Matching Items (5)

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Chronic Pain: Social Responses and Treatment

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Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and

Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and the cost, it is necessary to understand factors that influence the chronic pain experience and potential ways to treat it. This literature review examines three demographic factors - gender, ethnicity and age \u2014 and the effect each has on the chronic pain experience. Pain intensity, disability caused by pain, mood and coping were reviewed in relation to gender. No conclusions were able to be drawn based on the literature reviewed for any of the topics; findings were conflicting. Ethnic groups with chronic pain were evaluated for differences in the pain experience, psychological and emotional responses and coping. A lack of consistent findings among studies made it hard to come to conclusions. As children and adolescents get older, the frequency of their pain becomes higher. The literature review then continues by examining three treatment methods: cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis and exercise. Each treatment method discussed had beneficial outcomes in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavioral therapy seemed to be the most beneficial both short- and long-term. Hypnosis was most beneficial short-term for flair-ups and exercise had the best effects long term when the treatment is continued. In the future, I recommend designing a study that takes into consideration multiple variables that may have an effect on the pain experience including gender, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, education, income and duration of pain, and manipulating one at a time.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Implicit measures of homophobia and stigmatization of same-sex couples

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While acceptance towards same-sex marriage is gradually increasing, same-sex marriage is banned in many states within the United States. Laws that prohibit same-sex couples from marrying have been shown to

While acceptance towards same-sex marriage is gradually increasing, same-sex marriage is banned in many states within the United States. Laws that prohibit same-sex couples from marrying have been shown to increase feelings of depression, exclusion, and stigma for same-sex attracted individuals. The intention of this study was to explore the effect both pro- and anti-same-sex marriage advertisements have on heterosexual individuals' implicit attitudes towards same-sex couples. It was predicted that exposure to anti-same-sex advertisements would lead to viewing same-sex couples as more unpleasant and heterosexual couples as being more pleasant. However, heterosexual participants who viewed anti-same-sex marriage ads were more likely to rate heterosexual couples as being unpleasant and same-sex couples as pleasant. It is theorized that viewing anti-same-sex marriage advertisements led heterosexual individuals to report heterosexual stimuli as being more unpleasant compared to same-sex stimuli as a form of defensive processing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Mother-Child Conversations about Susceptibility to Influenza: The Role of Observed Anxiety

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Parents are the primary source for socializing children's attitudes and behaviors about adaptive concepts such as how to stay safe and reduce risk. Parent-child discussions about potential health risks have

Parents are the primary source for socializing children's attitudes and behaviors about adaptive concepts such as how to stay safe and reduce risk. Parent-child discussions about potential health risks have the ability to evoke anxiety in both mothers and children. This study examined the impact of observed anxiety on non-clinically anxious families, and the differences observed between anxious or non- anxious families. Sixty-one mothers engaged in naturalistic conversation with their children (aged 9-11) about their potential exposure to an anxiety-provoking situation, an Avian influenza pandemic. Conversations were video recorded and observational data were collected to examine mother and child behaviors; questionnaire data from both mothers and children supplemented this observational data. Results indicated that anxious children were more engaged in these discussions than less anxious children, and anxious mothers were less engaged than non-anxious mothers. The content of the parent-child conversations varied between non-anxious and anxious dyads; mothers were more likely to remind their children that the situation was "pretend" if they recognized that their child became anxious, and mothers that emphasized the severity of the hypothetical situation had children who self-reported higher levels of anxiety. Underlying parental beliefs about how children develop also varied among mothers; mothers of anxious children were more likely to believe that their children learn because of cognitive development that occurs through their own interactions within their environment, while there was a trend for mothers of non-anxious children to hold stronger beliefs that children learn through modeling and the direct teaching of behaviors. Results indicate that dysfunctional behaviors previously observed in clinically anxious families may be apparent within non-clinically anxious families when anxiety levels increase, and the bi-directional influence of mother-child anxious behavior is explored. This study builds on our understanding of parent-child interactions, parent socialization behaviors, and the importance of minimizing anxiousness during parent-child threat discussions evoking child anxiety.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Does the Supreme Court know what's best for us?: potential mediators of public support for three surveillance techniques

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Very little experimental work has been done to investigate the psychological underpinnings of perceptions of privacy. This issue is especially pressing with the advent of powerful and inexpensive technologies that

Very little experimental work has been done to investigate the psychological underpinnings of perceptions of privacy. This issue is especially pressing with the advent of powerful and inexpensive technologies that allow access to all but our most private thoughts -and these too are at risk (Farah, Smith, Gawuga, Lindsell, &Foster;, 2009). Recently the Supreme Court ruled that the use of a global positioning system (GPS) device to covertly follow a criminal suspect, without first obtaining a search warrant, is a violation of a suspect's fourth amendment right to protection from unlawful search and seizure (United States v. Jones, 2012). However, the Court has also ruled in the past that a law enforcement officer can covertly follow a suspect's vehicle and collect the same information without a search warrant and this is not considered a violation of the suspect's rights (Katz v. United States). In the case of GPS surveillance the Supreme Court Justices did not agree on whether the GPS device constituted a trespassing violation because it was placed on the suspect's vehicle (the majority) or if it violated a person's reasonable expectation of privacy. This incongruence is an example of how the absence of a clear and predictable model of privacy makes it difficult for even the country's highest moral authority to articulate when and why privacy has been violated. This research investigated whether public perceptions of support for the use of each surveillance technique also vary across different monitoring types that collect the same information and whether these differences are mediated by similar factors as argued by the Supreme Court. Results suggest that under some circumstances participants do demonstrate differential support and this is mediated by a general privacy concern. However, under other circumstances differential support is the result of an interaction between the type of monitoring and its cost to employ -not simply type; this differential support was mediated by both perceived violations of private-space and general privacy. Results are discussed in terms of how these findings might contribute to understanding the psychological foundation of perceived privacy violations and how they might inform policy decision.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Bullying, loneliness, and future responses to stress

Description

Bully victimization has been associated with blunted cardiovascular responses to stress as well as elevated responses to stress. The difference between these altered physiological responses to stress is largely unknown.

Bully victimization has been associated with blunted cardiovascular responses to stress as well as elevated responses to stress. The difference between these altered physiological responses to stress is largely unknown. This study explored several possible moderators to the relationship between chronic stress and future cardiac output (an indicator of increased stress) in response to future stressors. These moderators include the difference between social and physical stressors and individual levels of loneliness. Participants were administered measures of loneliness and victimization history, and led to anticipate either a "social" (recorded speech) or "non-social" (pain tolerance test ) stressor, neither of which occurred. EKG and impedance cardiography were measured throughout the session. When anticipating both stressors, loneliness and victimization were associated with increased CO. A regression revealed a three-way interaction, with change in cardiac output depending on victimization history, loneliness, and condition in the physical stressor condition. Loneliness magnified the CO output levels of non-bullied individuals when facing a physical stressor. These results suggest that non- bullied participants high in loneliness are more stressed out when facing stressors, particularly stressors that are physically threatening in nature.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013