Matching Items (53)

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Mechanical Characterization of the Tensile Properties of Glass Fiber and Its Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Composite under Varying Strain Rates and Temperatures

Description

Unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is tested at four initial strain rates (25, 50, 100 and 200 s[superscript −1]) and six temperatures (−25, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100

Unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) is tested at four initial strain rates (25, 50, 100 and 200 s[superscript −1]) and six temperatures (−25, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 °C) on a servo-hydraulic high-rate testing system to investigate any possible effects on their mechanical properties and failure patterns. Meanwhile, for the sake of illuminating strain rate and temperature effect mechanisms, glass yarn samples were complementally tested at four different strain rates (40, 80, 120 and 160 s[superscript −1]) and varying temperatures (25, 50, 75 and 100 °C) utilizing an Instron drop-weight impact system. In addition, quasi-static properties of GFRP and glass yarn are supplemented as references. The stress–strain responses at varying strain rates and elevated temperatures are discussed. A Weibull statistics model is used to quantify the degree of variability in tensile strength and to obtain Weibull parameters for engineering applications.

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  • 2016-05-19

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Development of an Automated Pultrusion System for Manufacturing of Textile Reinforced Cementitious Composites

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Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to

Concrete stands at the forefront of the construction industry as one of the most useful building materials. Economic and efficient improvements in concrete strengthening and manufacturing are widely sought to continuously improve the performance of the material. Fiber reinforcement is a significant technique in strengthening precast concrete, but manufacturing limitations are common which has led to reliance on steel reinforcement. Two-dimensional textile reinforcement has emerged as a strong and efficient alternative to both fiber and steel reinforced concrete with pultrusion manufacturing shown as one of the most effective methods of precasting concrete. The intention of this thesis project is to detail the components, functions, and outcomes shown in the development of an automated pultrusion system for manufacturing textile reinforced concrete (TRC). Using a preexisting, manual pultrusion system and current-day manufacturing techniques as a basis, the automated pultrusion system was designed as a series of five stations that centered on textile impregnation, system driving, and final pressing. The system was then constructed in the Arizona State University Structures Lab over the course of the spring and summer of 2015. After fabricating each station, a computer VI was coded in LabVIEW software to automatically drive the system. Upon completing construction of the system, plate and angled structural sections were then manufactured to verify the adequacy of the technique. Pultruded TRC plates were tested in tension and flexure while full-scale structural sections were tested in tension and compression. Ultimately, the automated pultrusion system was successful in establishing an efficient and consistent manufacturing process for continuous TRC sections.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

Novel Cement Replacement Materials For Sustainable Infrastructure

Description

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly.

As green buildings become more popular, the challenge of structural engineer is to move beyond simply green to develop sustainable, and high-performing buildings that are more than just environmentally friendly. For decades, Portland cement-based products have been known as the most commonly used construction materials in the world, and as a result, cement production is a significant source of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and environmental impacts at all stages of the process. In recent years, the increasing cost of energy and resource supplies, and concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts have ignited more interests in utilizing waste and by-product materials as the primary ingredient to replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete systems. The environmental benefits of cement replacement are enormous, including the diversion of non-recycled waste from landfills for useful applications, the reduction in non-renewable energy consumption for cement production, and the corresponding emission of greenhouse gases. In the vast available body of literature, concretes consisting activated fly ash or slag as the binder have been shown to have high compressive strengths, and resistance to fire and chemical attack. This research focuses to utilize fly ash, by-product of coal fired power plant along with different alkaline solutions to form a final product with comparable properties to or superior than those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. Fly ash mortars using different concentration of sodium hydroxide and waterglass were dry and moist cured at different temperatures prior subjecting to uniaxial compressive loading condition. Since moist curing continuously supplies water for the hydration process of activated fly ash mortars while preventing thermal shrinkage and cracking, the samples were more durable and demonstrated a noticeably higher compressive strength. The influence of the concentration of the activating agent (4, or 8 M sodium hydroxide solution), and activator-to-binder ratio of 0.40 on the compressive strengths of concretes containing Class F fly ash as the sole binder is analyzed. Furthermore, liquid sodium silicate (waterglass) with silica modulus of 1.0 and 2.0 along with activator-to-binder ratio of 0.04 and 0.07 was also studied to understand its performance in contributing to the strength development of the activated fly ash concrete. Statistical analysis of the compressive strength results show that the available alkali concentration has a larger influence on the compressive strengths of activated concretes made using fly ash than the influence of curing parameters (elevated temperatures, condition, and duration).

