Matching Items (11)

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Synthesis and application of porphyrin, phthalocyanine and perylene chromophores for solar energy conversion

Description

Photosynthesis, one of the most important processes in nature, has provided an energy basis for nearly all life on Earth, as well as the fossil fuels we use today to

Photosynthesis, one of the most important processes in nature, has provided an energy basis for nearly all life on Earth, as well as the fossil fuels we use today to power modern society. This research aims to mimic the photosynthetic process of converting incident solar energy into chemical potential energy in the form of a fuel via systems capable of carrying out photo-induced electron transfer to drive the production of hydrogen from water. Herein is detailed progress in using photo-induced stepwise electron transfer to drive the oxidation of water and reduction of protons to hydrogen. In the design, use of more blue absorbing porphyrin dyes to generate high-potential intermediates for oxidizing water and more red absorbing phthalocyanine dyes for forming the low potential charge needed for the production of hydrogen have been utilized. For investigating water oxidation at the photoanode, high potential porphyrins such as, bis-pyridyl porphyrins and pentafluorophenyl porphyrins have been synthesized and experiments have aimed at the co-immobilization of this dye with an IrO2-nH2O catalyst on TiO2. To drive the cathodic reaction of the water splitting photoelectrochemical cell, utilization of silicon octabutoxy-phthalocyanines have been explored, as they offer good absorption in the red to near infrared, coupled with low potential photo-excited states. Axially and peripherally substituted phthalocyanines bearing carboxylic anchoring groups for the immobilization on semiconductors such as TiO2 has been investigated. Ultimately, this work should culminate in a photoelectrochemical cell capable of splitting water to oxygen and hydrogen with the only energy input from light. A series of perylene dyes bearing multiple semi-conducting metal oxide anchoring groups have been synthesized and studied. Results have shown interfacial electron transfer between these perylenes and TiO2 nanoparticles encapsulated within reverse micelles and naked nanoparticles. The binding process was followed by monitoring the hypsochromic shift of the dye absorption spectra over time. Photoinduced electron transfer from the singlet excited state of the perylenes to the TiO2 conduction band is indicated by emission quenching of the TiO2-bound form of the dyes and confirmed by transient absorption measurements of the radical cation of the dyes and free carriers (injected electrons) in the TiO2.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Experimental and computational studies on the design of dyes for water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical tandem cells

Description

Solar energy is a promising alternative for addressing the world's current and future energy requirements in a sustainable way. Because solar irradiation is intermittent, it is necessary to store this

Solar energy is a promising alternative for addressing the world's current and future energy requirements in a sustainable way. Because solar irradiation is intermittent, it is necessary to store this energy in the form of a fuel so it can be used when required. The light-driven splitting of water into oxygen and hydrogen (a useful chemical fuel) is a fascinating theoretical and experimental challenge that is worth pursuing because the advance of the knowledge that it implies and the availability of water and sunlight. Inspired by natural photosynthesis and building on previous work from our laboratory, this dissertation focuses on the development of water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical tandem cells (WSDSPETCs). The design, synthesis, and characterization of high-potential porphyrins and metal-free phthalocyanines with phosphonic anchoring groups are reported. Photocurrents measured for WSDSPETCs made with some of these dyes co-adsorbed with molecular or colloidal catalysts on TiO2 electrodes are reported as well. To guide in the design of new molecules we have used computational quantum chemistry extensively. Linear correlations between calculated frontier molecular orbital energies and redox potentials were built and tested at multiple levels of theory (from semi-empirical methods to density functional theory). Strong correlations (with r2 values > 0.99) with very good predictive abilities (rmsd < 50 mV) were found when using density functional theory (DFT) combined with a continuum solvent model. DFT was also used to aid in the elucidation of the mechanism of the thermal relaxation observed for the charge-separated state of a molecular triad that mimics the photo-induced proton coupled electron transfer of the tyrosine-histidine redox relay in the reaction center of Photosystem II. It was found that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules, hydrogen bonded to specific sites within the molecular triad, was essential to explain the observed thermal relaxation. These results are relevant for both advancing the knowledge about natural photosynthesis and for the future design of new molecules for WSDSPETCs.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Rational metalloprotein design for energy conversion applications

Description

Continuing and increasing reliance on fossil fuels to satisfy our population’s energy demands has encouraged the search for renewable carbon-free and carbon-neutral sources, such as hydrogen gas or CO2 reduction

Continuing and increasing reliance on fossil fuels to satisfy our population’s energy demands has encouraged the search for renewable carbon-free and carbon-neutral sources, such as hydrogen gas or CO2 reduction products. Inspired by nature, one of the objectives of this dissertation was to develop protein-based strategies that can be applied in the production of green fuels. The first project of this dissertation aimed at developing a controllable strategy to incorporate domains with different functions (e. g. catalytic sites, electron transfer modules, light absorbing subunits) into a single multicomponent system. This was accomplished through the rational design of 2,2’-bipyridine modified dimeric peptides that allowed their metal-directed oligomerization by forming tris(bipyridine) complexes, thus resulting in the formation of a hexameric assembly.

