Matching Items (13)

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Evaluation of air–soil temperature relationships simulated by land surface models during winter across the permafrost region

Description

A realistic simulation of snow cover and its thermal properties are important for accurate modelling of permafrost. We analyse simulated relationships between air and near-surface (20  cm) soil temperatures in

A realistic simulation of snow cover and its thermal properties are important for accurate modelling of permafrost. We analyse simulated relationships between air and near-surface (20  cm) soil temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere permafrost region during winter, with a particular focus on snow insulation effects in nine land surface models, and compare them with observations from 268 Russian stations. There are large cross-model differences in the simulated differences between near-surface soil and air temperatures (ΔT; 3 to 14 °C), in the sensitivity of soil-to-air temperature (0.13 to 0.96 °C °[superscript C−1]), and in the relationship between ΔT and snow depth. The observed relationship between ΔT and snow depth can be used as a metric to evaluate the effects of each model's representation of snow insulation, hence guide improvements to the model's conceptual structure and process parameterisations. Models with better performance apply multilayer snow schemes and consider complex snow processes. Some models show poor performance in representing snow insulation due to underestimation of snow depth and/or overestimation of snow conductivity. Generally, models identified as most acceptable with respect to snow insulation simulate reasonable areas of near-surface permafrost (13.19 to 15.77 million  km[superscript 2]). However, there is not a simple relationship between the sophistication of the snow insulation in the acceptable models and the simulated area of Northern Hemisphere near-surface permafrost, because several other factors, such as soil depth used in the models, the treatment of soil organic matter content, hydrology and vegetation cover, also affect the simulated permafrost distribution.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-11

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Inhibitory control, negative emotionality, and threat appraisals as predictors of children's status in the context of bullying

Description

A model of the effects of early adolescents' temperament (negative emotionality and inhibitory control) and threat appraisals on resulting status in the bullying dynamic was examined. Specifically, I examined the

A model of the effects of early adolescents' temperament (negative emotionality and inhibitory control) and threat appraisals on resulting status in the bullying dynamic was examined. Specifically, I examined the hypothesis that negative emotionality and passive victim versus bully-victim status would be mediated by threat appraisals, and that mediated effect would be moderated by levels of inhibitory control. The study used a sample of 56 early adolescents ages 7–16. Temperament characteristics were measured using the EATQ–R (Capaldi & Rothbart, 1992). Threat appraisals were assessed using items from Hunter, Boyle, and Warden (2004). Bullying and victimization were measured using items created for this study and additional cyber bullying items (Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, & Tippett, 2006). A multinomial logistic regression and test of moderated mediation were analyzed to examine the model (Hayes, 2012). Higher levels of negative emotionality were correlated with being a victim of bullying. The moderated mediation model was not statistically significant, however the direction of the patterns fit the hypotheses. Future directions and limitations are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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The impact of individuals' racial identity and perpetrator's racial group membership on empathy for an outgroup victim

Description

The previous research literature was reviewed on how perpetrator's group membership and individuals' racial identity impact intergroup attitude and behavior, as well as factors contribute to intergroup bias on individuals'

The previous research literature was reviewed on how perpetrator's group membership and individuals' racial identity impact intergroup attitude and behavior, as well as factors contribute to intergroup bias on individuals' empathy level. This study was designed to extend the existing research on intergroup relations by exploring the effect of perpetrator's ingroup/outgroup membership and the strength of racial identity on people's empathy toward the outgroup victims. A web-based survey was disseminated and administrated at a southwest university. One hundred and six Caucasian American college students who completed the survey and met the criterion of eighteen years old or older were involved in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of two target stories and one distracter story, and reported their empathy level toward each story. And then the participants' strength of racial identity was measured.

Controlling for demographic variables, regression analyses revealed that, as expected, the interaction of the perpetrator's group membership and individuals' racial identity significantly predicted the level of empathy toward the outgroup victim. When the perpetrator was an ingroup member, people who highly identified with their group exhibited less empathy for the outgroup victim. However, perpetrator's membership and the strength of racial identity failed to predict individuals' outgroup empathy separately.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Predictors of mental health in parents of children with epilepsy

Description

This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States.

This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. A questionnaire was disseminated and administered via a web-based interface. One hundred and fifty-two participants, predominantly Caucasian, married women with more than one child under the age of eighteen completed the survey.

After controlling for demographic variables, mediational analysis revealed that perceived social support explained the relation between perceived child disability and depression and anxiety. Additionally, it partially explained the relation between perceived family burden and depression, anxiety, and stress. Further, parent perception of their child's disability and perceived family burden did not predict emotion-focused or social support coping. However, both emotion-focused and social support coping behaviors were related to reductions in depression in this sample.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Is ignorance bliss?: attributions for seizures and consequences of those attributions among participants with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures

Description

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), is a conversion disorder thought to be linked to unresolved emotional distress. While some studies suggest that PNES patients do not attribute their somatic symptoms to