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  • 2013-05

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Sustainable Soil Improvement via Abiotic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

Description

Calcium hydroxide carbonation processes were studied to investigate the potential for abiotic soil improvement. Different mixtures of common soil constituents such as sand, clay, and granite were mixed with a

Calcium hydroxide carbonation processes were studied to investigate the potential for abiotic soil improvement. Different mixtures of common soil constituents such as sand, clay, and granite were mixed with a calcium hydroxide slurry and carbonated at approximately 860 psi. While the carbonation was successful and calcite formation was strong on sample exteriors, a 4 mm passivating boundary layer effect was observed, impeding the carbonation process at the center. XRD analysis was used to characterize the extent of carbonation, indicating extremely poor carbonation and therefore CO2 penetration inside the visible boundary. The depth of the passivating layer was found to be independent of both time and choice of aggregate. Less than adequate strength was developed in carbonated trials due to formation of small, weakly-connected crystals, shown with SEM analysis. Additional research, especially in situ analysis with thermogravimetric analysis would be useful to determine the causation of poor carbonation performance. This technology has great potential to substitute for certain Portland cement applications if these issues can be addressed.

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  • 2015-05

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Backcalculation of residual tensile strength of regular and high performance fiber reinforced concrete from flexural tests

Description

The tensile stress–strain response of a fiber reinforced concrete dominates the performance under many loading conditions and applications. To represent this property as an average equivalent response, a back-calculation process

The tensile stress–strain response of a fiber reinforced concrete dominates the performance under many loading conditions and applications. To represent this property as an average equivalent response, a back-calculation process from flexural testing is employed. The procedure is performed by model fitting of the three-point and four-point bending load deflection data on two types of macro synthetic polymeric fibers, one type of steel fiber and one type of Alkali Resistant (AR) glass fiber. A strain softening tensile model is used to simulate the behavior of different FRC types and obtain the experimental flexural response. The stress–strain model for each age, fiber type and dosage rate is simulated by means of the inverse analysis procedure, using closed-form moment–curvature relationship and load–deflection response of the piecewise-linear material. The method of approach is further applied to one external data set for High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) with two different types of steel fibers and validated by tensile test results reported. Results of back-calculation of stress–strain responses by tri-linear tensile model for all mixtures are compared and correlated with the corresponding standard method parameters used for post crack behavior characterization and a regression analysis for comparative evaluation of test data is presented.

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  • 2014-11-15

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Experimental Investigations and Machine Learning-Based Predictive Modeling of the Chemo-mechanical Characteristics of Ultra-High Performance Binders

Description

Ultra High Performance (UHP) cementitious binders are a class of cement-based materials with high strength and ductility, designed for use in precast bridge connections, bridge superstructures, high load-bearing structural members

Ultra High Performance (UHP) cementitious binders are a class of cement-based materials with high strength and ductility, designed for use in precast bridge connections, bridge superstructures, high load-bearing structural members like columns, and in structural repair and strengthening. This dissertation aims to elucidate the chemo-mechanical relationships in complex UHP binders to facilitate better microstructure-based design of these materials and develop machine learning (ML) models to predict their scale-relevant properties from microstructural information.To establish the connection between micromechanical properties and constitutive materials, nanoindentation and scanning electron microscopy experiments are performed on several cementitious pastes. Following Bayesian statistical clustering, mixed reaction products with scattered nanomechanical properties are observed, attributable to the low degree of reaction of the constituent particles, enhanced particle packing, and very low water-to-binder ratio of UHP binders. Relating the phase chemistry to the micromechanical properties, the chemical intensity ratios of Ca/Si and Al/Si are found to be important parameters influencing the incorporation of Al into the C-S-H gel.
ML algorithms for classification of cementitious phases are found to require only the intensities of Ca, Si, and Al as inputs to generate accurate predictions for more homogeneous cement pastes. When applied to more complex UHP systems, the overlapping chemical intensities in the three dominant phases – Ultra High Stiffness (UHS), unreacted cementitious replacements, and clinker – led to ML models misidentifying these three phases. Similarly, a reduced amount of data available on the hard and stiff UHS phases prevents accurate ML regression predictions of the microstructural phase stiffness using only chemical information. The use of generic virtual two-phase microstructures coupled with finite element analysis is also adopted to train MLs to predict composite mechanical properties. This approach applied to three different representations of composite materials produces accurate predictions, thus providing an avenue for image-based microstructural characterization of multi-phase composites such UHP binders. This thesis provides insights into the microstructure of the complex, heterogeneous UHP binders and the utilization of big-data methods such as ML to predict their properties. These results are expected to provide means for rational, first-principles design of UHP mixtures.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Using virtual testing for characterization of composite materials

Description

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They

Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications – airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young’s Modulus and Poisson’s ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Pore structure dependence of transport and fracture in pervious concretes

Description

Properties of random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependant on its pore structure features. This research deals with the development of an understanding of the relationship between

