Matching Items (57)

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Backcalculation of Residual Tensile Strength of Regular and High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete From Flexural Tests

Description

The tensile stress–strain response of a fiber reinforced concrete dominates the performance under many loading conditions and applications. To represent this property as an average equivalent response, a back-calculation process from flexural testing is employed. The procedure is performed by

The tensile stress–strain response of a fiber reinforced concrete dominates the performance under many loading conditions and applications. To represent this property as an average equivalent response, a back-calculation process from flexural testing is employed. The procedure is performed by model fitting of the three-point and four-point bending load deflection data on two types of macro synthetic polymeric fibers, one type of steel fiber and one type of Alkali Resistant (AR) glass fiber. A strain softening tensile model is used to simulate the behavior of different FRC types and obtain the experimental flexural response. The stress–strain model for each age, fiber type and dosage rate is simulated by means of the inverse analysis procedure, using closed-form moment–curvature relationship and load–deflection response of the piecewise-linear material. The method of approach is further applied to one external data set for High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) with two different types of steel fibers and validated by tensile test results reported. Results of back-calculation of stress–strain responses by tri-linear tensile model for all mixtures are compared and correlated with the corresponding standard method parameters used for post crack behavior characterization and a regression analysis for comparative evaluation of test data is presented.

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2014-11-15

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Mechanical Characterization of the Tensile Properties of Glass Fiber and Its Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Composite Under Varying Strain Rates and Temperatures

Description

Unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is tested at four initial strain rates (25, 50, 100 and 200 s-1) and six temperatures (−25, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C) on a servo-hydraulic high-rate testing system to investigate any possible

Unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is tested at four initial strain rates (25, 50, 100 and 200 s-1) and six temperatures (−25, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C) on a servo-hydraulic high-rate testing system to investigate any possible effects on their mechanical properties and failure patterns. Meanwhile, for the sake of illuminating strain rate and temperature effect mechanisms, glass yarn samples were complementally tested at four different strain rates (40, 80, 120 and 160 s-1) and varying temperatures (25, 50, 75 and 100 °C) utilizing an Instron drop-weight impact system. In addition, quasi-static properties of GFRP and glass yarn are supplemented as references. The stress–strain responses at varying strain rates and elevated temperatures are discussed. A Weibull statistics model is used to quantify the degree of variability in tensile strength and to obtain Weibull parameters for engineering applications.

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Date Created
2016-05-19

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Development of an Automated Pultrusion System for Manufacturing of Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

Description

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to continuously improve the performance of the material. Fiber reinforcement is

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to continuously improve the performance of the material. Fiber reinforcement is a significant technique in strengthening precast concrete, but manufacturing limitations are common which has led to reliance on steel reinforcement. Two-dimensional textile reinforcement has emerged as a strong and efficient alternative to both fiber and steel reinforced concrete with pultrusion manufacturing shown as one of the most effective methods of precasting concrete. The intention of this thesis project is to detail the components, functions, and outcomes shown in the development of an automated pultrusion system for manufacturing textile reinforced concrete (TRC). Using a preexisting, manual pultrusion system and current-day manufacturing techniques as a basis, the automated pultrusion system was designed as a series of five stations that centered on textile impregnation, system driving, and final pressing. The system was then constructed in the Arizona State University Structures Lab over the course of the spring and summer of 2015. After fabricating each station, a computer VI was coded in LabVIEW software to automatically drive the system. Upon completing construction of the system, plate and angled structural sections were then manufactured to verify the adequacy of the technique. Pultruded TRC plates were tested in tension and flexure while full-scale structural sections were tested in tension and compression. Ultimately, the automated pultrusion system was successful in establishing an efficient and consistent manufacturing process for continuous TRC sections.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Sustainable Soil Improvement via Abiotic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

Description

Calcium hydroxide carbonation processes were studied to investigate the potential for abiotic soil improvement. Different mixtures of common soil constituents such as sand, clay, and granite were mixed with a calcium hydroxide slurry and carbonated at approximately 860 psi. While

