Matching Items (12)

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State of health determination of batteries at various operating conditions

Description

Objective of the study is to get a clear idea on the cyclic performance of duty operation of Batteries. Batteries are an integral part of solar plants and wind energy

Objective of the study is to get a clear idea on the cyclic performance of duty operation of Batteries. Batteries are an integral part of solar plants and wind energy farms due to the fact that energy storage is vital in these places. Various types of losses related to the performance are clearly analyzed and studied. Assessment of State Of Health and State Of Charge is critical in order to maximize the performance and lifetime of a battery. Batteries were subjected to temperature and charge/discharge rate variations and found that the state of health degradation was severe at high temperature along with faster rate of charging compared to other evaluation conditions. The entire research was conducted at the Alternative Energy Technology Laboratory located at Arizona State University, Mesa. It involved the use of various instruments namely the Programmable Voltage Regulator for charging, Computerized Battery Analyzer and Programmable Electric Load for discharging and also the PARSTAT potentiostat for measuring the impedance of various battery technologies under study. At first, the Batteries were discharged and based on the time taken, it was charged for the next cycle. Impedance measurement was done at regular cycle intervals in order to study the degradation of health. For every cycle, the battery capacity was also calculated and noted down. . The results obtained show that low and stable impedance over the given cycle life is an important consideration in the selection of batteries according to the applications.

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  • 2014

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EV battery performance in the desert area and development of a new drive cycle for Arizona

Description

Commercial Li-ion cells (18650: Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes) were subjected to simulated Electric Vehicle (EV) conditions using various driving patterns such as aggressive driving, highway driving, air conditioning load,

Commercial Li-ion cells (18650: Li4Ti5O12 anodes and LiCoO2 cathodes) were subjected to simulated Electric Vehicle (EV) conditions using various driving patterns such as aggressive driving, highway driving, air conditioning load, and normal city driving. The particular drive schedules originated from the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), including the SC-03, UDDS, HWFET, US-06 drive schedules, respectively. These drive schedules have been combined into a custom drive cycle, named the AZ-01 drive schedule, designed to simulate a typical commute in the state of Arizona. The battery cell cycling is conducted at various temperature settings (0, 25, 40, and 50 °C). At 50 °C, under the AZ-01 drive schedule, a severe inflammation was observed in the cells that led to cell failure. Capacity fading under AZ-01 drive schedule at 0 °C per 100 cycles is found to be 2%. At 40 °C, 3% capacity fading is observed per 100 cycles under the AZ-01 drive schedule. Modeling and prediction of discharge rate capability of batteries is done using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). High-frequency resistance values (HFR) increased with cycling under the AZ-01 drive schedule at 40 °C and 0 °C. The research goal for this thesis is to provide performance analysis and life cycle data for Li4Ti5O12 (Lithium Titanite) battery cells in simulated Arizona conditions. Future work involves an evaluation of second-life opportunities for cells that have met end-of-life criteria in EV applications.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Flocking Modeling, Control, and Optimization of Connected and Automated Vehicles for Safe and Efficient Mobility

Description

In large modern urban areas, traffic congestion and fatality have become two serious problems. To improve the safety and efficiency of ground mobility, one promising solution is the cooperative control

In large modern urban areas, traffic congestion and fatality have become two serious problems. To improve the safety and efficiency of ground mobility, one promising solution is the cooperative control of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) systems, which can avoid human drivers’ incapability and errors. Taking advantage of two-dimensional (2D) vehicular control, this dissertation intends to conduct a thorough investigation of the modeling, control, and optimization of CAV systems with flocking control. Flocking is a dynamic swarm congregating behavior of a group of agents with self-organizing features, and flocking control of CAV systems attempts to achieve the maintenance of a small and nearly constant distance among vehicles, speed match, destination cohesion, and collision and obstacle avoidance.

Concerning artificial multi-agent systems, such as mobile robots and CAV systems, a set of engineering performance requirements should be considered in flocking theory for practical applications. In this dissertation, three novel flocking control protocols are studied, which consider convergence speed, permanent obstacle avoidance, and energy efficiency. Furthermore, considering nonlinear vehicle dynamics, a novel hierarchical flocking control framework is proposed for CAV systems to integrate high-level flocking coordination planning and low-level vehicle dynamics control together. On one hand, using 2D flocking theory, the decision making and motion planning of engaged vehicles are produced in a distributed manner based on shared information. On the other hand, using the proposed framework, many advanced vehicle dynamics control methods and tools are applicable. For instance, in the low-level vehicle dynamics control, in addition to path trajectory tracking, the maintenance of vehicle later/yaw stability and rollover propensity mitigation are achieved by using additional actuators, such as all-wheel driving and four-wheel steering, to enhance vehicle safety and efficiency with over-actuated features.

