Matching Items (13)

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Lighter Concrete: An In-Depth Analysis of the Effects of Recycled Plastic Aggregate in Composite Concrete

Description

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight concrete that maintains

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a plastic-concrete composite could create a more lightweight concrete than that made using the typical gravel aggregate for concrete, while still maintaining the physical strength that concrete is known for. This will be accomplished by varying the amount of plastic in the aggregate. If successful, this project would allow concrete to be used in applications it would typically not be suitable for.<br/>After testing the strength of the concrete specimens with varying fills of plastic aggregate it was determined that the control group experienced an average peak stress of 2089 psi, the 16.67% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 2649 psi, the 33.3% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 1852 psi, and the 50% plastic group experienced an average stress of 924.5 psi. The average time to reach the peak stress was found to be 12 minutes and 24 seconds in the control group, 15 minutes and 34 seconds in the 16.7% plastic group, 9 minutes and 45 seconds in the 33.3% plastic group, and 10 minutes and 58 seconds in the 50% plastic group. Taking the average of the normalized weights of the cylindrical samples it was determined that the control group weighed 14.773 oz/in, the 16.7% plastic group weighed 15 oz/in, the 33.3% plastic group weighed 14.573 oz/in, and the 50% plastic group weighed 12.959 oz/in. Based on these results it can be concluded that a small addition of plastic aggregate can be beneficial in creating a lighter, stronger concrete. The results show that a 16.7% fill ratio of plastic to rock aggregate can increase the failure time and the peak strength of a composite concrete. Overall, the experiment was successful in analyzing the effects of recycled plastic aggregate in composite concrete. <br/>Some possible future studies related to this subject material are adding aluminum to the concrete, having better molds, looking for the right consistency in each mixture, mixing for each mold individually, and performing other tests on the samples.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Lighter Concrete: An In-Depth Analysis of the Effects of Recycled Plastic Aggregate in Composite Concrete

Description

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and<br/>mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight<br/>concrete that maintains its original

The scope of this project is a combination of material science engineering and<br/>mechanical engineering. Overall, the main goal of this project is to develop a lightweight<br/>concrete that maintains its original strength profile. Initial research has shown that a<br/>plastic-concrete composite could create a more lightweight concrete than that made using the<br/>typical gravel aggregate for concrete, while still maintaining the physical strength that concrete is<br/>known for. This will be accomplished by varying the amount of plastic in the aggregate. If<br/>successful, this project would allow concrete to be used in applications it would typically not be<br/>suitable for.<br/>After testing the strength of the concrete specimens with varying fills of plastic aggregate<br/>it was determined that the control group experienced an average peak stress of 2089 psi, the<br/>16.67% plastic group experienced an average peak stress of 2649 psi, the 33.3% plastic group<br/>experienced an average peak stress of 1852 psi, and the 50% plastic group experienced an<br/>average stress of 924.5 psi. The average time to reach the peak stress was found to be 12 minutes<br/>and 24 seconds in the control group, 15 minutes and 34 seconds in the 16.7% plastic group, 9<br/>minutes and 45 seconds in the 33.3% plastic group, and 10 minutes and 58 seconds in the 50%<br/>plastic group. Taking the average of the normalized weights of the cylindrical samples it was<br/>determined that the control group weighed 14.773 oz/in, the 16.7% plastic group weighed 15<br/>oz/in, the 33.3% plastic group weighed 14.573 oz/in, and the 50% plastic group weighed 12.959<br/>oz/in. Based on these results it can be concluded that a small addition of plastic aggregate can be<br/>beneficial in creating a lighter, stronger concrete. The results show that a 16.7% fill ratio of<br/>plastic to rock aggregate can increase the failure time and the peak strength of a composite<br/>concrete. Overall, the experiment was successful in analyzing the effects of recycled plastic<br/>aggregate in composite concrete.<br/>Some possible future studies related to this subject material are adding aluminum to the<br/>concrete, having better molds, looking for the right consistency in each mixture, mixing for each<br/>mold individually, and performing other tests on the samples.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Study Thermal Property of Stereolithography 3D Printed Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Filled Polymer Nanocomposite