Additionally, two different approaches to incorporate non-natural organometallic catalysts into protein matrix are discussed. First, cobalt protoporphyrin IX was incorporated into cytochrome b562 to produce a water-soluble proton and CO2 reduction catalyst that is active upon irradiation in the presence of a photosensitizer. The effect of the porphyrin axial ligands provided by the protein environment has been investigated by introducing mutations into the native scaffold, indicating that catalytic activity of proton reduction is dependent on axial coordination to the porphyrin. It is also shown that effects of the protein environment are not directly transferred when applied to other reactions, such as CO2 reduction.

Inspired by the active site of [FeFe]-hydrogenases, the second approach is based on the stereoselective preparation of a novel amino acid bearing a 1,2-benzenedithiol side chain. This moiety can serve as an anchoring point for the introduction of metal complexes into protein matrices. By doing so, this strategy enables the study of protein interactions with non-natural cofactors and the effects that it may have on catalysis. The work developed herein lays a foundation for furthering the study of the use of proteins as suitable environments for tuning the activity of organometallic catalysts in aqueous conditions, and interfacing these systems with other supporting units into supramolecular assemblies.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Compounds for investigating photosynthetic pathways and solar energy conversion

Description

Humanity’s demand for energy is increasing exponentially and the dependence on fossil fuels is both unsustainable and detrimental to the environment. To provide a solution to the impending energy crisis,

Humanity’s demand for energy is increasing exponentially and the dependence on fossil fuels is both unsustainable and detrimental to the environment. To provide a solution to the impending energy crisis, it is reasonable to look toward utilizing solar energy, which is abundant and renewable. One approach to harvesting solar irradiation for fuel purposes is through mimicking the processes of natural photosynthesis in an artificial design to use sunlight and water to store energy in chemical bonds for later use. Thus, in order to design an efficient energy conversion device, the underlying processes of the natural system must be understood. An artificial photosynthetic device has many components and each can be optimized separately. This work deals with the design, construction and study of some of those components. The first chapter provides an introduction to this work. The second chapter shows a proof of concept for a water splitting dye sensitized photoelectrochemical cell followed by the presentation of a new p-type semiconductor, the design of a modular cluster binding protein that can be used for incorporating catalysts, and a new anchoring group for semiconducting oxides with high electron injection efficiency. The third chapter investigates the role of electronic coupling and thermodynamics for photoprotection in artificial systems by triplet-triplet energy transfer from tetrapyrroles to carotenoids. The fourth chapter describes a mimic of the proton-coupled electron transfer in photosystem II and confirms that in the artificial system a concerted mechanism operates. In the fifth chapter, a microbial system is designed to work in tandem with a photovoltaic device to produce high energy fuels. A variety of quinone redox mediators have been synthesized to shuttle electrons from an electron donor to the microbial system. Lastly, the synthesis of a variety of photosensitizers is detailed for possible future use in artificial systems. The results of this work helps with the understanding of the processes of natural photosynthesis and suggests ways to design artificial photosynthetic devices that can contribute to solving the renewable energy challenge.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Photoprotective & solar light collecting biomimetic molecules

Description

The first chapter reviews three decades of artificial photosynthetic research conducted by the A. Moore, T. Moore, and D. Gust research group. Several carotenoid (Car) and tetrapyrrole containing molecules were

