Matching Items (7)

Development and Assessment of Two Novel Pitting Designs for Increased Needle Visibility under Ultrasound

Description

Nerve endings are particularly difficult to target during peripheral nerve block (PNB) procedures, so ultrasound-guided needles are of immense importance to guarantee safe and efficient delivery of the anesthetic to

Nerve endings are particularly difficult to target during peripheral nerve block (PNB) procedures, so ultrasound-guided needles are of immense importance to guarantee safe and efficient delivery of the anesthetic to the target nerve. Despite significant progress in needle visualization with ultrasound imaging, there are still several factors that lead to poor needle visibility, the main factor being insertion angle. Introducing cavities and holes in the needle at specific intervals through pitting corrosion may alter the ultrasonic feedback from the sensor, thereby resulting in improved clarity of the reconstructed image. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the effectiveness of two novel pitting designs on the needle’s visibility under ultrasound. Two different designs and two depths of cut are tested in a 22 factorial that is blocked by insertion angle: a uniform and a non-uniform design. Needles were cut using a Plain Jane and Igor laser cutter and imaged using a GE Logig e BT12 ultrasound imaging machine. Images were compared visually and objectively by using a tool in Photoshop to calculate the luminosity of the needle. Two videos were also taken capturing the difficulty of imaging surgical needles. Results showed that pitting had a major impact on needle visibility at 30° and a marginal impact at 0°. The videos supported these results as it was considerably more difficult to locate the control needle than the experimental needle. This suggests the probe must be in a specific plane with the control needle for it to be visible while the experimental needle is much more lenient. Results from the two depths of cuts showed similar results in that the designs which were cut twice were more visible than their counterparts at 30°. The study showed that pitting has positive effects on needle visibility; it improves visibility by increasing the luminescence of the needle and by decreasing its sensitivity to probe position.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Portable Heart Rate Monitor and iOS Application for Anxiety Therapy

Description

As the rates of anxiety in adults rapidly swell, new and creative treatment methods become increasingly relevant. Individuals with an anxiety disorder may experience challenging symptoms that interfere with daily

As the rates of anxiety in adults rapidly swell, new and creative treatment methods become increasingly relevant. Individuals with an anxiety disorder may experience challenging symptoms that interfere with daily activities and impede academic and social success. The purpose of this project is to design and engineer a portable heart rate monitor that communicates with an iOS mobile application for use by individuals suffering from anxiety or panic disorders. The proposed device captures the innovation of combining biosensor feedback with new, creative therapy methods on a convenient iOS application. The device is implemented as an Arduino Uno which translates radial pulse information onto an LCD screen from a wristband. Additionally, the iOS portion uses a slow expanding and collapsing animation to guide the user through a calming breathing exercise while displaying their pulse in beats per minute. The user's awareness or his or her ability to control one's own physiological state supports and facilitates an additional form of innovative therapy. The current design of the iOS app uses a random-number generator between 40 to 125 to imitate a realistic heart rate. If the value is less than 60 or greater than 105, the number is printed in red; otherwise the heart rate is displayed in green. Future versions of this device incorporate bluetooth capabilities and potentially additional synchronous methods of therapy. The information presented in this research provides an excellent example of the integrations of new mobile technology and healthcare.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Detection of Muscle Specific EMG Signals in Post Stroke Patients

Description

Electromyography (EMG) is an extremely useful tool in extracting control signals from the human body. Needle electromyography is the current standard for obtaining superior quality muscle signals and obtaining signals

Electromyography (EMG) is an extremely useful tool in extracting control signals from the human body. Needle electromyography is the current standard for obtaining superior quality muscle signals and obtaining signals corresponding to individual muscles. However, needle EMG faces many problems when converting from the laboratory to marketable devices, specifically in home devices. Many patients have issues with needles and the extra care required of needle EMG is prohibitive. Therefore, a surface EMG device that can obtain clear signals from individual muscles would be valuable to many markets in the development of next generation in home devices. Here, signals from surface EMG were analyzed using a low noise EMG evaluation system (RHD 2000; Intan Technologies). The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was calculated using MatLab. The average SNR is 4.447 for the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris, and 7.369 for the Extensor Digitorum Communis. Spectral analysis was performed using the Welch approach in MatLab. The power spectrum indicated that low frequency signals dominate the EMG of small hand muscles. Also, harmonic bands of 60Hz noise were present as part of the signal which should be accounted for with filters in future iterations of the testing method. Provided is evidence that strong, independent signals were acquired and could be used in further application of surface EMG corresponding to lifting of the fingers.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques by dual energy computed tomography