Calcium hydroxide carbonation processes were studied to investigate the potential for abiotic soil improvement. Different mixtures of common soil constituents such as sand, clay, and granite were mixed with a calcium hydroxide slurry and carbonated at approximately 860 psi. While the carbonation was successful and calcite formation was strong on sample exteriors, a 4 mm passivating boundary layer effect was observed, impeding the carbonation process at the center. XRD analysis was used to characterize the extent of carbonation, indicating extremely poor carbonation and therefore CO2 penetration inside the visible boundary. The depth of the passivating layer was found to be independent of both time and choice of aggregate. Less than adequate strength was developed in carbonated trials due to formation of small, weakly-connected crystals, shown with SEM analysis. Additional research, especially in situ analysis with thermogravimetric analysis would be useful to determine the causation of poor carbonation performance. This technology has great potential to substitute for certain Portland cement applications if these issues can be addressed.

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2015-05

Novel Cement Replacement Materials For Sustainable Infrastructure

Description

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly. For decades, Portland cement-based products have been known as the

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly. For decades, Portland cement-based products have been known as the most commonly used construction materials in the world, and as a result, cement production is a significant source of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and environmental impacts at all stages of the process. In recent years, the increasing cost of energy and resource supplies, and concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts have ignited more interests in utilizing waste and by-product materials as the primary ingredient to replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete systems. The environmental benefits of cement replacement are enormous, including the diversion of non-recycled waste from landfills for useful applications, the reduction in non-renewable energy consumption for cement production, and the corresponding emission of greenhouse gases. In the vast available body of literature, concretes consisting activated fly ash or slag as the binder have been shown to have high compressive strengths, and resistance to fire and chemical attack. This research focuses to utilize fly ash, by-product of coal fired power plant along with different alkaline solutions to form a final product with comparable properties to or superior than those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. Fly ash mortars using different concentration of sodium hydroxide and waterglass were dry and moist cured at different temperatures prior subjecting to uniaxial compressive loading condition. Since moist curing continuously supplies water for the hydration process of activated fly ash mortars while preventing thermal shrinkage and cracking, the samples were more durable and demonstrated a noticeably higher compressive strength. The influence of the concentration of the activating agent (4, or 8 M sodium hydroxide solution), and activator-to-binder ratio of 0.40 on the compressive strengths of concretes containing Class F fly ash as the sole binder is analyzed. Furthermore, liquid sodium silicate (waterglass) with silica modulus of 1.0 and 2.0 along with activator-to-binder ratio of 0.04 and 0.07 was also studied to understand its performance in contributing to the strength development of the activated fly ash concrete. Statistical analysis of the compressive strength results show that the available alkali concentration has a larger influence on the compressive strengths of activated concretes made using fly ash than the influence of curing parameters (elevated temperatures, condition, and duration).

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Date Created
2013-05

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Incorporation of phase change materials into cementitious systems

Description

Manufacture of building materials requires significant energy, and as demand for these materials continues to increase, the energy requirement will as well. Offsetting this energy use will require increased focus on sustainable building materials. Further, the energy used in building,

Manufacture of building materials requires significant energy, and as demand for these materials continues to increase, the energy requirement will as well. Offsetting this energy use will require increased focus on sustainable building materials. Further, the energy used in building, particularly in heating and air conditioning, accounts for 40 percent of a buildings energy use. Increasing the efficiency of building materials will reduce energy usage over the life time of the building. Current methods for maintaining the interior environment can be highly inefficient depending on the building materials selected. Materials such as concrete have low thermal efficiency and have a low heat capacity meaning it provides little insulation. Use of phase change materials (PCM) provides the opportunity to increase environmental efficiency of buildings by using the inherent latent heat storage as well as the increased heat capacity. Incorporating PCM into concrete via lightweight aggregates (LWA) by direct addition is seen as a viable option for increasing the thermal storage capabilities of concrete, thereby increasing building energy efficiency. As PCM change phase from solid to liquid, heat is absorbed from the surroundings, decreasing the demand on the air conditioning systems on a hot day or vice versa on a cold day. Further these materials provide an additional insulating capacity above the value of plain concrete. When the temperature drops outside the PCM turns back into a solid and releases the energy stored from the day. PCM is a hydrophobic material and causes reductions in compressive strength when incorporated directly into concrete, as shown in previous studies. A proposed method for mitigating this detrimental effect, while still incorporating PCM into concrete is to encapsulate the PCM in aggregate. This technique would, in theory, allow for the use of phase change materials directly in concrete, increasing the thermal efficiency of buildings, while negating the negative effect on compressive strength of the material.