Properties of random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependant on its pore structure features. This research deals with the development of an understanding of the relationship between the material structure and the mechanical and functional properties of pervious concretes. The fracture response of pervious concrete specimens proportioned for different porosities, as a function of the pore structure features and fiber volume fraction, is studied. Stereological and morphological methods are used to extract the relevant pore structure features of pervious concretes from planar images. A two-parameter fracture model is used to obtain the fracture toughness (KIC) and critical crack tip opening displacement (CTODc) from load-crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) data of notched beams under three-point bending. The experimental results show that KIC is primarily dependent on the porosity of pervious concretes. For a similar porosity, an increase in pore size results in a reduction in KIC. At similar pore sizes, the effect of fibers on the post-peak response is more prominent in mixtures with a higher porosity, as shown by the residual load capacity, stress-crack extension relationships, and GR curves. These effects are explained using the mean free spacing of pores and pore-to-pore tortuosity in these systems. A sensitivity analysis is employed to quantify the influence of material design parameters on KIC. This research has also focused on studying the relationship between permeability and tortuosity as it pertains to porosity and pore size of pervious concretes. Various ideal geometric shapes were also constructed that had varying pore sizes and porosities. The pervious concretes also had differing pore sizes and porosities. The permeabilities were determined using three different methods; Stokes solver, Lattice Boltzmann method and the Katz-Thompson equation. These values were then compared to the tortuosity values determined using a Matlab code that uses a pore connectivity algorithm. The tortuosity was also determined from the inverse of the conductivity determined from a numerical analysis that was necessary for using the Katz-Thompson equation. These tortuosity values were then compared to the permeabilities. The pervious concretes and ideal geometric shapes showed consistent similarities betbetween their tortuosities and permeabilities.

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  • 2013

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Alkali activated systems: understanding the influence of curing conditions and activator type/chemistry on the mechanical strength and chemical structure of fly ash/slag systems

Description

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing

The alkali activation of aluminosilicate materials as binder systems derived from industrial byproducts have been extensively studied due to the advantages they offer in terms enhanced material properties, while increasing sustainability by the reuse of industrial waste and byproducts and reducing the adverse impacts of OPC production. Fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag are commonly used for their content of soluble silica and aluminate species that can undergo dissolution, polymerization with the alkali, condensation on particle surfaces and solidification. The following topics are the focus of this thesis: (i) the use of microwave assisted thermal processing, in addition to heat-curing as a means of alkali activation and (ii) the relative effects of alkali cations (K or Na) in the activator (powder activators) on the mechanical properties and chemical structure of these systems. Unsuitable curing conditions instigate carbonation, which in turn lowers the pH of the system causing significant reductions in the rate of fly ash activation and mechanical strength development. This study explores the effects of sealing the samples during the curing process, which effectively traps the free water in the system, and allows for increased aluminosilicate activation. The use of microwave-curing in lieu of thermal-curing is also studied in order to reduce energy consumption and for its ability to provide fast volumetric heating. Potassium-based powder activators dry blended into the slag binder system is shown to be effective in obtaining very high compressive strengths under moist curing conditions (greater than 70 MPa), whereas sodium-based powder activation is much weaker (around 25 MPa). Compressive strength decreases when fly ash is introduced into the system. Isothermal calorimetry is used to evaluate the early hydration process, and to understand the reaction kinetics of the alkali powder activated systems. A qualitative evidence of the alkali-hydroxide concentration of the paste pore solution through the use of electrical conductivity measurements is also presented, with the results indicating the ion concentration of alkali is more prevalent in the pore solution of potassium-based systems. The use of advanced spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques to distinguish the influence of studied parameters is also discussed.

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  • 2013

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A generalized orthotropic elasto-plastic material model for impact analysis

Description

Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation

Composite materials are now beginning to provide uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems such as airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. These structural systems are often subjected to impact loads and there is a pressing need for accurate prediction of deformation, damage and failure. There are numerous material models that have been developed to analyze the dynamic impact response of polymer matrix composites. However, there are key features that are missing in those models that prevent them from providing accurate predictive capabilities. In this dissertation, a general purpose orthotropic elasto-plastic computational constitutive material model has been developed to predict the response of composites subjected to high velocity impacts. The constitutive model is divided into three components – deformation model, damage model and failure model, with failure to be added at a later date. The deformation model generalizes the Tsai-Wu failure criteria and extends it using a strain-hardening-based orthotropic yield function with a non-associative flow rule. A strain equivalent formulation is utilized in the damage model that permits plastic and damage calculations to be uncoupled and capture the nonlinear unloading and local softening of the stress-strain response. A diagonal damage tensor is defined to account for the directionally dependent variation of damage. However, in composites it has been found that loading in one direction can lead to damage in multiple coordinate directions. To account for this phenomena, the terms in the damage matrix are semi-coupled such that the damage in a particular coordinate direction is a function of the stresses and plastic strains in all of the coordinate directions. The overall framework is driven by experimental tabulated temperature and rate-dependent stress-strain data as well as data that characterizes the damage matrix and failure. The developed theory has been implemented in a commercial explicit finite element analysis code, LS-DYNA®, as MAT213. Several verification and validation tests using a commonly available carbon-fiber composite, Toyobo’s T800/F3900, have been carried and the results show that the theory and implementation are efficient, robust and accurate.

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Date Created
  • 2016