Description

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis which is the condition of plaque buildup on the inside of the coronary artery wall is the

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most prevalent cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis which is the condition of plaque buildup on the inside of the coronary artery wall is the main cause of CHD. Rupture of unstable atherosclerotic coronary plaque is known to be the cause of acute coronary syndrome. The composition of plaque is important for detection of plaque vulnerability. Due to prognostic importance of early stage identification, non-invasive assessment of plaque characterization is necessary. Computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a non-invasive alternative to coronary angiography. Recently, dual energy CT (DECT) coronary angiography has been performed clinically. DECT scanners use two different X-ray energies in order to determine the energy dependency of tissue attenuation values for each voxel. They generate virtual monochromatic energy images, as well as material basis pair images. The characterization of plaque components by DECT is still an active research topic since overlap between the CT attenuations measured in plaque components and contrast material shows that the single mean density might not be an appropriate measure for characterization. This dissertation proposes feature extraction, feature selection and learning strategies for supervised characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques. In my first study, I proposed an approach for calcium quantification in contrast-enhanced examinations of the coronary arteries, potentially eliminating the need for an extra non-contrast X-ray acquisition. The ambiguity of separation of calcium from contrast material was solved by using virtual non-contrast images. Additional attenuation data provided by DECT provides valuable information for separation of lipid from fibrous plaque since the change of their attenuation as the energy level changes is different. My second study proposed these as the input to supervised learners for a more precise classification of lipid and fibrous plaques. My last study aimed at automatic segmentation of coronary arteries characterizing plaque components and lumen on contrast enhanced monochromatic X-ray images. This required extraction of features from regions of interests. This study proposed feature extraction strategies and selection of important ones. The results show that supervised learning on the proposed features provides promising results for automatic characterization of coronary atherosclerotic plaques by DECT.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Experimental and computational assessment of locomotor coordination and complexity following incomplete spinal cord injury in the rat

Description

Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the communication between supraspinal circuits and spinal circuits distal to the injury. This disruption causes changes in the motor abilities of the affected individual, but

Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts the communication between supraspinal circuits and spinal circuits distal to the injury. This disruption causes changes in the motor abilities of the affected individual, but it can also be used as an opportunity to study motor control in the absence or limited presence of control from the brain. In the case of incomplete paraplegia, locomotion is impaired and often results in increased incidence of foot drag and decreased postural stability after injury. The overall goal of this work is to understand how changes in kinematics of movement and neural control of muscles effect locomotor coordination following SCI. Toward this end, we examined musculoskeletal parameters and kinematics of gait in rats with and without incomplete SCI (iSCI) and used an empirically developed computational model to test related hypotheses. The first study tested the hypothesis that iSCI causes a decrease in locomotor and joint angle movement complexity. A rat model was used to measure musculoskeletal properties and gait kinematics following mild iSCI. The data indicated joint-specific changes in kinematics in the absence of measurable muscle atrophy, particularly at the ankle as a result of the injury. Kinematic changes manifested as a decrease in complexity of ankle motion as indicated by measures of permutation entropy. In the second study, a new 2-dimensional computational model of the rat ankle combining forward and inverse dynamics was developed using the previously collected data. This model was used to test the hypothesis that altered coordination of flexor and extensor muscles (specifically alteration in burst shape and timing) acting at the ankle joint could be responsible for increases in incidence of foot drag following injury. Simulation results suggest a time course for changes in neural control following injury that begins with foot drag and decreased delay between antagonistic muscle activations. Following this, beneficial adaptations in muscle activation profile and ankle kinematics counteract the decreased delay to allow foot swing. In both studies, small changes in neural control caused large changes in behavior, particularly at the ankle. Future work will further examine the role of neural control of hindlimb in rat locomotion following iSCI.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Autonomous MEMS- Based Intracellular Neural Interfaces

Description

Intracellular voltage recordings from single neurons in vitro and in vivo have been fundamental to our understanding of neuronal function. Conventional electrodes and associated positioning systems for intracellular recording in

