Matching Items (27)

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Pyrrole-based poly(ionic liquids) as efficient stabilizers for formation of hollow MWCNT particles

Description

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) with an intrinsically conducting pyrrole polymer (ICP) backbone were synthesized and utilized as novel dispersants of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various polar and nonpolar solvents. This is

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) with an intrinsically conducting pyrrole polymer (ICP) backbone were synthesized and utilized as novel dispersants of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various polar and nonpolar solvents. This is due to their highly tunable nature, in which the anions can be easily exchanged to form PILs of varying polarity but with the same polycation. These CNT dispersions were exceedingly stable over many months, and with the addition of hexane, Pickering emulsions with the PIL-stabilized CNTs at the droplet interfaces were formed. Depending on the hydrophobicity of the PIL, hexane-in-water and hexane-in-acetonitrile emulsions were formed, the latter marking the first non-aqueous stabilized-CNT emulsions and corresponding CNT-in-acetonitrile dispersion, further advancing the processability of CNTs. The PIL-stabilized CNT Pickering emulsion droplets generated hollow conductive particles by subsequent drying of the emulsions. With the emulsion templating, the hollow shells can be used as a payload carrier, depending on the solubility of the payload in the droplet phase of the emulsion. This was demonstrated with silicon nanoparticles, which have limited solubility in aqueous environments, but great scientific interest due to their potential electrochemical applications. Overall, this work explored a new class of efficient PIL-ICP hybrid stabilizers with tunable hydrophobicity, offering extended stability of carbon nanotube dispersions with novel applications in hollow particle formation via Pickering emulsion templating and in placing payloads into the shells.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Bi-phase Synthesis of the Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework, UiO-66

Description

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new set of porous materials comprised of metals or metal clusters bonded together in a coordination system by organic linkers. They are becoming popular for gas separations due to their abilities to be tailored toward specific applications. Zirconium MOFs in particular are known for their high stability under standard temperature and pressure due to the strength of the Zirconium-Oxygen coordination bond. However, the acid modulator needed to ensure long range order of the product also prevents complete linker deprotonation. This leads to a powder product that cannot easily be incorporated into continuous MOF membranes. This study therefore implemented a new bi-phase synthesis technique with a deprotonating agent to achieve intergrowth in UiO-66 membranes. Crystal intergrowth will allow for effective gas separations and future permeation testing. During experimentation, successful intergrown UiO-66 membranes were synthesized and characterized. The degree of intergrowth and crystal orientations varied with changing deprotonating agent concentration, modulator concentration, and ligand:modulator ratios. Further studies will focus on achieving the same results on porous substrates.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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A Model of Nanoparticle Dispersion in Electrospun Nanofibers

Description

Polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs) show improved chemical and physical properties compared to pure polymers. However, nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix tend to aggregate due to strong interparticle interactions. Electrospun nanofibers

Polymer-nanoparticle composites (PNCs) show improved chemical and physical properties compared to pure polymers. However, nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer matrix tend to aggregate due to strong interparticle interactions. Electrospun nanofibers impregnated with nanoparticles have shown improved dispersion of nanoparticles. Currently, there are few models for quantifying dispersion in a PNC, and none for electrospun PNC fibers. A simulation model was developed to quantify the effects of nanoparticle volume loading and fiber to particle diameter ratios on the dispersion in a nanofiber. The dispersion was characterized using the interparticle distance along the fiber. Distributions of the interparticle distance were fit to Weibull distributions and a two-parameter empirical equation for the mean and standard deviation was found. A dispersion factor was defined to quantify the dispersion along the polymer fiber. This model serves as a standard for comparison for future experimental studies through its comparability with microscopy techniques, and as way to quantify and predict dispersion in polymer-nanoparticle electrospinning systems with a single performance metric.