Description

Traditionally, for applications that require heat transfer (e.g. heat exchangers),metals have been the go-to material for manufacturers because of their high thermal as
well as structural properties. However, metals have

Traditionally, for applications that require heat transfer (e.g. heat exchangers),metals have been the go-to material for manufacturers because of their high thermal as
well as structural properties. However, metals have some notable drawbacks. They are
not corrosion-resistant, offer no freedom of design, have a high cost of production, and
sourcing the material itself. Even though polymers on their own don’t show great
prospects in the field of thermal applications, their composites perform better than their
counterparts. Nanofillers, when added to a polymer matrix not only increase their
structural strength but also their thermal performance. This work aims to tackle two of
those problems by using the additive manufacturing method, stereolithography to solve
the problem of design freedom, and the use of polymer nanocomposite material for
corrosion-resistance and increase their overall thermal performance. In this work, three
different concentrations of polymer composite materials were studied: 0.25 wt%, 0.5
wt%, and 1wt% for their thermal conductivity. The samples were prepared by
magnetically stirring them for a period of 10 to 24 hours depending on their
concentrations and then sonicating in an ice bath further for a period of 2 to 3 hours.
These samples were then tested for their thermal conductivities using a Hot Disk TPS
2500S. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to study the dispersion of the nanoparticles
in the matrix. Different theoretical models were studied and used to compare
experimental data to the predicted values of effective thermal conductivity. An increase
of 7.9 % in thermal conductivity of the composite material was recorded for just 1 wt%
addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Effects of increasing layer thickness in the laser powder bed fusion of inconel 718

Description

With the advancement of the Additive Manufacturing technology in the fields of metals, a lot of interest has developed in Laser Powder Bed (LPBF) for the Aerospace and Automotive industries.

With the advancement of the Additive Manufacturing technology in the fields of metals, a lot of interest has developed in Laser Powder Bed (LPBF) for the Aerospace and Automotive industries. With primary challenges like high cost and time associated with this process reducing the build time is a critical component. Being a layer by layer process increasing layer thickness causes a decrease in manufacturing time. In this study, effects of the change in layer thickness in the Laser Powder Bed Fusion of Inconel 718 were evaluated. The effects were investigated for 30, 60 and 80 μm layer thicknesses and were evaluated for Relative Density, Surface Roughness and Mechanical properties, for as-printed specimens not subjected to any heat treatment. The process was optimized to print dense pasts by varying three parameters: power, velocity and hatch distance. Significant change in some properties like true Ultimate Tensile Testing (UTS), %Necking and Yield Stress was observed.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Data-driven Approach to Predict the Static and Fatigue Properties of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V

Description

Additive manufacturing (AM) has been extensively investigated in recent years to explore its application in a wide range of engineering functionalities, such as mechanical, acoustic, thermal, and electrical properties. The

Additive manufacturing (AM) has been extensively investigated in recent years to explore its application in a wide range of engineering functionalities, such as mechanical, acoustic, thermal, and electrical properties. The proposed study focuses on the data-driven approach to predict the mechanical properties of additively manufactured metals, specifically Ti-6Al-4V. Extensive data for Ti-6Al-4V using three different Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) additive manufacturing processes: Selective Laser Melting (SLM), Electron Beam Melting (EBM), and Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) are collected from the open literature. The data is used to develop models to estimate the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V. For this purpose, two models are developed which relate the fabrication process parameters to the static and fatigue properties of the AM Ti-6Al-4V. To identify the behavior of the relationship between the input and output parameters, each of the models is developed on both linear multi-regression analysis and non-linear Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on Bayesian regularization. Uncertainties associated with the performance prediction and sensitivity with respect to processing parameters are investigated. Extensive sensitivity studies are performed to identify the important factors for future optimal design. Some conclusions and future work are drawn based on the proposed study with investigated material.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Experimental Investigation of Laser-Induced Optoacoustic Wave Propagation for Damage Detection

