Matching Items (48)

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Generalized statistical tolerance analysis and three dimensional model for manufacturing tolerance transfer in manufacturing process planning

Description

Mostly, manufacturing tolerance charts are used these days for manufacturing tolerance transfer but these have the limitation of being one dimensional only. Some research has been undertaken for the three dimensional geometric tolerances but it is too theoretical and yet

Mostly, manufacturing tolerance charts are used these days for manufacturing tolerance transfer but these have the limitation of being one dimensional only. Some research has been undertaken for the three dimensional geometric tolerances but it is too theoretical and yet to be ready for operator level usage. In this research, a new three dimensional model for tolerance transfer in manufacturing process planning is presented that is user friendly in the sense that it is built upon the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) readings that are readily available in any decent manufacturing facility. This model can take care of datum reference change between non orthogonal datums (squeezed datums), non-linearly oriented datums (twisted datums) etc. Graph theoretic approach based upon ACIS, C++ and MFC is laid out to facilitate its implementation for automation of the model. A totally new approach to determining dimensions and tolerances for the manufacturing process plan is also presented. Secondly, a new statistical model for the statistical tolerance analysis based upon joint probability distribution of the trivariate normal distributed variables is presented. 4-D probability Maps have been developed in which the probability value of a point in space is represented by the size of the marker and the associated color. Points inside the part map represent the pass percentage for parts manufactured. The effect of refinement with form and orientation tolerance is highlighted by calculating the change in pass percentage with the pass percentage for size tolerance only. Delaunay triangulation and ray tracing algorithms have been used to automate the process of identifying the points inside and outside the part map. Proof of concept software has been implemented to demonstrate this model and to determine pass percentages for various cases. The model is further extended to assemblies by employing convolution algorithms on two trivariate statistical distributions to arrive at the statistical distribution of the assembly. Map generated by using Minkowski Sum techniques on the individual part maps is superimposed on the probability point cloud resulting from convolution. Delaunay triangulation and ray tracing algorithms are employed to determine the assembleability percentages for the assembly.

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2011

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A P-value based approach for phase II profile monitoring

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A P-value based method is proposed for statistical monitoring of various types of profiles in phase II. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by the average run length criterion under various shifts in the intercept, slope and error

A P-value based method is proposed for statistical monitoring of various types of profiles in phase II. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by the average run length criterion under various shifts in the intercept, slope and error standard deviation of the model. In our proposed approach, P-values are computed at each level within a sample. If at least one of the P-values is less than a pre-specified significance level, the chart signals out-of-control. The primary advantage of our approach is that only one control chart is required to monitor several parameters simultaneously: the intercept, slope(s), and the error standard deviation. A comprehensive comparison of the proposed method and the existing KMW-Shewhart method for monitoring linear profiles is conducted. In addition, the effect that the number of observations within a sample has on the performance of the proposed method is investigated. The proposed method was also compared to the T^2 method discussed in Kang and Albin (2000) for multivariate, polynomial, and nonlinear profiles. A simulation study shows that overall the proposed P-value method performs satisfactorily for different profile types.

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2013

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Optimal experimental design for accelerated life testing and design evaluation

Description

Nowadays product reliability becomes the top concern of the manufacturers and customers always prefer the products with good performances under long period. In order to estimate the lifetime of the product, accelerated life testing (ALT) is introduced because most of

Nowadays product reliability becomes the top concern of the manufacturers and customers always prefer the products with good performances under long period. In order to estimate the lifetime of the product, accelerated life testing (ALT) is introduced because most of the products can last years even decades. Much research has been done in the ALT area and optimal design for ALT is a major topic. This dissertation consists of three main studies. First, a methodology of finding optimal design for ALT with right censoring and interval censoring have been developed and it employs the proportional hazard (PH) model and generalized linear model (GLM) to simplify the computational process. A sensitivity study is also given to show the effects brought by parameters to the designs. Second, an extended version of I-optimal design for ALT is discussed and then a dual-objective design criterion is defined and showed with several examples. Also in order to evaluate different candidate designs, several graphical tools are developed. Finally, when there are more than one models available, different model checking designs are discussed.

