank engine of the same size. These results were concurrent with the dynamometer tests performed in the past. It also produced lower torque and was about 6% less fuel efficient than the slider-crank engine. The four-stroke diesel variant of the same Wiseman engine performed better than the two-stroke gasoline version. The Wiseman engine with a contra piston (that allowed to vary the compression ratio) showed poor fuel efficiency but produced higher torque when operating on E85 fuel. It also produced about 1.4% more power than while running on gasoline. While analyzing effects of the engine size on the Wiseman hypocycloid engine prototypes, it was found that the engines performed better in terms of power, torque, fuel efficiency, and cylinder brake mean effective pressure as the displacement increased. The 30 horsepower (HP) conceptual Wiseman prototype, while operating on E85, produced the most optimum results in all aspects, and the diesel test for the same engine proved to be the most fuel efficient.

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Date Created
2014-12-16

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Non-destructive resonance testing using frequency and time domain techniques

Description

The objective of this thesis was to compare various approaches for classification of the `good' and `bad' parts via non-destructive resonance testing methods by collecting and analyzing experimental data in the frequency and time domains. A Laser Scanning Vibrometer was

The objective of this thesis was to compare various approaches for classification of the `good' and `bad' parts via non-destructive resonance testing methods by collecting and analyzing experimental data in the frequency and time domains. A Laser Scanning Vibrometer was employed to measure vibrations samples in order to determine the spectral characteristics such as natural frequencies and amplitudes. Statistical pattern recognition tools such as Hilbert Huang, Fisher's Discriminant, and Neural Network were used to identify and classify the unknown samples whether they are defective or not. In this work, a Finite Element Analysis software packages (ANSYS 13.0 and NASTRAN NX8.0) was used to obtain estimates of resonance frequencies in `good' and `bad' samples. Furthermore, a system identification approach was used to generate Auto-Regressive-Moving Average with exogenous component, Box-Jenkins, and Output Error models from experimental data that can be used for classification

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Date Created
2013

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Performance and scaling analysis of a hypocycloid wiseman engine

Description

The slider-crank mechanism is popularly used in internal combustion engines to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion. This research discusses an alternate mechanism proposed by the Wiseman Technology Inc. which involves replacing the crankshaft with

The slider-crank mechanism is popularly used in internal combustion engines to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion. This research discusses an alternate mechanism proposed by the Wiseman Technology Inc. which involves replacing the crankshaft with a hypocycloid gear assembly. The unique hypocycloid gear arrangement allows the piston and the connecting rod to move in a straight line, creating a perfect sinusoidal motion. To analyze the performance advantages of the Wiseman mechanism, engine simulation software was used. The Wiseman engine with the hypocycloid piston motion was modeled in the software and the engine's simulated output results were compared to those with a conventional engine of the same size. The software was also used to analyze the multi-fuel capabilities of the Wiseman engine using a contra piston. The engine's performance was studied while operating on diesel, ethanol and gasoline fuel. Further, a scaling analysis on the future Wiseman engine prototypes was carried out to understand how the performance of the engine is affected by increasing the output power and cylinder displacement. It was found that the existing Wiseman engine produced about 7% less power at peak speeds compared to the slider-crank engine of the same size. It also produced lower torque and was about 6% less fuel efficient than the slider-crank engine. These results were concurrent with the dynamometer tests performed in the past. The 4 stroke diesel variant of the same Wiseman engine performed better than the 2 stroke gasoline version as well as the slider-crank engine in all aspects. The Wiseman engine using contra piston showed poor fuel efficiency while operating on E85 fuel. But it produced higher torque and about 1.4% more power than while running on gasoline. While analyzing the effects of the engine size on the Wiseman prototypes, it was found that the engines performed better in terms of power, torque, fuel efficiency and cylinder BMEP as their displacements increased. The 30 horsepower (HP) prototype, while operating on E85, produced the most optimum results in all aspects and the diesel variant of the same engine proved to be the most fuel efficient.

