Matching Items (33)

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Visualizing Lagrangian Coherent Structures from Realistic Flow Data

Description

The goal of this project was to examine the separatricies that define regions of distinct flow behaviors in realistic time-dependent dynamical systems. In particular, we adapted previously available methods for

The goal of this project was to examine the separatricies that define regions of distinct flow behaviors in realistic time-dependent dynamical systems. In particular, we adapted previously available methods for computing the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) to a set of measured wind velocity data in order to visualize the separatricies as ridges of the FTLE field in a section of the atmosphere. This visualization required a number of alterations to the original methods, including interpolation techniques and two different adaptive refinement schemes for producing more detailed results. Overall, there were two computations performed with the wind velocity data: once along a single spherical surface, on which the separatricies could be visualized as material lines, and then along a three-dimensional section of the atmosphere, for which the separatricies were material surfaces. The resulting figures provide an image of the Antarctic polar vortex from the wind velocity data, which is consistent with other data gathered on the same date.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Lagrangian Skeletons in Hurricane Katrina

Description

This thesis shows analyses of mixing and transport patterns associated with Hurricane Katrina as it hit the United States in August of 2005. Specifically, by applying atmospheric velocity information from

This thesis shows analyses of mixing and transport patterns associated with Hurricane Katrina as it hit the United States in August of 2005. Specifically, by applying atmospheric velocity information from the Weather Research and Forecasting System, finite-time Lyapunov exponents have been computed and the Lagrangian Coherent Structures have been identified. The chaotic dynamics of material transport induced by the hurricane are results from these structures within the flow. Boundaries of the coherent structures are highlighted by the FTLE field. Individual particle transport within the hurricane is affected by the location of these boundaries. In addition to idealized fluid particles, we also studied inertial particles which have finite size and inertia. Basing on established Maxey-Riley equations of the dynamics of particles of finite size, we obtain a reduced equation governing the position process. Using methods derived from computer graphics, we identify maximizers of the FTLE field. Following and applying these ideas, we analyze the dynamics of inertial particle transport within Hurricane Katrina, through comparison of trajectories of dierent sized particles and by pinpointing the location of the Lagrangian Coherent Structures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Incorporating Space and Stochasticity in an Evolutionary Game Theory Model

Description

This thesis explores and explains a stochastic model in Evolutionary Game Theory introduced by Dr. Nicolas Lanchier. The model is a continuous-time Markov chain that maps the two-dimensional lattice into

This thesis explores and explains a stochastic model in Evolutionary Game Theory introduced by Dr. Nicolas Lanchier. The model is a continuous-time Markov chain that maps the two-dimensional lattice into the strategy space {1,2}. At every vertex in the grid there is exactly one player whose payoff is determined by its strategy and the strategies of its neighbors. Update times are exponential random variables with parameters equal to the absolute value of the respective cells' payoffs. The model is connected to an ordinary differential equation known as the replicator equation. This differential equation is analyzed to find its fixed points and stability. Then, by simulating the model using Java code and observing the change in dynamics which result from varying the parameters of the payoff matrix, the stochastic model's phase diagram is compared to the replicator equation's phase diagram to see what effect local interactions and stochastic update times have on the evolutionary stability of strategies. It is revealed that in the stochastic model altruistic strategies can be evolutionarily stable, and selfish strategies are only evolutionarily stable if they are more selfish than their opposing strategy. This contrasts with the replicator equation where selfishness is always evolutionarily stable and altruism never is.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Lagrangian Transport of Inertial Particles in Hurricane Katrina

Description

Using weather data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), we analyze the transport of inertial particles in Hurricane Katrina in order to identify coherent patterns of motion. For

Using weather data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), we analyze the transport of inertial particles in Hurricane Katrina in order to identify coherent patterns of motion. For our analysis, we choose a Lagrangian approach instead of an Eulerian approach because the Lagrangian approach is objective and frame-independent, and gives results which are better defined. In particular, we locate Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS), which are smooth sets of fluid particles which are locally most hyperbolic (either attracting or repelling). We implement a variational method for locating LCS and compare the results to previous computation of LCS using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) to identify regions of high stretching in the fluid flow.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

Application of Individual Based Models in Modeding Brain Tumor

Description

Cancer modeling has brought a lot of attention in recent years. It had been proven to be a difficult task to model the behavior of cancer cells, since little about

Cancer modeling has brought a lot of attention in recent years. It had been proven to be a difficult task to model the behavior of cancer cells, since little about the "rules" a cell follows has been known. Existing models for cancer cells can be generalized into two categories: macroscopic models which studies the tumor structure as a whole, and microscopic models which focus on the behavior of individual cells. Both modeling strategies strive the same goal of creating a model that can be validated with experimental data, and is reliable for predicting tumor growth. In order to achieve this goal, models must be developed based on certain rules that tumor structures follow. This paper will introduce how such rules can be implemented in a mathematical model, with the example of individual based modeling.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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A Numerical and Analytical Study of Wave Reflection and Transmission across the Tropopause

Description

A numerical study of wave-induced momentum transport across the tropopause in the presence of a stably stratified thin inversion layer is presented and discussed. This layer consists of a shar

A numerical study of wave-induced momentum transport across the tropopause in the presence of a stably stratified thin inversion layer is presented and discussed. This layer consists of a sharp increase in static stability within the tropopause. The wave propagation is modeled by numerically solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation, which governs the dynamics of internal waves in stably stratified shear flows. The waves are forced by a flow over a bell shaped mountain placed at the lower boundary of the domain. A perfectly radiating condition based on the group velocity of mountain waves is imposed at the top to avoid artificial wave reflection. A validation for the numerical method through comparisons with the corresponding analytical solutions will be provided. Then, the method is applied to more realistic profiles of the stability to study the impact of these profiles on wave propagation through the tropopause.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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A New Numerical Method Based on Leapfrog for Atmospheric and Ocean Modeling