Description

This thesis intends to cover the experimental investigation of the propagation of laser-generated optoacoustic waves in structural materials and how they can be utilized for damage detection. Firstly, a system

This thesis intends to cover the experimental investigation of the propagation of laser-generated optoacoustic waves in structural materials and how they can be utilized for damage detection. Firstly, a system for scanning a rectangular patch on the sample is designed. This is achieved with the help of xy stages which are connected to the laser head and allow it to move on a plane. Next, a parametric study was designed to determine the optimum testing parameters of the laser. The parameters so selected were then used in a series of tests which helped in discerning how the Ultrasound Waves behave when damage is induced in the sample (in the form of addition of masses). The first test was of increasing the mases in the sample. The second test was a scan of a rectangular area of the sample with and without damage to find the effect of the added masses. Finally, the data collected in such a manner is processed with the help of the Hilbert-Huang transform to determine the time of arrival. The major benefits from this study are the fact that this is a Non-Destructive imaging technique and thus can be used as a new method for detection of defects and is fairly cheap as well.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Sub cycle Corrosion fatigue Crack Growth under Variable Amplitude Loading

Description

Corrosion fatigue has been of prime concern in railways, aerospace, construction industries and so on. Even in the case of many medical equipment, corrosion fatigue is considered to be a

Corrosion fatigue has been of prime concern in railways, aerospace, construction industries and so on. Even in the case of many medical equipment, corrosion fatigue is considered to be a major challenge. The fact that even high strength materials have lower resistance to corrosion fatigue makes it an interesting area for research. The analysis of propagation of fatigue crack growth under environmental interaction and the life prediction is significant to reduce the maintenance costs and assure structural integrity. Without proper investigation of the crack extension under corrosion fatigue, the scenario can lead to catastrophic disasters due to premature failure of a structure. An attempt has been made in this study to predict the corrosion fatigue crack growth with reasonable accuracy. Models that have been developed so far predict the crack propagation for constant amplitude loading (CAL). However, most of the industrial applications encounter random loading. Hence there is a need to develop models based on time scale. An existing time scale model that can predict the fatigue crack growth for constant and variable amplitude loading (VAL) in the Paris region is initially modified to extend the prediction to near threshold and unstable crack growth region. Extensive data collection was carried out to calibrate the model for corrosion fatigue crack growth (CFCG) based on the experimental data. The time scale model is improved to incorporate the effect of corrosive environments such as NaCl and dry hydrogen in the fatigue crack growth (FCG) by investigation of the trend in change of the crack growth. The time scale model gives the advantage of coupling the time phenomenon stress corrosion cracking which is suggested as a future work in this paper.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Damage Detection using SONIC IR Imaging for Composite Laminate

Description

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is a branch of scientific methods and techniques

used to evaluate the defects and irregularities in engineering materials. These methods

conduct testing without destroying or altering material’s structure and

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is a branch of scientific methods and techniques

used to evaluate the defects and irregularities in engineering materials. These methods

conduct testing without destroying or altering material’s structure and functionality. Most

of these defects are subsurface making them difficult to detect and access.

SONIC INFRARED (IR) is a relatively new and emerging vibrothermography

method under the category of NDT methods. This is a fast NDT inspection method that

uses an ultrasonic generator to pass an ultrasonic pulse through the test specimen which

results in a temperature variation in the test specimen. The temperature increase around

the area of the defect is more because of frictional heating due to the vibration of the

specimen. This temperature variation can be observed using a thermal camera.