The first chapter reviews three decades of artificial photosynthetic research conducted by the A. Moore, T. Moore, and D. Gust research group. Several carotenoid (Car) and tetrapyrrole containing molecules were synthesized and investigated for excitation energy transfer (EET), photoregulation, and photoprotective functions. These artificial photosynthetic compounds mimicked known processes and investigated proposed mechanisms in natural systems. This research leads to a greater understanding of photosynthesis and design concepts for organic based solar energy conversion devices. The second and third chapters analyze the triplet energy transfer in carotenoid containing dyads. Transient absorption, time-resolved FTIR and resonance Raman spectra revealed that in a 4-amide linked carotenophthalocyanine dyads the Car triplet state is shared across the larger conjugated system, which is similar to protein complexes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. In a carotenopurpurin dyad (CarPur) a methylene ester covalent bond prevents the purpurin (Pur) from influencing the Car triplet based on the transient absorption, time-resolved FTIR and resonance Raman spectra. Thus CarPur resembles the antenna proteins from anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. Additional examples of carotenoporphyrin dyads further demonstrates the need for orbital overlap for ultrafast triplet energy transfer and the formations of possible intramolecular charge transfer state. The fourth chapter studies a 4-amino phenyl carotenophthalocyanine and its model compounds using high temporal resolution transient absorption spectroscopy techniques. EET from the Car second excited (S2) state to the phthalocyanine (Pc) was determined to be 37% and a coupled hot ground state (S*)/Pc excited state spectrum was observed. Excitation of the tetrapyrrole portion of the dyad did not yield any kinetic differences, but there was an S* signal during the excited states of the dyad. This demonstrates the EET and photoregulating properties of this artificial photosynthetic compound are similar to those of natural photosynthesis. The last chapter covers the synthesis of silicon Pc (SiPc) dyes and the methods for attaching them to gold nanoparticles and flat gold surfaces. SiPc attached to patterned gold surfaces had unperturbed fluorescence, however the selectivity for the gold was low, so alternative materials are under investigation to improve the dye's selectivity for the gold surface.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Beta-cyanoporphyrins: their synthesis and applications in molecular systems for artificial photosynthesis

Description

As sunlight is an ideal source of energy on a global scale, there are several approaches being developed to harvest it and convert it to a form that can be

As sunlight is an ideal source of energy on a global scale, there are several approaches being developed to harvest it and convert it to a form that can be used. One of these is though mimicking the processes in natural photosynthesis. Artificial photosynthetic systems include dye sensitized solar cells for the conversion of sunlight to electricity, and photoelectrosynthetic cells which use sunlight to drive water oxidation and hydrogen production to convert sunlight to energy stored in fuel. Both of these approaches include the process of the conversion of light energy into chemical potential in the form of a charge-separated state via molecular compounds. Porphyrins are commonly used as sensitizers as they have well suited properties for these applications. A high potential porphyrin with four nitrile groups at the beta positions, a β-cyanoporphyrin (CyP), was investigated and found to be an excellent electron acceptor, as well as have the necessary properties to be used as a sensitizer for photoelectrosynthetic cells for water oxidation. A new synthetic method was developed which allowed for the CyP to be used in a number of studies in artificial photosynthetic systems. This dissertation reports the theories behind, and the results of four studies utilizing a CyP for the first time; as a sensitizer in a DSSC for an investigation of its use in light driven water oxidation photoelectrosynthetic cells, as an electron acceptor in a proton coupled electron transfer system, in a carotene-CyP dyad to study energy and electron transfer processes between these moieties, and in a molecular triad to study a unique electron transfer process from a C60 radical anion to the CyP. It has been found that CyPs can be used as powerful electron acceptors in molecular systems to provide a large driving force for electron transfer that can aid in the process of the conversion of light to electrochemical potential. The results from these studies have led to a better understanding of the properties of CyPs, and have provided new insight into several electron transfer reactions.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Synthesis and characterization of dyes and benzimidazole-phenols for the study of electron transfer

Description

Converting solar energy into electricity is a reasonable way to ameliorate the current untenable energy situation. One way to harness solar energy is to mimic the mechanisms already present in

Converting solar energy into electricity is a reasonable way to ameliorate the current untenable energy situation. One way to harness solar energy is to mimic the mechanisms already present in natural photosynthesis. A key component of many artificial photosynthetic systems is the linker connecting the dye to an electrode. Studying the associated electron transport process is important for improving linker efficiency. Similarly it is important to be able to control the electron transfer to the dye from a water oxidation catalyst, and to be able to improve the lifetime of the charge separated state. Natural photosynthesis provides a blueprint for this in the tyrosine-histidine pair in photosystem II. In this work, research on these topics is described.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Reactivity of metal (Co, Ni, Cu) bound peptides with organometallic fragments and small molecules

Description

Understanding the mechanisms of metalloproteins at the level necessary to engineer new functionalities is complicated by the need to parse the complex overlapping functions played by each amino acid without