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2013

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No-confounding designs of 20 and 24 runs for screening experiments and a design selection methodology

Description

Nonregular screening designs can be an economical alternative to traditional resolution IV 2^(k-p) fractional factorials. Recently 16-run nonregular designs, referred to as no-confounding designs, were introduced in the literature. These designs have the property that no pair of main effect

Nonregular screening designs can be an economical alternative to traditional resolution IV 2^(k-p) fractional factorials. Recently 16-run nonregular designs, referred to as no-confounding designs, were introduced in the literature. These designs have the property that no pair of main effect (ME) and two-factor interaction (2FI) estimates are completely confounded. In this dissertation, orthogonal arrays were evaluated with many popular design-ranking criteria in order to identify optimal 20-run and 24-run no-confounding designs. Monte Carlo simulation was used to empirically assess the model fitting effectiveness of the recommended no-confounding designs. The results of the simulation demonstrated that these new designs, particularly the 24-run designs, are successful at detecting active effects over 95% of the time given sufficient model effect sparsity. The final chapter presents a screening design selection methodology, based on decision trees, to aid in the selection of a screening design from a list of published options. The methodology determines which of a candidate set of screening designs has the lowest expected experimental cost.

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2013

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Harm during hospitalizations for heart failure: adverse events as a reliability measure of hospital policies and procedures

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For more than twenty years, clinical researchers have been publishing data regarding incidence and risk of adverse events (AEs) incurred during hospitalizations. Hospitals have standard operating policies and procedures (SOPP) to protect patients from AE. The AE specifics (rates, SOPP

For more than twenty years, clinical researchers have been publishing data regarding incidence and risk of adverse events (AEs) incurred during hospitalizations. Hospitals have standard operating policies and procedures (SOPP) to protect patients from AE. The AE specifics (rates, SOPP failures, timing and risk factors) during heart failure (HF) hospitalizations are unknown. There were 1,722 patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of HF from an academic hospital between January 2005 and December 2007. Three hundred eighty-one patients experienced 566 AEs, classified into four categories: medication (43.9%), infection (18.9%), patient care (26.3%), or procedural (10.9%). Three distinct analyses were performed: 1) patient's perspective of SOPP reliability including cumulative distribution and hazard functions of time to AEs; 2) Cox proportional hazards model to determine independent patient-specific risk factors for AEs; and 3) hospital administration's perspective of SOPP reliability through three years of the study including cumulative distribution and hazard functions of time between AEs and moving range statistical process control (SPC) charts for days between failures of each type. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to consider reliability of SOPP from both the patient's and hospital administration's perspective. AE rates in hospitalized patients are similar to other recently published reports and did not improve during the study period. Operations research methodologies will be necessary to improve reliability of care delivered to hospitalized patients.

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2012

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The development of a validated clinically meaningful endpoint for the evaluation of tear film stability as a measure of ocular surface protection for use in the diagnosis and evaluation of dry eye disease

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This dissertation presents methods for the evaluation of ocular surface protection during natural blink function. The evaluation of ocular surface protection is especially important in the diagnosis of dry eye and the evaluation of dry eye severity in clinical trials.

This dissertation presents methods for the evaluation of ocular surface protection during natural blink function. The evaluation of ocular surface protection is especially important in the diagnosis of dry eye and the evaluation of dry eye severity in clinical trials. Dry eye is a highly prevalent disease affecting vast numbers (between 11% and 22%) of an aging population. There is only one approved therapy with limited efficacy, which results in a huge unmet need. The reason so few drugs have reached approval is a lack of a recognized therapeutic pathway with reproducible endpoints. While the interplay between blink function and ocular surface protection has long been recognized, all currently used evaluation techniques have addressed blink function in isolation from tear film stability, the gold standard of which is Tear Film Break-Up Time (TFBUT). In the first part of this research a manual technique of calculating ocular surface protection during natural blink function through the use of video analysis is developed and evaluated for it's ability to differentiate between dry eye and normal subjects, the results are compared with that of TFBUT. In the second part of this research the technique is improved in precision and automated through the use of video analysis algorithms. This software, called the OPI 2.0 System, is evaluated for accuracy and precision, and comparisons are made between the OPI 2.0 System and other currently recognized dry eye diagnostic techniques (e.g. TFBUT). In the third part of this research the OPI 2.0 System is deployed for use in the evaluation of subjects before, immediately after and 30 minutes after exposure to a controlled adverse environment (CAE), once again the results are compared and contrasted against commonly used dry eye endpoints. The results demonstrate that the evaluation of ocular surface protection using the OPI 2.0 System offers superior accuracy to the current standard, TFBUT.