Description

A semi-implicit, fourth-order time-filtered leapfrog numerical scheme is investigated for accuracy and stability, and applied to several test cases, including one-dimensional advection and diffusion, the anelastic equations to simulate the

A semi-implicit, fourth-order time-filtered leapfrog numerical scheme is investigated for accuracy and stability, and applied to several test cases, including one-dimensional advection and diffusion, the anelastic equations to simulate the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and the global shallow water spectral model to simulate the nonlinear evolution of twin tropical cyclones. The leapfrog scheme leads to computational modes in the solutions to highly nonlinear systems, and time-filters are often used to damp these modes. The proposed filter damps the computational modes without appreciably degrading the physical mode. Its performance in these metrics is superior to the second-order time-filtered leapfrog scheme developed by Robert and Asselin.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of Southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations

Description

In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone

In this study, WRF-Chem is utilized at high resolution (1.333 km grid spacing for the innermost domain) to investigate impacts of southern California anthropogenic emissions (SoCal) on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations ([O[superscript 3]]) for a pair of recent exceedance episodes. First, WRF-Chem control simulations, based on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2005 National Emissions Inventories (NEI05), are conducted to evaluate model performance. Compared with surface observations of hourly ozone, CO, NO[superscript X], and wind fields, the control simulations reproduce observed variability well. Simulated [O[superscript 3]] are comparable with the previous studies in this region. Next, the relative contribution of SoCal and Arizona local anthropogenic emissions (AZ) to ozone exceedances within the Phoenix metropolitan area is investigated via a trio of sensitivity simulations: (1) SoCal emissions are excluded, with all other emissions as in Control; (2) AZ emissions are excluded with all other emissions as in Control; and (3) SoCal and AZ emissions are excluded (i.e., all anthropogenic emissions are eliminated) to account only for Biogenic emissions and lateral boundary inflow (BILB). Based on the USEPA NEI05, results for the selected events indicate the impacts of AZ emissions are dominant on daily maximum 8 h average (DMA8) [O[superscript 3]] in Phoenix. SoCal contributions to DMA8 [O[superscript 3]] for the Phoenix metropolitan area range from a few ppbv to over 30 ppbv (10–30 % relative to Control experiments). [O[superscript 3]] from SoCal and AZ emissions exhibit the expected diurnal characteristics that are determined by physical and photochemical processes, while BILB contributions to DMA8 [O[superscript 3]] in Phoenix also play a key role.

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Date Created
  • 2015-08-21

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Simulating meteorological profiles to study noise propagation from freeways

Description

Forecasts of noise pollution from a highway line segment noise source are obtained from a sound propagation model utilizing effective sound speed profiles derived from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP)

Forecasts of noise pollution from a highway line segment noise source are obtained from a sound propagation model utilizing effective sound speed profiles derived from a Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) limited area forecast with 1 km horizontal resolution and near-ground vertical resolution finer than 20 m. Methods for temporal along with horizontal and vertical spatial nesting are demonstrated within the NWP model for maintaining forecast feasibility. It is shown that vertical nesting can improve the prediction of finer structures in near-ground temperature and velocity profiles, such as morning temperature inversions and low level jet-like features. Accurate representation of these features is shown to be important for modeling sound refraction phenomena and for enabling accurate noise assessment. Comparisons are made using the parabolic equation model for predictions with profiles derived from NWP simulations and from field experiment observations during mornings on November 7 and 8, 2006 in Phoenix, Arizona. The challenges faced in simulating accurate meteorological profiles at high resolution for sound propagation applications are highlighted and areas for possible improvement are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05-01

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Multiscale Modeling and Evaluation of Urban Surface Energy Balance in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

Physical mechanisms of incongruency between observations and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model predictions are examined. Limitations of evaluation are constrained by (i) parameterizations of model physics, (ii) parameterizations of

Physical mechanisms of incongruency between observations and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model predictions are examined. Limitations of evaluation are constrained by (i) parameterizations of model physics, (ii) parameterizations of input data, (iii) model resolution, and (iv) flux observation resolution. Observations from a new 22.1-m flux tower situated within a residential neighborhood in Phoenix, Arizona, are utilized to evaluate the ability of the urbanized WRF to resolve finescale surface energy balance (SEB) when using the urban classes derived from the 30-m-resolution National Land Cover Database. Modeled SEB response to a large seasonal variation of net radiation forcing was tested during synoptically quiescent periods of high pressure in winter 2011 and premonsoon summer 2012. Results are presented from simulations employing five nested domains down to 333-m horizontal resolution. A comparative analysis of model cases testing parameterization of physical processes was done using four configurations of urban parameterization for the bulk urban scheme versus three representations with the Urban Canopy Model (UCM) scheme, and also for two types of planetary boundary layer parameterization: the local Mellor–Yamada–Janjić scheme and the nonlocal Yonsei University scheme. Diurnal variation in SEB constituent fluxes is examined in relation to surface-layer stability and modeled diagnostic variables. Improvement is found when adapting UCM for Phoenix with reduced errors in the SEB components. Finer model resolution is seen to have insignificant (<1 standard deviation) influence on mean absolute percent difference of 30-min diurnal mean SEB terms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-11