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Date Created
2013

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Alkali activated systems: understanding the influence of curing conditions and activator type/chemistry on the mechanical strength and chemical structure of fly ash/slag systems

Description

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and byproducts and

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and byproducts and reducing the adverse impacts of OPC production. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag are commonly used for their content of soluble silica and aluminate species that can undergo dissolution, polymerization with the alkali, condensation on particle surfaces and solidification. The following topics are the focus of this thesis: (i) the use of microwave assisted thermal processing, in addition to heat-curing as a means of alkali activation and (ii) the relative effects of alkali cations (K or Na) in the activator (powder activators) on the mechanical properties and chemical structure of these systems. Unsuitable curing conditions instigate carbonation, which in turn lowers the pH of the system causing significant reductions in the rate of fly ash activation and mechanical strength development. This study explores the effects of sealing the samples during the curing process, which effectively traps the free water in the system, and allows for increased aluminosilicate activation. The use of microwave-curing in lieu of thermal-curing is also studied in order to reduce energy consumption and for its ability to provide fast volumetric heating. Potassium-based powder activators dry blended into the slag binder system is shown to be effective in obtaining very high compressive strengths under moist curing conditions (greater than 70 MPa), whereas sodium-based powder activation is much weaker (around 25 MPa). Compressive strength decreases when fly ash is introduced into the system. Isothermal calorimetry is used to evaluate the early hydration process, and to understand the reaction kinetics of the alkali powder activated systems. A qualitative evidence of the alkali-hydroxide concentration of the paste pore solution through the use of electrical conductivity measurements is also presented, with the results indicating the ion concentration of alkali is more prevalent in the pore solution of potassium-based systems. The use of advanced spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques to distinguish the influence of studied parameters is also discussed.

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Date Created
2013

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Analytical load-deflection equations for beam and 2-D panel with a bilinear moment-curvature model

Description

A simplified bilinear moment-curvature model are derived based on the moment-curvature response generated from a parameterized stress-strain response of strain softening and or strain-hardening material by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Closed form solutions are developed for deflection

A simplified bilinear moment-curvature model are derived based on the moment-curvature response generated from a parameterized stress-strain response of strain softening and or strain-hardening material by Dr. Barzin Mobasher and Dr. Chote Soranakom. Closed form solutions are developed for deflection calculations of determinate beams subjected to usual loading patterns at any load stage. The solutions are based on a bilinear moment curvature response characterized by the flexural crack initiation and ultimate capacity based on a deflection hardening behavior. Closed form equations for deflection calculation are presented for simply supported beams under three point bending, four point bending, uniform load, concentrated moment at the middle, pure bending, and for cantilever beam under a point load at the end, a point load with an arbitrary distance from the fixed end, and uniform load. These expressions are derived for pre-cracked and post cracked regions. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effects of moment and curvature at the ultimate stage to moment and curvature at the first crack ratios on the deflection. The effectiveness of the simplified closed form solution is demonstrated by comparing the analytical load deflection response and the experimental results for three point and four point bending. The simplified bilinear moment-curvature model is modified by imposing the deflection softening behavior so that it can be widely implemented in the analysis of 2-D panels. The derivations of elastic solutions and yield line approach of 2-D panels are presented. Effectiveness of the proposed moment-curvature model with various types of panels is verified by comparing the simulated data with the experimental data of panel test.

