Matching Items (7)

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Notre-Dame de Paris: the Illusion of Authorship in Architecture

Description

Architecture has the distinct quality of creating a legacy both physical as well as intangible; the qualities of which influence, and are influenced by, the great diversity of human culture.

Architecture has the distinct quality of creating a legacy both physical as well as intangible; the qualities of which influence, and are influenced by, the great diversity of human culture. While material and structure yield to the passage of time, our collective understanding of the work will change just as significantly, yet less discernibly. How can we best retain the cultural content of architectural works against the passage of time, social change, environmental transformation, and disaster? The issue, while integral to architecture, has only been articulated thusly in relatively modern times, with the rise of the historic conservation movement in Europe. The cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, a compelling vestige of culture, religion, and architectural form, was concretely compromised by the fire of the 15th of April 2019, which destroyed its spire and much of the roof. The cathedral’s planned restoration has been the subject of impassioned debate, controversy, and conjecture. In this thesis project, I will evaluate different approaches to retaining the cultural content present in architectural works and apply them specifically to the case of Notre-Dame de Paris. The project will culminate in a proposal for the restoration of the cathedral which is consistent with the principles determined to best preserve the legacy of the cathedral.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The Imperative of Spatial Agency in the Tectonics of the Affordable Home

Description

This thesis explores the imperative of spatial agency in the context of affordable housing within a capitalist free-market economy and an age in which agency has been stripped from the

This thesis explores the imperative of spatial agency in the context of affordable housing within a capitalist free-market economy and an age in which agency has been stripped from the architect and inhabitant alike. It defines the concepts of spatial agency of both the architect and inhabitant as well as the means to achieve this, namely prefabrication and adaptability as frameworks within the social sciences and architectural discourse. These definitions will then be further evaluated via their practical applications in several case studies dated between 1936 and the present. Ultimately, a flexible and low-impact solution will be implemented into the design of off site housing units for the Roden Crater housing project as well as one possible solution to affordable housing crises in an effort to utilize the once profit-driven means of prefabrication towards a more socialist end.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Response of a Stoichiometrically Imbalanced Ecosystem to Manipulation of Nutrient Supplies and Ratios

Description

Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a desert ecosystem that hosts a large diversity of water bodies. Many surface waters in this basin have imbalanced nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) stoichiometry

Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is a desert ecosystem that hosts a large diversity of water bodies. Many surface waters in this basin have imbalanced nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) stoichiometry (total N:P > 100 by atoms), where P is likely to be a limiting nutrient. To investigate the effects of nutrient stoichiometry on planktonic and sediment ecosystem components and processes, we conducted a replicated in situ mesocosm experiment in Lagunita, a shallow pond located in the southwest region of the basin. Inorganic N and P were periodically added to mesocosms under three different N:P regimes (P only, N:P = 16 and N:P = 75) while the control mesocosms were left unamended. After three weeks of fertilization, more than two thirds of the applied P was immobilized into seston or sediment. The rapid uptake of P significantly decreased biomass C:P and N:P ratios, supporting the hypothesis that Lagunita is P-limited. Meanwhile, simultaneous N and P enrichment significantly enhanced planktonic growth, increasing total planktonic biomass by more than 2-fold compared to the unenriched control. With up to 76% of added N sequestered into the seston, it is suspected that the Lagunita microbial community also experienced strong N-limitation. However, when N and P were applied at N:P = 75, the microbes remained in a P-limitation state as in the untreated control. Two weeks after the last fertilizer application, seston C:P and N:P ratios returned to initial levels but chlorophyll a and seston C concentrations remained elevated. Additionally, no P release from the sediment was observed in the fertilized mesocosms. Overall, this study provides evidence that Lagunita is highly sensitive to nutrient perturbation because the biota is primarily P-limited and experiences a secondary N-limitation despite its high TN:TP ratio. This study serves as a strong basis to justify the need for protection of CCB ecosystems and other low-nutrient microbe-dominated systems from anthropogenic inputs of both N and P.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-16

Prokaryotic Cells Separated From Sediments are Suitable for Elemental Composition Analysis

Description

Cell-sediment separation methods can potentially enable determination of the elemental composition of microbial communities by removing the sediment elemental contribution from bulk samples. We demonstrate that a separation method can