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2012

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Bridging the gap between space-filling and optimal designs

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This dissertation explores different methodologies for combining two popular design paradigms in the field of computer experiments. Space-filling designs are commonly used in order to ensure that there is good coverage of the design space, but they may not result

This dissertation explores different methodologies for combining two popular design paradigms in the field of computer experiments. Space-filling designs are commonly used in order to ensure that there is good coverage of the design space, but they may not result in good properties when it comes to model fitting. Optimal designs traditionally perform very well in terms of model fitting, particularly when a polynomial is intended, but can result in problematic replication in the case of insignificant factors. By bringing these two design types together, positive properties of each can be retained while mitigating potential weaknesses. Hybrid space-filling designs, generated as Latin hypercubes augmented with I-optimal points, are compared to designs of each contributing component. A second design type called a bridge design is also evaluated, which further integrates the disparate design types. Bridge designs are the result of a Latin hypercube undergoing coordinate exchange to reach constrained D-optimality, ensuring that there is zero replication of factors in any one-dimensional projection. Lastly, bridge designs were augmented with I-optimal points with two goals in mind. Augmentation with candidate points generated assuming the same underlying analysis model serves to reduce the prediction variance without greatly compromising the space-filling property of the design, while augmentation with candidate points generated assuming a different underlying analysis model can greatly reduce the impact of model misspecification during the design phase. Each of these composite designs are compared to pure space-filling and optimal designs. They typically out-perform pure space-filling designs in terms of prediction variance and alphabetic efficiency, while maintaining comparability with pure optimal designs at small sample size. This justifies them as excellent candidates for initial experimentation.

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2013

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An analytical approach to lean six sigma deployment strategies: project identification and prioritization

Description

The ever-changing economic landscape has forced many companies to re-examine their supply chains. Global resourcing and outsourcing of processes has been a strategy many organizations have adopted to reduce cost and to increase their global footprint. This has, however, resulted

The ever-changing economic landscape has forced many companies to re-examine their supply chains. Global resourcing and outsourcing of processes has been a strategy many organizations have adopted to reduce cost and to increase their global footprint. This has, however, resulted in increased process complexity and reduced customer satisfaction. In order to meet and exceed customer expectations, many companies are forced to improve quality and on-time delivery, and have looked towards Lean Six Sigma as an approach to enable process improvement. The Lean Six Sigma literature is rich in deployment strategies; however, there is a general lack of a mathematical approach to deploy Lean Six Sigma in a global enterprise. This includes both project identification and prioritization. The research presented here is two-fold. Firstly, a process characterization framework is presented to evaluate processes based on eight characteristics. An unsupervised learning technique, using clustering algorithms, is then utilized to group processes that are Lean Six Sigma conducive. The approach helps Lean Six Sigma deployment champions to identify key areas within the business to focus a Lean Six Sigma deployment. A case study is presented and 33% of the processes were found to be Lean Six Sigma conducive. Secondly, having identified parts of the business that are lean Six Sigma conducive, the next steps are to formulate and prioritize a portfolio of projects. Very often the deployment champion is faced with the decision of selecting a portfolio of Lean Six Sigma projects that meet multiple objectives which could include: maximizing productivity, customer satisfaction or return on investment, while meeting certain budgetary constraints. A multi-period 0-1 knapsack problem is presented that maximizes the expected net savings of the Lean Six Sigma portfolio over the life cycle of the deployment. Finally, a case study is presented that demonstrates the application of the model in a large multinational company. Traditionally, Lean Six Sigma found its roots in manufacturing. The research presented in this dissertation also emphasizes the applicability of the methodology to the non-manufacturing space. Additionally, a comparison is conducted between manufacturing and non-manufacturing processes to highlight the challenges in deploying the methodology in both spaces.