Intracellular voltage recordings from single neurons in vitro and in vivo have been fundamental to our understanding of neuronal function. Conventional electrodes and associated positioning systems for intracellular recording in vivo are large and bulky, which has largely restricted their use to single-channel recording from anesthetized animals. Further, intracellular recordings are very cumbersome, requiring a high degree of skill not readily achieved in a typical laboratory. This dissertation presents a robotic, head-mountable, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based intracellular recording system to overcome the above limitations associated with form-factor, scalability and highly skilled and tedious manual operations required for intracellular recordings. This system combines three distinct technologies: 1) novel microscale, polycrystalline silicon-based electrode for intracellular recording, 2) electrothermal microactuators for precise microscale navigation of the electrode and 3) closed-loop control algorithm for autonomous movement and positioning of electrode inside single neurons. First, two distinct designs of polysilicon-based microscale electrodes were fabricated and tested for intracellular recordings. In the first approach, tips of polysilicon microelectrodes were milled to nanoscale dimensions (<300 nm) using focused ion beam (FIB) to develop polysilicon nanoelectrodes. Polysilicon nanoelectrodes recorded >1.5 mV amplitude, positive-going action potentials and synaptic potentials from neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia Californica. In the second approach, polysilicon microelectrodes were integrated with miniaturized glass micropipettes filled with electrolyte to fabricate glass-polysilicon microelectrodes. These electrodes consistently recorded high fidelity intracellular potentials from neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia Californica (Resting Potentials < -35 mV, Action Potentials > 60 mV) as well as the rat motor cortex (Resting Potentials < -50 mV). Next, glass-polysilicon microelectrodes were coupled with microscale electrothermal actuators and controller for autonomous intracellular recordings from single neurons in the abdominal ganglion. Consistent resting potentials (< -35 mV) and action potentials (> 60 mV) were recorded after each successful penetration attempt with the controller and microactuated glass-polysilicon microelectrodes. The success rate of penetration and quality of recordings achieved using electrothermal microactuators were comparable to that of conventional positioning systems. Finally, the feasibility of this miniaturized system to obtain intracellular recordings from single neurons in the motor cortex of rats in vivo is also demonstrated. The MEMS-based system offers significant advantages: 1) reduction in overall size for potential use in behaving animals, 2) scalable approach to potentially realize multi-channel recordings and 3) a viable method to fully automate measurement of intracellular recordings.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Neural mechanisms of sensory integration: frequency domain analysis of spike and field potential activity during arm position maintenance with and without visual feedback

Description

Understanding where our bodies are in space is imperative for motor control, particularly for actions such as goal-directed reaching. Multisensory integration is crucial for reducing uncertainty in arm position

Understanding where our bodies are in space is imperative for motor control, particularly for actions such as goal-directed reaching. Multisensory integration is crucial for reducing uncertainty in arm position estimates. This dissertation examines time and frequency-domain correlates of visual-proprioceptive integration during an arm-position maintenance task. Neural recordings were obtained from two different cortical areas as non-human primates performed a center-out reaching task in a virtual reality environment. Following a reach, animals maintained the end-point position of their arm under unimodal (proprioception only) and bimodal (proprioception and vision) conditions. In both areas, time domain and multi-taper spectral analysis methods were used to quantify changes in the spiking, local field potential (LFP), and spike-field coherence during arm-position maintenance.

In both areas, individual neurons were classified based on the spectrum of their spiking patterns. A large proportion of cells in the SPL that exhibited sensory condition-specific oscillatory spiking in the beta (13-30Hz) frequency band. Cells in the IPL typically had a more diverse mix of oscillatory and refractory spiking patterns during the task in response to changing sensory condition. Contrary to the assumptions made in many modelling studies, none of the cells exhibited Poisson-spiking statistics in SPL or IPL.

Evoked LFPs in both areas exhibited greater effects of target location than visual condition, though the evoked responses in the preferred reach direction were generally suppressed in the bimodal condition relative to the unimodal condition. Significant effects of target location on evoked responses were observed during the movement period of the task well.

In the frequency domain, LFP power in both cortical areas was enhanced in the beta band during the position estimation epoch of the task, indicating that LFP beta oscillations may be important for maintaining the ongoing state. This was particularly evident at the population level, with clear increase in alpha and beta power. Differences in spectral power between conditions also became apparent at the population level, with power during bimodal trials being suppressed relative to unimodal. The spike-field coherence showed confounding results in both the SPL and IPL, with no clear correlation between incidence of beta oscillations and significant beta coherence.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017