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Date Created
2015

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Time dependent rheological response of composite binders

Description

The need for sustainability in construction has encouraged scientists to develop novel environmentally friendly materials. The use of supplementary cementitious materials was one such initiative which aided in enhancing the fresh and hardened concrete properties. This thesis aims to explore

The need for sustainability in construction has encouraged scientists to develop novel environmentally friendly materials. The use of supplementary cementitious materials was one such initiative which aided in enhancing the fresh and hardened concrete properties. This thesis aims to explore the understanding of the early age rheological properties of such cementitious systems.

The first phase of the work investigates the influence of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) in combination with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the rheological properties of fresh paste with and without the effect of superplasticizers. Yield stress, plastic viscosity and storage modulus are the rheological parameters which were evaluated for all the design mixtures to fundamentally understand the synergistic effects of the SCM. A time-dependent study was conducted on these blends to explore the structure formation at various time intervals which explains the effect of hydration in conjecture to its physical stiffening. The second phase focuses on the rheological characterization of novel iron powder based binder system.

The results of this work indicate that the rheological characteristics of cementitious suspensions are complex, and strongly dependent on several key parameters including: the solid loading, inter-particle forces, shape of the particle, particle size distribution of the particles, and rheological nature of the media in which the particles are suspended. Chemical composition and reactivity of the material play an important role in the time-dependent rheological study.

A stress plateau method is utilized for the determination of rheological properties of concentrated suspensions, as it better predicts the apparent yield stress and is shown to correlate well with other viscoelastic properties of the suspensions. Plastic viscosity is obtained by calculating the slope of the stress-strain rate curve of ramp down values of shear rates. In oscillatory stress measurements the plateau obtained within the linear visco-elastic region was considered to be the value for storage modulus.

Between the different types of fly ash, class F fly ash indicated a reduction in the rheological parameters as opposed to class C fly ash that is attributable to the enhanced ettringite formation in the latter. Use of superplasticizer led to a huge influence on yield stress and storage modulus of the paste due to the steric hindrance effect.

In the study of iron based binder systems, metakaolin had comparatively higher influence than fly ash on the rheology due to its tendency to agglomerate as opposed to the ball bearing effect observed in the latter. Iron increment above 60% resulted in a decrease in all the parameters of rheology discussed in this thesis. In the OPC-iron binder, the iron behaved as reinforcements yielding higher yield stress and plastic viscosity.

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Date Created
2016

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Multiphysics design optimization model for structural walls incorporating phase change materials

Description

Buildings consume a large portion of the world's energy, but with the integration of phase change materials (PCMs) in building elements this energy cost can be greatly reduced. The addition of PCMs into building elements, however, becomes a challenge to

Buildings consume a large portion of the world's energy, but with the integration of phase change materials (PCMs) in building elements this energy cost can be greatly reduced. The addition of PCMs into building elements, however, becomes a challenge to model and analyze how the material actually affects the energy flow and temperatures in the system. This research work presents a comprehensive computer program used to model and analyze PCM embedded wall systems. The use of the finite element method (FEM) provides the tool to analyze the energy flow of these systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) can model the transient analysis of a typical climate cycle along with nonlinear problems, which the addition of PCM causes. The use of phase change materials is also a costly material expense. The initial expense of using PCMs can be compensated by the reduction in energy costs it can provide. Optimization is the tool used to determine the optimal point between adding PCM into a wall and the amount of energy savings that layer will provide. The integration of these two tools into a computer program allows for models to be efficiently created, analyzed and optimized. The program was then used to understand the benefits between two different wall models, a wall with a single layer of PCM or a wall with two different PCM layers. The effect of the PCMs on the inside wall temperature along with the energy flow across the wall are computed. The numerical results show that a multi-layer PCM wall was more energy efficient and cost effective than the single PCM layer wall. A structural analysis was then performed on the optimized designs using ABAQUS v. 6.10 to ensure the structural integrity of the wall was not affected by adding PCM layer(s).

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Date Created
2013