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  • 2016-12

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Simulations of Pressure Swing Adsorption of Methane - Carbon Dioxide System

Description

Separation of carbon dioxide and methane for the upgrade of natural gas through use of pressure swing adsorption could potentially save large amounts of energy from the current, costly process

Separation of carbon dioxide and methane for the upgrade of natural gas through use of pressure swing adsorption could potentially save large amounts of energy from the current, costly process of cryogenic distillation and provides greater cost effectiveness for carbon dioxide capture, and provide larger product flowrates than membrane permeation separation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of varying initial conditions of a MatLab simulation, courtesy of Mai Xu, a graduate student at ASU, designed to use Langmuir isotherms, mass transfer equations, and adsorbent and gas properties to simulate a pressure swing adsorption process with a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide gas feed. The effects that will be varied are the adsorption/desorption time, pressurization/depressurization time, adsorption feed composition, desorption purge composition, adsorption pressure, desorption pressure, adsorption flow rate, and desorption flow rate. The study found that the trends in methane purity and production generally follow the trends predicted by literature and relevant equations, with pressure boundaries being the largest impacting factor. In addition there was a markedly inverse correlation between purity of methane product and the productivity of the system. This trend was only violated in one instance, at very low vacuum pressure during desorption, which could indicate an area that requires further study. Overall, the main areas of improvement in pressure swing adsorption for this system would be improving the selectivity of adsorption of carbon dioxide over methane, which requires improvement and change of the adsorbent, and more extreme vacuum pressures during desorption, both of which will increase methane yield and reduce operating costs.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Synthesis and Characterization of 2D Metal-organic Frameworks for Mixed-matrix Membrane Gas Separations

Description

Membrane-based technology for gas separations is currently at an emerging stage of advancement and adoption for environmental and industrial applications due to its substantial advantages like lower energy and operating

Membrane-based technology for gas separations is currently at an emerging stage of advancement and adoption for environmental and industrial applications due to its substantial advantages like lower energy and operating costs over the conventional gas separation technologies. Unfortunately, the available polymeric (or organic) membranes suffer a trade-off between permeance and selectivity. Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) containing two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as fillers are a highly sought approach to redress this trade-off given their enhanced gas permeabilities and selectivities compared to the pure polymeric membrane. These MMMs are increasingly gaining attention by researchers due to their unique properties and wide small- and large-scale gas separation applications. However, straightforward and scalable methods for the synthesis of MOFs nanosheets have thus far been persistently elusive. This study reports the single-phase preparation, and characterization of MMMs with 2D MOFs nanosheets as fillers. The prepared MOF and the polymer matrix form the ‘dense’ MMMs which exhibit increased gas diffusion resistance, and thus improved separation abilities. The single-phase approach was more successful than the bi-phase at synthesizing the MOFs. The influence of sonication power and time on the characteristics and performance of the membranes are examined and discussed. Increasing the sonication power from 50% to 100% reduces the pore size. Additionally, the ultimate effect on the selectivity and permeance of the MMMs with different single gases is reported. Analysis of results with various gas mixers indicates further performance improvements in these MMMs could be achieved by increasing sonication time and tuning suitable membrane thicknesses. Reported results reveal that MMMs are excellent candidates for next-generation gas mixture separations, with potential applications in CO2 capture and storage, hydrogen recovery, alkene recovery from alkanes, and natural gas purification.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Microstructural Quantification, Property Prediction, and Stochastic Reconstruction of Heterogeneous Materials Using Limited X-Ray Tomography Data

Description

An accurate knowledge of the complex microstructure of a heterogeneous material is crucial for quantitative structure-property relations establishment and its performance prediction and optimization. X-ray tomography has provided a non-destructive

An accurate knowledge of the complex microstructure of a heterogeneous material is crucial for quantitative structure-property relations establishment and its performance prediction and optimization. X-ray tomography has provided a non-destructive means for microstructure characterization in both 3D and 4D (i.e., structural evolution over time). Traditional reconstruction algorithms like filtered-back-projection (FBP) method or algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) require huge number of tomographic projections and segmentation process before conducting microstructural quantification. This can be quite time consuming and computationally intensive.

In this thesis, a novel procedure is first presented that allows one to directly extract key structural information in forms of spatial correlation functions from limited x-ray tomography data. The key component of the procedure is the computation of a “probability map”, which provides the probability of an arbitrary point in the material system belonging to specific phase. The correlation functions of interest are then readily computed from the probability map. Using effective medium theory, accurate predictions of physical properties (e.g., elastic moduli) can be obtained.

