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PTSD Onset Susceptibility as a Function of Perceived Self-Efficacy and Resilience

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The interplay between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and self-efficacy lies in the efficacy-activated processes that comprise an individual’s cognitive and belief systems. Previous research shows that low self-efficacy contributes to development and maintenance of mental disorders like PTSD, while

The interplay between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and self-efficacy lies in the efficacy-activated processes that comprise an individual’s cognitive and belief systems. Previous research shows that low self-efficacy contributes to development and maintenance of mental disorders like PTSD, while high self-efficacy influences ability to visualize, implement, and maintain success scenarios (resilience) related to effective mental coping. Negative cognition makes it difficult to pursue a coping success scenario in the presence of overriding self-doubt and often arises because a traumatic event has made it difficult to retrieve positive self-identities or has reactivated negative self-identities. Consistent with this model, we predict that a negative association exists between self-efficacy and PTSD onset susceptibility. We employed a pre-test/post-test design using a susceptibility/resilience questionnaire to assess predisposition to PTSD. Vignettes, designed to either raise or lower self-efficacy, were used to separate participants into groups and revealed a significant interaction between low and high self-efficacy across the pre- and post-tests, supporting the assertion that high self-efficacy guards against PTSD onset susceptibility while low self-efficacy may make someone more susceptible to developing PTSD-related symptoms.

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2019-05

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Neural plasticity in lower- and higher-level visual cortex processing

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Perceptual learning by means of coherent motion training paradigms has been shown to produce plasticity in lower and higher-level visual systems within the human occipital lobe both supra- and subliminally. However, efficiency of training methods that produce consolidation in the

Perceptual learning by means of coherent motion training paradigms has been shown to produce plasticity in lower and higher-level visual systems within the human occipital lobe both supra- and subliminally. However, efficiency of training methods that produce consolidation in the visual system via coherent motion has yet to be experimentally determined. Furthermore, the effects of coherent motion training on reading comprehension, in clinical and normal populations, are still nascent. In the present study, 20 participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. Two conditions had a participation requirement of four days while two conditions required eight days of participation. These conditions were further divided into 500 or 1000 trials per day (4 x 500, 4 x 1000, 8 x 500, 8 x 1000). Additional pre-test and post-test days were used to attain timed pre- and post-tests on the Wide Range Achievement Test IV (WRAT IV) reading comprehension battery. Furthermore, a critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT) score was taken on a macular pigment densitometer on the pre-test and post-test day. Participants showed significant improvement in CFFT levels, WRAT IV reading comprehension, and speed of completion between pre-test and post-test; however, degree of improvement did not vary as a function of training condition. An interaction between training condition and degree of improvement was evident in coherent dot motion contrast scores, with significant training plasticity occurring in the 4 x 1000 and 8 x 500 conditions.

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2013