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2011

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Product design optimization under epistemic uncertainty

Description

This dissertation is to address product design optimization including reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) and robust design with epistemic uncertainty. It is divided into four major components as outlined below. Firstly, a comprehensive study of uncertainties is performed, in which sources

This dissertation is to address product design optimization including reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) and robust design with epistemic uncertainty. It is divided into four major components as outlined below. Firstly, a comprehensive study of uncertainties is performed, in which sources of uncertainty are listed, categorized and the impacts are discussed. Epistemic uncertainty is of interest, which is due to lack of knowledge and can be reduced by taking more observations. In particular, the strategies to address epistemic uncertainties due to implicit constraint function are discussed. Secondly, a sequential sampling strategy to improve RBDO under implicit constraint function is developed. In modern engineering design, an RBDO task is often performed by a computer simulation program, which can be treated as a black box, as its analytical function is implicit. An efficient sampling strategy on learning the probabilistic constraint function under the design optimization framework is presented. The method is a sequential experimentation around the approximate most probable point (MPP) at each step of optimization process. It is compared with the methods of MPP-based sampling, lifted surrogate function, and non-sequential random sampling. Thirdly, a particle splitting-based reliability analysis approach is developed in design optimization. In reliability analysis, traditional simulation methods such as Monte Carlo simulation may provide accurate results, but are often accompanied with high computational cost. To increase the efficiency, particle splitting is integrated into RBDO. It is an improvement of subset simulation with multiple particles to enhance the diversity and stability of simulation samples. This method is further extended to address problems with multiple probabilistic constraints and compared with the MPP-based methods. Finally, a reliability-based robust design optimization (RBRDO) framework is provided to integrate the consideration of design reliability and design robustness simultaneously. The quality loss objective in robust design, considered together with the production cost in RBDO, are used formulate a multi-objective optimization problem. With the epistemic uncertainty from implicit performance function, the sequential sampling strategy is extended to RBRDO, and a combined metamodel is proposed to tackle both controllable variables and uncontrollable variables. The solution is a Pareto frontier, compared with a single optimal solution in RBDO.

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2012

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Statistical monitoring and control of locally proactive routing protocols in MANETs

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Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have attracted attention for mission critical applications. This dissertation investigates techniques of statistical monitoring and control for overhead reduction in a proactive MANET routing protocol. Proactive protocols transmit overhead periodically. Instead, we propose that the

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have attracted attention for mission critical applications. This dissertation investigates techniques of statistical monitoring and control for overhead reduction in a proactive MANET routing protocol. Proactive protocols transmit overhead periodically. Instead, we propose that the local conditions of a node should determine this transmission decision. While the goal is to minimize overhead, a balance in the amount of overhead transmitted and the performance achieved is required. Statistical monitoring consists of techniques to determine if a characteristic has shifted away from an in-control state. A basic tool for monitoring is a control chart, a time-oriented representation of the characteristic. When a sample deviates outside control limits, a significant change has occurred and corrective actions are required to return to the in-control state. We investigate the use of statistical monitoring of local conditions in the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Three versions are developed. In A-OLSR, each node uses a Shewhart chart to monitor betweenness of its two-hop neighbourhood. Betweenness is a social network metric that measures a node's influence; betweenness is larger when a node has more influence. Changes in topology are associated with changes in betweenness. We incorporate additional local node conditions including speed, density, packet arrival rate, and number of flows it forwards in A+-OLSR. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used to optimize timer values. As well, the Shewhart chart is replaced by an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart, which is more sensitive to small changes in the characteristic. It is known that control charts do not work as well in the presence of correlation. Hence, in A*-OLSR the autocorrelation in the time series is removed and an Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model found; this removes the dependence on node speed. A*-OLSR also extends monitoring to two characteristics concurrently using multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) charts. The protocols are evaluated in simulation, and compared to OLSR and its variants. The techniques for statistical monitoring and control are general and have great potential to be applied to the adaptive control of many network protocols.

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2012