Secondly, a stochastic optimization procedure that enables one to accurately reconstruct material microstructure from a small number of x-ray tomographic projections (e.g., 20 - 40) is presented. Moreover, a stochastic procedure for multi-modal data fusion is proposed, where both X-ray projections and correlation functions computed from limited 2D optical images are fused to accurately reconstruct complex heterogeneous materials in 3D. This multi-modal reconstruction algorithm is proved to be able to integrate the complementary data to perform an excellent optimization procedure, which indicates its high efficiency in using limited structural information.

Finally, the accuracy of the stochastic reconstruction procedure using limited X-ray projection data is ascertained by analyzing the microstructural degeneracy and the roughness of energy landscape associated with different number of projections. Ground-state degeneracy of a microstructure is found to decrease with increasing number of projections, which indicates a higher probability that the reconstructed configurations match the actual microstructure. The roughness of energy landscape can also provide information about the complexity and convergence behavior of the reconstruction for given microstructures and projection number.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Synthesis and characterization of ZIF-71/PDMS membranes for biofuel separation

Description

Membranes are a key part of pervaporation processes, which is generally a more

efficient process for selective removal of alcohol from water than distillation. It is

necessary that the membranes have high

Membranes are a key part of pervaporation processes, which is generally a more

efficient process for selective removal of alcohol from water than distillation. It is

necessary that the membranes have high alcohol permeabilities and selectivities.

Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have

demonstrated very promising results. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-71 (ZIF-71)

demonstrated promising alcohol separation abilities. In this dissertation, we present

fundamental studies on the synthesis of ZIF-71/PDMS MMMs.

Free-standing ZIF-71/ PDMS membranes with 0, 5, 25 and 40 wt % ZIF-71

loadings were prepared and the pervaporation separation for ethanol and 1-butanol from

water was measured. ZIF-71/PDMS MMMs were formed through addition cure and

condensation cure methods. Addition cure method was not compatible with ZIF-71

resulting in membranes with poor mechanical properties, while the condensation cure

method resulted in membranes with good mechanical properties. The 40 wt % ZIF-71

loading PDMS nanocomposite membranes achieved a maximum ethanol/water selectivity

of 0.81 ± 0.04 selectivity and maximum 1-butnaol/water selectivity of 5.64 ± 0.15.

The effects of synthesis time, temperature, and reactant ratio on ZIF-71 particle

size and the effect of particle size on membrane performance were studied. Temperature

had the greatest effect on ZIF-71 particle size as the synthesis temperature varied from -

20 to 35 ºC. The ZIF-71 synthesized had particle diameters ranging from 150 nm to 1

μm. ZIF-71 particle size is critical in ZIF-71/PDMS composite membrane performance

for alcohol removal from water through pervaporation. The membranes made with

micron sized ZIF-71 particles showed higher alcohol/water selectivity than those with

smaller particles. Both alcohol and water permeability increased when larger sized ZIF-

71 particles were incorporated.

ZIF-71 particles were modified with four ligands through solvent assisted linker

exchange (SALE) method: benzimidazole (BIM), 5-methylbenzimidazole (MBIM), 5,6-

dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBIM) and 4-Phenylimidazole (PI). The morphology of ZIF-

71 were maintained after the modification. ZIF-71/PDMS composite membranes with 25

wt% loading modified ZIF-71 particles were made for alcohol/water separation. Better

particle dispersion in PDMS polymer matrix was observed with the ligand modified ZIFs.

For both ethanol/water and 1-butanol/water separations, the alcohol permeability and

alcohol/water selectivity were lowered after the ZIF-71 ligand exchange reaction.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Material Processing for Edible Electronics

Description

A new type of electronics was envisioned, namely edible electronics. Edible electronics are made by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) certified edible materials which can be eaten and digested by

A new type of electronics was envisioned, namely edible electronics. Edible electronics are made by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) certified edible materials which can be eaten and digested by human body. Different from implantable electronics, test or treatment using edible electronics doesn’t require operations and perioperative complications.

This dissertation bridges the food industry, material sciences, device fabrication, and biomedical engineering by demonstrating edible supercapacitors and electronic components and devices such as pH sensor.