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Date Created
2014

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Load carrying assistance device: pogo suit

Description

Wearable robots including exoskeletons, powered prosthetics, and powered orthotics must add energy to the person at an appropriate time to enhance, augment, or supplement human performance. Adding energy while not being in sync with the user can dramatically hurt performance

Wearable robots including exoskeletons, powered prosthetics, and powered orthotics must add energy to the person at an appropriate time to enhance, augment, or supplement human performance. Adding energy while not being in sync with the user can dramatically hurt performance making it necessary to have correct timing with the user. Many human tasks such as walking, running, and hopping are repeating or cyclic tasks and a robot can add energy in sync with the repeating pattern for assistance. A method has been developed to add energy at the appropriate time to the repeating limit cycle based on a phase oscillator. The phase oscillator eliminates time from the forcing function which is based purely on the motion of the user. This approach has been simulated, implemented and tested in a robotic backpack which facilitates carrying heavy loads. The device oscillates the load of the backpack, based on the motion of the user, in order to add energy at the correct time and thus reduce the amount of energy required for walking with a heavy load. Models were developed in Working Model 2-D, a dynamics simulation software, in conjunction with MATLAB to verify theory and test control methods. The control system developed is robust and has successfully operated on a range of different users, each with their own different and distinct gait. The results of experimental testing validated the corresponding models.

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Date Created
2014

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Stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems

Description

In this work, we focused on the stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems. We examined the quasi-periodic linear Mathieu equation of the form x ̈+(ä+ϵ[cost+cosùt])x=0 The stability of solutions of Mathieu's equation as a function of parameter values (ä,ϵ) had

In this work, we focused on the stability and reducibility of quasi-periodic systems. We examined the quasi-periodic linear Mathieu equation of the form x ̈+(ä+ϵ[cost+cosùt])x=0 The stability of solutions of Mathieu's equation as a function of parameter values (ä,ϵ) had been analyzed in this work. We used the Floquet type theory to generate stability diagrams which were used to determine the bounded regions of stability in the ä-ù plane for fixed ϵ. In the case of reducibility, we first applied the Lyapunov- Floquet (LF) transformation and modal transformation, which converted the linear part of the system into the Jordan form. Very importantly, quasi-periodic near-identity transformation was applied to reduce the system equations to a constant coefficient system by solving homological equations via harmonic balance. In this process we obtained the reducibility/resonance conditions that needed to be satisfied to convert a quasi-periodic system to a constant one.

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Date Created
2012

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Design and analysis of stop-rotor multimode unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

Description

The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter mode to an airplane mode in mid-flight. Thus, this UAV

The objective of this work is to develop a Stop-Rotor Multimode UAV. This UAV is capable of vertical take-off and landing like a helicopter and can convert from a helicopter mode to an airplane mode in mid-flight. Thus, this UAV can hover as a helicopter and achieve high mission range of an airplane. The stop-rotor concept implies that in mid-flight the lift generating helicopter rotor stops and rotates the blades into airplane wings. The thrust in airplane mode is then provided by a pusher propeller. The aircraft configuration presents unique challenges in flight dynamics, modeling and control. In this thesis a mathematical model along with the design and simulations of a hover control will be presented. In addition, the discussion of the performance in fixed-wing flight, and the autopilot architecture of the UAV will be presented. Also presented, are some experimental "conversion" results where the Stop-Rotor aircraft was dropped from a hot air balloon and performed a successful conversion from helicopter to airplane mode.

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Date Created
2011

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Critical evaluation and optimization of a hypocycloid wiseman engine

Description

In nearly all commercially successful internal combustion engine applications, the slider crank mechanism is used to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion. The hypocycloid mechanism, wherein the crankshaft is replaced with a novel gearing arrangement, is

In nearly all commercially successful internal combustion engine applications, the slider crank mechanism is used to convert the reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion. The hypocycloid mechanism, wherein the crankshaft is replaced with a novel gearing arrangement, is a viable alternative to the slider crank mechanism. The geared hypocycloid mechanism allows for linear motion of the connecting rod and provides a method for perfect balance with any number of cylinders including single cylinder applications. A variety of hypocycloid engine designs and research efforts have been undertaken and produced successful running prototypes. Wiseman Technologies, Inc provided one of these prototypes to this research effort. This two-cycle 30cc half crank hypocycloid engine has shown promise in several performance categories including balance and efficiency. To further investigate its potential a more thorough and scientific analysis was necessary and completed in this research effort. The major objective of the research effort was to critically evaluate and optimize the Wiseman prototype for maximum performance in balance, efficiency, and power output. A nearly identical slider crank engine was used extensively to establish baseline performance data and make comparisons. Specialized equipment and methods were designed and built to collect experimental data on both engines. Simulation and mathematical models validated by experimental data collection were used to better quantify performance improvements. Modifications to the Wiseman prototype engine improved balance by 20 to 50% (depending on direction) and increased peak power output by 24%.