Understanding the mechanisms of metalloproteins at the level necessary to engineer new functionalities is complicated by the need to parse the complex overlapping functions played by each amino acid without negatively impacting the host organism. Artificial or designed metallopeptides offer a convenient and simpler platform to explore metal-ligand interactions in an aqueous, biologically relevant coordination context. In this dissertation, the peptide SODA (ACDLPCG), a synthetic derivative of the nickel-binding pocket of nickel superoxide dismutase, is used as a scaffold to construct a variety of novel metallopeptides and explore their reactivity. In Chapter 2, I show that SODA binds Co(II) and the resulting peptide, CoSODA, reacts with oxygen in an unexpected two step process that models the biosynthesis of Co nitrile hydratase. First, the thiolate sulfur is oxidized and then the metallocenter is oxidized to Co(III). In Chapter 3, I show that both CoSODA and CuSODA form CN- adducts. Spectroscopic investigations of these metallopeptides are compared with data from NiSODA and Ni(CN)SODA to show the remarkable geometric versatility of SODA with respect to interactions with metallocenters. In Chapter 4, exploiting the propensity of sulfur ligands to form bridging structures, NiSODA is used as a metallosynthon to direct synthesis of hetero bi- and tri-metallic peptides as models for [NiFe]-hydrogenases and the A cluster of acetyl-CoA synthase carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. Building on this synthetic strategy, in Chapter 5, I demonstrate synthesis of NiRu complexes including a Ru(bipyridine)2 moiety and characterize their photochemistry.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Dyadic and triadic porphyrin monomers for electropolymerization and pyrazine-containing architectures for solar energy harvesting and mediating photoinduced electron transfer

Description

Natural photosynthesis dedicates specific proteins to achieve the modular division of the essential roles of solar energy harvesting, charge separation and carrier transport within natural photosynthesis. The modern understanding of

Natural photosynthesis dedicates specific proteins to achieve the modular division of the essential roles of solar energy harvesting, charge separation and carrier transport within natural photosynthesis. The modern understanding of the fundamental photochemistry by which natural photosynthesis operates is well advanced and solution state mimics of the key photochemical processes have been reported previously. All of the early events in natural photosynthesis responsible for the conversion of solar energy to electric potential energy occur within proteins and phospholipid membranes that act as scaffolds for arranging the active chromophores. Accordingly, for creating artificial photovoltaic (PV) systems, scaffolds are required to imbue structure to the systems. An approach to incorporating modular design into solid-state organic mimics of the natural system is presented together with how conductive scaffolds can be utilized in organic PV systems. To support the chromophore arrays present within this design and to extract separated charges from within the structure, linear pyrazine-containing molecular ribbons were chosen as candidates for forming conductive linear scaffolds that could be functionalized orthogonally to the linear axis. A series of donor-wire-acceptor (D-W-A) compounds employing porphyrins as the donors and a C60 fullerene adduct as the acceptors have been synthesized for studying the ability of the pyrazine-containing hetero-aromatic wires to mediate photoinduced electron transfer between the porphyrin donor and fullerene acceptor. Appropriate substitutions were made and the necessary model compounds useful for dissecting the complex photochemistry that the series is expected to display were also synthesized. A dye was synthesized using a pyrazine-containing heteroaromatic spacer that features two porphyrin chromophores. The dye dramatically outperforms the control dye featuring the same porphyrin and a simple benzoic acid linker. A novel, highly soluble 6+kDa extended phthalocyanine was also synthesized and exhibits absorption out to 900nm. The extensive functionalization of the extended phthalocyanine core with dodecyl groups enabled purification and characterization of an otherwise insoluble entity. Finally, in the interest of incorporating modular design into plastic solar cells, a series of porphyrin-containing monomers have been synthesized that are intended to form dyadic and triadic molecular-heterojunction polymers with dedicated hole and electron transport pathways during electrochemical polymerization.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Modeling the TyrZ-His 190 pair of photosystem II for the study of proton coupled electron transfer

Description

The work described in the thesis involves the synthesis of a molecular triad which is designed to undergo proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) upon irradiation with light. Photoinduced PCET is

The work described in the thesis involves the synthesis of a molecular triad which is designed to undergo proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) upon irradiation with light. Photoinduced PCET is an important process that many organisms use and the elucidation of its mechanism will allow further understanding of this process and its potential applications. The target compound designed for PCET studies consists of a porphyrin chromophore (also a primary electron donor), covalently linked to a phenol-imidazole (secondary electron donor), and a C60 (primary electron acceptor). The phenol-imidazole moiety of this system is modeled after the TyrZ His-190 residues in the reaction center of Photosystem II (PS II). These residues participate in an intermolecular H-bond between the phenol side chain of TyrZ and the imidazole side chain of His-190. The phenol side chain of TyrZ is the electron transfer mediator between the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) and P680 (primary electron donor) in PSII. During electron transfer from TyrZ to P680*+, the phenolic proton of TyrZ becomes highly acidic (pKa~-2) and the hydrogen is preferentially transferred to the relatively basic imidazole of His-190 through a pre-existing hydrogen bond. This PCET process avoids a charged intermediate, on TyrZ, and results in a neutral phenolic radical (TyrZ*). The current research consists of building a molecular triad, which can mimic the photoinduced PCET process of PSII. The following, documents the synthetic progress in the synthesis of a molecular triad designed to investigate the mechanism of PCET as well as gain further insight on how this process can be applied in artificial photosynthetic devices.

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Date Created
  • 2011