Co-simulations using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim are conducted to illustrate the performances of the proposed flocking framework and all controller designs proposed in this dissertation. Moreover, a scaled CAV system is developed, and field experiments are also completed to further demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed flocking framework. Consequently, the proposed flocking framework can successfully complete a 2D vehicular flocking coordination. The novel flocking control protocols are also able to accommodate the practical requirements of artificial multi-agent systems by enhancing convergence speed, saving energy consumption, and avoiding permanent obstacles. In addition, employing the proposed control methods, vehicle stability is guaranteed as expected.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Potential materials for fuel cells

Description

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have attracted immense research activities from the inception of the technology due to its high stability and performance capabilities. The major obstacle from commercialization is the cost of the catalyst material in manufacturing the fuel cell. In the present study, the major focus in PEMFCs has been in reduction of the cost of the catalyst material using graphene, thin film coated and Organometallic Molecular catalysts. The present research is focused on improving the durability and active surface area of the catalyst materials with low platinum loading using nanomaterials to reduce the effective cost of the fuel cells. Performance, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, oxygen reduction and surface morphology studies were performed on each manufactured material.

Alkaline fuel cells with anion exchange membrane get immense attention due to very attractive opportunity of using non-noble metal catalyst materials. In the present study, cathodes with various organometallic cathode materials were prepared and investigated for alkaline membrane fuel cells for oxygen reduction and performance studies. Co and Fe Phthalocyanine catalyst materials were deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) support materials. Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated using Tokuyama Membrane (#A901) with cathodes containing Co and Fe Phthalocyanine/MWCNTs and Pt/C anodes. Fuel cell performance of the MEAs was examined.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Bio-Inspired Design of Next Generation Honeycomb Sandwich Panel Cores

Description

Honeycomb sandwich panels have been used in structural applications for several decades in various industries. While these panels are lightweight and rigid, their design has not evolved much due to

Honeycomb sandwich panels have been used in structural applications for several decades in various industries. While these panels are lightweight and rigid, their design has not evolved much due to constraints imposed by available manufacturing processes and remain primarily two-dimensional extrusions sandwiched between facings. With the growth in Additive Manufacturing, more complex geometries can now be produced, and advanced design techniques can be implemented into end use parts to obtain further reductions in weight, as well as enable greater multi-functionality. The question therefore is: how best to revisit the design of these honeycomb panels to obtain these benefits?

In this work, a Bio-Inspired Design approach was taken to answer this question, primarily since the hexagonal lattice is so commonly found in wasp and bee nests, including the well-known bee’s honeycomb that inspired these panel designs to begin with. Whereas prior honeycomb panel design has primarily focused on the hexagonal shape of the unit cell, in this work we examine the relationship between the various parameters constituting the hexagonal cell itself, specifically the wall thickness and the corner radius, and also examine out-of-plane features that have not been previously translated into panel design. This work reports findings from a study of insect nests across 70 species using 2D and 3D measurements with optical microscopy and X-ray tomography, respectively. Data from these biological nests were used to identify design parameters of interest, which were then translated into design principles. These design principles were implemented in the design of honeycomb panels manufactured with the Selective Laser Sintering process and subjected to experimental testing to study their effects on the mechanical behavior of these panels.

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  • 2020

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Low cost system for test of thru-plane thermal transfer coefficient

Description

Determining the thermal conductivity of carbon gas diffusion layers used in hydrogen fuel cells is a very active topic of research. The primary driver behind this research is due to

Determining the thermal conductivity of carbon gas diffusion layers used in hydrogen fuel cells is a very active topic of research. The primary driver behind this research is due to the need for development of proton exchange membrane fuels with longer usable life cycles before failure. As heat is a byproduct of the oxygen-hydrogen reaction an optimized pathway to remove the excess heat is needed to prevent thermal damage to the fuel cell as both mechanical and chemical degradation is accelerated under elevated temperatures. Commercial systems used for testing thermal conductivity are readily available, but are prohibitively expensive, ranging from just over $10,000 to $80,000 for high-end systems. As this cost can exclude some research labs from experimenting with thermal conductivity, a low cost alternative system is a desirable product. The development of a low cost system that maintained typical accuracy levels of commercials systems was carried out successfully at a significant cost reduction. The end product was capable of obtaining comparable accuracy to commercial systems at a cost reduction of more than 600% when compared to entry level commercial models. Combined with a system design that only required some basic fabrication equipment, this design will allow many research labs to expand their testing capabilities without straining departmental budgets. As expected with the development of low cost solutions, the reduction in cost came at the loss in other aspects of system performance, mainly run time. While the developed system requires a significate time investment to obtain useable results, the system can be improved by the used of RTDs in place of thermocouples or incorporation of an isothermal cold plate. These improvements would reduce the runtime to less than that of a standard work day while maintaining an approximate reduction in cost of 350%.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Performance, modeling, and characteristics of LFP pack for HEV using FUDS (depleting) in hot and arid conditions

Description

There was a growing trend in the automotive market on the adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) for consumers to purchase. This was partially due to external pressures such

There was a growing trend in the automotive market on the adoption of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) for consumers to purchase. This was partially due to external pressures such as the effects of global warming, cost of petroleum, governmental regulations, and popularity of the vehicle type. HEV technology relied on a variety of factors which included the powertrain (PT) of the system, external driving conditions, and the type of driving pattern being driven. The core foundation for HEVs depended heavily on the battery pack and chemistry being adopted for the vehicle performance and operations. This paper focused on the effects of hot and arid temperatures on the performance of LiFePO4 (LFP) battery packs and presented a possible modeling method for overall performance.

Lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs were subjected to room and high temperature settings while being cycled under a current profile created from a drive cycle. The Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) was selected and modified to simulate normal city driving situation using an electric only drive mode. Capacity and impedance fade of the LIB packs were monitored over the lifetime of the pack to determine the overall performance through the variables of energy and power fade. Regression analysis was done on the energy and power fade of the LIB pack to determine the duration life of LIB packs for HEV applications. This was done by comparing energy and power fade with the average lifetime mileage of a vehicle.

The collected capacity and impedance data was used to create an electrical equivalent model (EEM). The model was produced through the process of a modified Randles circuit and the creation of the inverse constant phase element (ICPE). Results indicated the model had a potential for high fidelity as long as a sufficient amount of data was gathered. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed on a fresh and cycled LFP battery. SEM results suggested a dramatic growth on LFP crystals with a reduction in carbon coating after cycling. XRD effects showed a slight uniformed strain and decrease in size of LFP olivine crystals after cycling.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Pt/Pt alloy and manganese dioxides based oxygen reduction reaction catalysts for low-temperature fuel cells

Description

The fuel cell is a promising device that converts the chemical energy directly into the electrical energy without combustion process. However, the slow reaction rate of the oxygen reduction reaction

The fuel cell is a promising device that converts the chemical energy directly into the electrical energy without combustion process. However, the slow reaction rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) necessitates the development of cathode catalysts for low-temperature fuel cells. After a thorough literature review in Chapter 1, the thesis is divided into three parts as given below in Chapters 2-4.

Chapter 2 describes the study on the Pt and Pt-Me (Me: Co, Ni) alloy nanoparticles supported on the pyrolyzed zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) towards ORR. The Co-ZIF and NiCo-ZIF were synthesized by the solvothermal method and then mixed with Pt precursor. After pyrolysis and acid leaching, the PtCo/NC and PtNiCo/NC were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The peak power density exhibited > 10% and 15% for PtCo/NC and PtNiCo/NC, respectively, compared to that with commercial Pt/C catalyst under identical test conditions.

Chapter 3 is the investigation of the oxygen vacancy (OV) effect in a-MnO2 as a cathode catalyst for alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFC). The a-MnO2 nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method and heated at 300, 400 and 500 ℃ in the air to introduce the OV. The 400 ℃ treated material showed the best ORR performance among all other samples due to more OV in pure a-MnO2 phase. The optimized AMFC electrode showed ~ 45 mW.cm-2, which was slightly lower than that with commercial Pt/C (~60 mW.cm-2).

Chapter 4 is the density functional theory (DFT) study of the protonation effect and active sites towards ORR on a-MnO2 (211) plane. The theoretically optimized oxygen adsorption and hydroxyl ion desorption energies were ~ 1.55-1.95 eV and ~ 0.98-1.45 eV, respectively, by Nørskov et al.’s calculations. All the configurations showed oxygen adsorption and hydroxyl ion desorption energies were ranging from 0.27 to 1.76 eV and 1.59 to 15.0 eV, respectively. The site which was close to two Mn ions showed the best oxygen adsorption and hydroxyl ion desorption energies improvement with the surface protonation.

Based on the results given in Chapters 1-4, the major findings are summarized in Chapter 5.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Power management for fuel cell and battery hybrid unmanned aerial vehicle applications

Description

As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of

As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight versus potential flight times. Combinations of the listed batteries, fuel cells, and storage tanks are plotted on the graph to evaluate various hybrid power system configurations.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Hydrogen fuel cell on a helicopter: a system engineering approach

Description

Hydrogen fuel cells have been previously investigated as a viable replacement to traditional gas turbine auxiliary power unit onboard fixed wing commercial jets. However, so far no study has attempted

Hydrogen fuel cells have been previously investigated as a viable replacement to traditional gas turbine auxiliary power unit onboard fixed wing commercial jets. However, so far no study has attempted to extend their applicability to rotary wing aircrafts. To aid in the advancement of such innovative technologies, a holistic technical approach is required to ensure risk reduction and cost effectiveness throughout the product lifecycle. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of replacing a gas turbine auxiliary power unit on a helicopter with a direct hydrogen, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, all while emphasizing a system engineering approach that utilize a specialized set of tools and artifacts.

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Date Created
  • 2016