Edible supercapacitors were fabricated using food materials from grocery store. 5 of them were connected in series to power a snake camera. Tests result showed that the current generated by supercapacitor have the ability to kill bacteria. Next more food, processed food and non-toxic level electronic materials were investigated. A “preferred food kit” was created for component fabrication based on the investigation. Some edible electronic components, such as wires, resistor, inductor, etc., were developed and characterized utilizing the preferred food kit. These components make it possible to fabricate edible electronic/device in the future work. Some edible electronic components were integrated into an edible electronic system/device. Then edible pH sensor was introduced and fabricated. This edible pH sensor can be swallowed and test pH of gastric fluid. PH can be read in a phone within seconds after the pH sensor was swallowed. As a side project, an edible double network gel electrolyte was synthesized for the edible supercapacitor.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Comparison of Encapsulant Degradation between Glass/Backsheet and Glass/Glass Field-aged Photovoltaic Modules

Description

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is the most commonly used encapsulant in photovoltaic modules. However, EVA degrades over time and causes performance losses in PV system. Therefore, EVA degradation is a

Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) is the most commonly used encapsulant in photovoltaic modules. However, EVA degrades over time and causes performance losses in PV system. Therefore, EVA degradation is a matter of concern from a durability point of view.

This work compares EVA encapsulant degradation in glass/backsheet and glass/glass field-aged PV modules. EVA was extracted from three field-aged modules (two glass/backsheet and one glass/glass modules) from three different manufacturers from various regions (cell edges, cell centers, and non-cell region) from each module based on their visual and UV Fluorescence images. Characterization techniques such as I-V measurements, Colorimetry, Different Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy were performed on EVA samples.

The intensity of EVA discoloration was quantified using colorimetric measurements. Module performance parameters like Isc and Pmax degradation rates were calculated from I-V measurements. Properties such as degree of crystallinity, vinyl acetate content and degree of crosslinking were calculated from DSC, TGA, and Raman measurements, respectively. Polyenes responsible for EVA browning were identified in FTIR spectra.

The results from the characterization techniques confirmed that when EVA undergoes degradation, crosslinking in EVA increases beyond 90% causing a decrease in the degree of crystallinity and an increase in vinyl acetate content of EVA. Presence of polyenes in FTIR spectra of degraded EVA confirmed the occurrence of Norrish II reaction. However, photobleaching occurred in glass/backsheet modules due to the breathable backsheet whereas no photobleaching occurred in glass/glass modules because they were hermetically sealed. Hence, the yellowness index along with the Isc and Pmax degradation rates of EVA in glass/glass module is higher than that in glass/backsheet modules.

The results implied that more acetic acid was produced in the non-cell region due to its double layer of EVA compared to the front EVA from cell region. But, since glass/glass module is hermetically sealed, acetic acid gets entrapped inside the module further accelerating EVA degradation whereas it diffuses out through backsheet in glass/backsheet modules. Hence, it can be said that EVA might be a good encapsulant for glass/backsheet modules, but the same cannot be said for glass/glass modules.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Design of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Capture Applications: Approaches for Adsorptive Separation of CO2/N2 and O2/N2 Mixtures

Description

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term

The large-scale anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere leads to many unintended consequences, from rising sea levels to ocean acidification. While a clean energy infrastructure is growing, mid-term strategies that are compatible with the current infrastructure should be developed. Carbon capture and storage in fossil-fuel power plants is one way to avoid our current gigaton-scale emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, for this to be possible, separation techniques are necessary to remove the nitrogen from air before combustion or from the flue gas after combustion. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous material that show great promise for adsorptive separation processes. Here, potential mechanisms of O2/N2 separation and CO2/N2 separation are explored.

First, a logical categorization of potential adsorptive separation mechanisms in MOFs is outlined by comparing existing data with previously studied materials. Size-selective adsorptive separation is investigated for both gas systems using molecular simulations. A correlation between size-selective equilibrium adsorptive separation capabilities and pore diameter is established in materials with complex pore distributions. A method of generating mobile extra-framework cations which drastically increase adsorptive selectivity toward nitrogen over oxygen via electrostatic interactions is explored through experiments and simulations. Finally, deposition of redox-active ferrocene molecules into systematically generated defects is shown to be an effective method of increasing selectivity towards oxygen.

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Date Created
  • 2019