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Date Created
2011

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Overall Market and Performance Comparison of Coil-over and Air Shock Absorbers

Description

The SAE Baja series is a competition that challenges university student teams on all aspects of designing, building, and testing an all-terrain vehicle. In the competition, the teams present their engineering analysis of all components of their vehicle to a

The SAE Baja series is a competition that challenges university student teams on all aspects of designing, building, and testing an all-terrain vehicle. In the competition, the teams present their engineering analysis of all components of their vehicle to a panel of professional engineers to show why the team's design is the overall best in performance and in manufacturing cost. Currently Arizona State University's SAE Baja team does not have a method to analyze their vehicle's suspension system, especially on the car's shock absorbers. The current solution to this problem is to change the shock absorber parameters, test drive the car, and repeat the shock absorber tuning until the car is able to produce the performance that the team desires. The following paper introduces and demonstrates three different methods, ADAMS Car, SOLIDWORKS, and MATLAB, that can be used to analyze the suspension system and gather data that can be used in the competition presentation. ADAMS Car is a power software that is used in the automotive and other engineering fields. The program does have a steep learning curve, but once the team is comfortable using it, ADAMS is very helpful with subsystem analysis and full body analysis. SOLIDWORKS can be used to perform motion analysis and drop tests, which can then be exported into ADAMS for further analysis. MATLAB can be used to model the Baja vehicle as a quarter model, which makes it easier for the team to model. Using the methods presented in this paper, ASU's Baja team can test coil-over and air shock absorbers to determine which type is more suitable for the performance and overall cost of the whole vehicle.

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Date Created
2016-12

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Robotic augmentation of human locomotion for high speed running

Description

Human running requires extensive training and conditioning for an individual to maintain high speeds (greater than 10mph) for an extended duration of time. Studies have shown that running at peak speeds generates a high metabolic cost due to the

Human running requires extensive training and conditioning for an individual to maintain high speeds (greater than 10mph) for an extended duration of time. Studies have shown that running at peak speeds generates a high metabolic cost due to the use of large muscle groups in the legs associated with the human gait cycle. Applying supplemental external and internal forces to the human body during the gait cycle has been shown to decrease the metabolic cost for walking, allowing individuals to carry additional weight and walk further distances. Significant research has been conducted to reduce the metabolic cost of walking, however, there are few if any documented studies that focus specifically on reducing the metabolic cost associated with high speed running. Three mechanical systems were designed to work in concert with the human user to decrease metabolic cost and increase the range and speeds at which a human can run.

The methods of design require a focus on mathematical modeling, simulations, and metabolic cost. Mathematical modeling and simulations are used to aid in the design process of robotic systems and metabolic testing is regarded as the final analysis process to determine the true effectiveness of robotic prototypes. Metabolic data, (VO2) is the volumetric consumption of oxygen, per minute, per unit mass (ml/min/kg). Metabolic testing consists of analyzing the oxygen consumption of a test subject while performing a task naturally and then comparing that data with analyzed oxygen consumption of the same task while using an assistive device.

Three devices were designed and tested to augment high speed running. The first device, AirLegs V1, is a mostly aluminum exoskeleton with two pneumatic linear actuators connecting from the lower back directly to the user's thighs, allowing the device to induce a torque on the leg by pushing and pulling on the user's thigh during running. The device also makes use of two smaller pneumatic linear actuators which drive cables connecting to small lever arms at the back of the heel, inducing a torque at the ankles. Device two, AirLegs V2, is also pneumatically powered but is considered to be a soft suit version of the first device. It uses cables to interface the forces created by actuators located vertically on the user's back. These cables then connect to the back of the user's knees resulting in greater flexibility and range of motion of the legs. Device three, a Jet Pack, produces an external force against the user's torso to propel a user forward and upward making it easier to run. Third party testing, pilot demonstrations and timed trials have demonstrated that all three of the devices effectively reduce the metabolic cost of running below that of natural running with no device.

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Date Created
2014