In this research study, the temperature variation in the composite laminate during

the SONIC IR experimentation using an infrared thermal camera. These recorded data are

used to determine the location, dimension and depth of defects through SONIC IR NDT

method using existing defect detection algorithms. Probability of detection analysis is

used to determine the probability of detection under specific experimental conditions for

two different types of composite laminates. Lastly, the effect of the process parameters

such as number of pulses, pulse duration and time delay between pulses of this technique

on the detectability and probability of detection is studied in detail.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Investigation on fatigue behavior of alloys by various approaches

Description

Fatigue is a degradation process of materials that would lead to failure when materials are subjected to cyclic loadings. During past centuries, various of approaches have been proposed and utilized

Fatigue is a degradation process of materials that would lead to failure when materials are subjected to cyclic loadings. During past centuries, various of approaches have been proposed and utilized to help researchers understand the underlying theories of fatigue behavior of materials, as well as design engineering structures so that catastrophic disasters that arise from fatigue failure could be avoided. The stress-life approach is the most classical way that academia applies to analyze fatigue data, which correlates the fatigue lifetime with stress amplitudes during cyclic loadings. Fracture mechanics approach is another well-established way, by which people regard the cyclic stress intensity factor as the driving force during fatigue crack nucleation and propagation, and numerous models (such as the well-known Paris’ law) are developed by researchers.

The significant drawback of currently widely-used fatigue analysis approaches, nevertheless, is that they are all cycle-based, limiting researchers from digging into sub-cycle regime and acquiring real-time fatigue behavior data. The missing of such data further impedes academia from validating hypotheses that are related to real-time observations of fatigue crack nucleation and growth, thus the existence of various phenomena, such as crack closure, remains controversial.

In this thesis, both classical stress-life approach and fracture-mechanics-based approach are utilized to study the fatigue behavior of alloys. Distinctive material characterization instruments are harnessed to help collect and interpret key data during fatigue crack growth. Specifically, an investigation on the sub-cycle fatigue crack growth behavior is enabled by in-situ SEM mechanical testing, and a non-uniform growth mechanism within one loading cycle is confirmed by direct observation as well as image interpretation. Predictions based on proposed experimental procedure and observations show good match with cycle-based data from references, which indicates the credibility of proposed methodology and model, as well as their capability of being applied to a wide range of materials.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Thermal cycling of LTO-LCO batteries subjected to electric vehicle schedule and its second life evaluation

Description

Lithium titanium oxide (LTO), is a crystalline (spinel) anode material that has recently been considered as an alternative to carbon anodes in conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIB), mainly due to the

Lithium titanium oxide (LTO), is a crystalline (spinel) anode material that has recently been considered as an alternative to carbon anodes in conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIB), mainly due to the inherent safety and durability of this material. In this paper commercial LTO anode 18650 cells with lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) cathodes have been cycled to simulate EV operating condition (temperature and drive profiles) in Arizona. The capacity fade of battery packs (pack #1 and pack#2), each consisting 6 such cells in parallel was studied. While capacity fades faster at the higher temperature (40°C), fading is significantly reduced at the lower temperature limit (0°C). Non-invasive techniques such as Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) show a steady increase in the high-frequency resistance along with capacity fade indicating Loss of Active Material (LAM) and formation of co-intercalation products like Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI). A two-stage capacity fade can be observed as previously reported and can be proved by differential voltage curves. The first stage is gradual and marks the slow degradation of the anode while the second stage is marked by a drastic capacity fade and can be attributed to the fading cathode. After an effective capacity fading of ~20%, the battery packs were disassembled, sorted and repackaged into smaller packs of 3 cells each for second-life testing. No major changes were seen in the crystal structure of LTO, establishing its electrochemical stability. However, the poor built of the 18650-cell appears to have resulted in failures like gradual electrolytic decomposition causing prominent swelling and failure in a few cells and LAM from the cathode along with cation dissolution. This result is important to understand how LTO batteries fail to better utilize the batteries for specific secondary-life applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019