Cell-sediment separation methods can potentially enable determination of the elemental composition of microbial communities by removing the sediment elemental contribution from bulk samples. We demonstrate that a separation method can be applied to determine the composition of prokaryotic cells. The method uses chemical and physical means to extract cells from benthic sediments and mats. Recovery yields were between 5% and 40%, as determined from cell counts. The method conserves cellular element contents to within 30% or better, as assessed by comparing C, N, P, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Mo contents in Escherichia coli. Contamination by C, N, and P from chemicals used during the procedure was negligible. Na and K were not conserved, being likely exchanged through the cell membrane as cations during separation. V, Cr, and Co abundances could not be determined due to large (>100%) measurement uncertainties. We applied this method to measure elemental contents in extremophilic communities of Yellowstone National Park hot springs. The method was generally successful at separating cells from sediment, but does not discriminate between cells and detrital biological or noncellular material of similar density. This resulted in Al, Ti, Mn, and Fe contamination, which can be tracked using proxies such as metal:Al ratios. With these caveats, we present the first measurements, to our knowledge, of the elemental abundances of a chemosynthetic community. The communities have C:N ratios typical of aquatic microorganisms, are low in P, and their metal abundances vary between hot springs by orders of magnitude.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-07-01

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Prerequisites for explosive cryovolcanism on dwarf planet-class Kuiper belt objects

Description

Explosive extrusion of cold material from the interior of icy bodies, or cryovolcanism, has been observed on Enceladus and, perhaps, Europa, Triton, and Ceres. It may explain the observed evidence

Explosive extrusion of cold material from the interior of icy bodies, or cryovolcanism, has been observed on Enceladus and, perhaps, Europa, Triton, and Ceres. It may explain the observed evidence for a young surface on Charon (Pluto’s surface is masked by frosts). Here, we evaluate prerequisites for cryovolcanism on dwarf planet-class Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). We first review the likely spatial and temporal extent of subsurface liquid, proposed mechanisms to overcome the negative buoyancy of liquid water in ice, and the volatile inventory of KBOs. We then present a new geochemical equilibrium model for volatile exsolution and its ability to drive upward crack propagation. This novel approach bridges geophysics and geochemistry, and extends geochemical modeling to the seldom-explored realm of liquid water at subzero temperatures. We show that carbon monoxide (CO) is a key volatile for gas-driven fluid ascent; whereas CO[subscript 2] and sulfur gases only play a minor role. N[subscript 2], CH[subscript 4], and H[subscript 2] exsolution may also drive explosive cryovolcanism if hydrothermal activity produces these species in large amounts (a few percent with respect to water). Another important control on crack propagation is the internal structure: a hydrated core makes explosive cryovolcanism easier, but an undifferentiated crust does not. We briefly discuss other controls on ascent such as fluid freezing on crack walls, and outline theoretical advances necessary to better understand cryovolcanic processes. Finally, we make testable predictions for the 2015 New Horizons flyby of the Pluto-Charon system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-15

Physical Interference

Description

this project is about interrupting existing patterns of urban loneliness. the project explores three urban typologies of loneliness and potential interferences for each landscape. obstacles to unloneliness are investigated, such

this project is about interrupting existing patterns of urban loneliness. the project explores three urban typologies of loneliness and potential interferences for each landscape. obstacles to unloneliness are investigated, such as urban form and social media. each is evaluated for its effect on loneliness and how this effect can be used to influence urbanites to feel less lonely. the focus is on ideas and experimentation. physical interference seeks to challenge preconceptions of what a city is, how one experiences the urban environment, and the role social media plays in our daily lives. the goal is to determine a spatial representation of the effect urbanism and social media have on loneliness and to use that to suggest a new typology of public space to promote unloneliness within phoenix, san francisco, and new york city. physical interference is a manifestation of ideas surrounding the modern urban experience.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Role of Circular Economy in the Indigenous Built Environment: An Assessment of Design and Construction Potential of Circular Building Materials in an American Indian Community

Description

This thesis intends to help inform American Indian nations’ decision making related to housing. The study recognizes the urgent need for housing solutions that fit the needs of a community

This thesis intends to help inform American Indian nations’ decision making related to housing. The study recognizes the urgent need for housing solutions that fit the needs of a community as well as benefit the overall ecosystem. One model that can offer guidance is the Circular Economy (CE) model. A well-thought-out CE process can provide housing solutions that are economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. It also stimulates the local economy by strategically introducing positive changes. This research identifies the construction potential of available circular materials as compared to more contemporary building materials. It then recommends a closed-loop circular model that utilizes the community’s existing infrastructure to develop affordable housing. The proposed CE model operates within the built environment, stimulating local employment while catering to the needs of the residents. Such an approach can prove to be beneficial for the local community and perhaps scalable to the global economy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020