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), is a conversion disorder thought to be linked to unresolved emotional distress. While some studies suggest that PNES patients do not attribute their somatic symptoms to severe psychological experiences (Stone, Binzer, & Sharpe, 2004; LaFrance & Barry, 2005), it is unclear what PNES patients do think causes their seizures, and the psychological consequences of those attributions. The aim of the present study was to investigate PNES patients' attributions for their seizures, and to determine how these attributions relate to stress and emotion regulation. It was hypothesized that participants who attribute their seizures to something (i.e., have an explanation for their seizures) will have lower perceived stress and less difficulty with emotion regulation than those who are unsure of the cause of their seizures. Twenty-four PNES participants completed a questionnaire assessing seizure diagnosis, characteristics of seizure impact, perceived stress, psychological symptoms, emotion regulation, attributions for seizures, and coping resources. Contrary to the hypothesis, having an explanation for seizures, rather than being “unsure” of seizure cause, was related to greater perceived stress. While it would seem that attributing unpredictable seizure events to a cause would lower perceived stress and emotion regulation difficulty, this study indicates that an attribution to an unknown cause may be more beneficial for the individual.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Psychometric properties of the Big Five Questionnaire-Children (BFQ-C) in American adolescents

Description

The five-factor model of personality is a conceptual model for describing personality, and represents five traits which are theorized to interact with each other to form personality. The Big Five

The five-factor model of personality is a conceptual model for describing personality, and represents five traits which are theorized to interact with each other to form personality. The Big Five Questionnaire-Children (BFQ-C) was developed by Barbaranelli, Caprara, Rabasca and Pastorelli (2003) specifically to measure the five factor model in children. The original version was in Italian, but it has subsequently been translated and used in Dutch, German, and Spanish samples. Given that the BFQ-C has support in Europe, obtained in four different languages it seems promising as an assessment of personality for English speaking children and adolescents. The BFQ-C was translated into English utilizing translation and back translation in order to maintain a high conceptual equivalency. The current study utilizes principal components analysis in order to examine the structure of the English language translation of the BFQ-C in a sample of American adolescents. Results indicate that in contrast to the Italian study, findings from this study suggest a six component solution as the most effective interpretation of the data.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Exploring the Link Between Sensitive Temperament and Depression: The Roles of Parenting Environment and Empathic Personal Distress

Description

This study investigated the relation between Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) temperament and depression, and whether such a relation might be further influenced by the indirect effects of parenting environment and

This study investigated the relation between Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) temperament and depression, and whether such a relation might be further influenced by the indirect effects of parenting environment and empathic personal distress. A moderated mediation model was proposed to explain the underlying relations among SPS, depression, parenting environment and empathic personal distress. That is, greater levels of SPS temperament might predict higher levels of empathic personal distress, which then leads to increasing likelihood of experiencing depression. Moreover, it was predicted that this mediation relation might be significantly stronger under a less positive parenting context. The present study recruited 661 participants from a U.S. university and implemented questionnaires in an online survey. There was a significant main effect of SPS temperament in predicting empathic personal distress and depression, such that the more sensitive individuals reported higher empathic personal distress and depression. There also was a significant main effect of parenting environment on depression, where more positive parenting was associated with less depression. Empathic personal distress was found to partially mediate the relation between SPS and depression. That is, the association between SPS and depression could be partially explained by empathic personal distress. However, parenting environment did not moderate the main effect of SPS temperament on depression, the main effect of SPS on empathic personal distress, or the mediation model.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Children's appraisals as a mediating factor in the relation between interparental conflict and child adjustment

Description

This study examined the mediating role of children's self-reported appraisals in the relation between interparental conflict intensity and child adjustment. Both parent-reported and child-reported conflict intensity were used as predictor

This study examined the mediating role of children's self-reported appraisals in the relation between interparental conflict intensity and child adjustment. Both parent-reported and child-reported conflict intensity were used as predictor variables. Findings suggested that children's total appraisals mediated the relationship between child-reported conflict intensity and all four outcome variables (conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, and total adjustment). Additionally, children's appraisals of negative evaluation by others mediated the relationship between child-reported conflict intensity and depression, and both rejection and negative evaluation by others mediated the relationship between child-reported conflict intensity and anxiety. Only one mediational relationship was established when assessing conflict intensity through parent report, with children's appraisals of harm to others mediating the relationship between parent-reported conflict intensity and anxiety. Findings from this study outline the importance of assessing conflict and appraisals from the child's perspective as results indicated a higher level of mediating effects of child appraisals in the relation between conflict and child outcomes when assessing conflict from the child's perspective.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Predictors of emotional adjustment and posttraumatic growth following bereavement in the United States and China

Description

Using an integrated perspective of the Grief Work Hypothesis and Posttraumatic Growth Theory, this study was designed to contribute to the sparse existing cross-cultural research by examining and comparing individuals'

Using an integrated perspective of the Grief Work Hypothesis and Posttraumatic Growth Theory, this study was designed to contribute to the sparse existing cross-cultural research by examining and comparing individuals' emotional adjustment and posttraumatic growth in the United States (US) and China. Another main goal was to unfold the predictive effects of different dimensions of locus of control, coping strategies and social support on the outcomes and further, to explore cultural differences in the underlying mechanisms. Web-based survey was disseminated and administered in the US and China. One thousand and seventy-eight participants completed the survey and met the criteria such that they were eighteen years old or older and experienced death of a loved one six to thirty-six months ago. As expected, US participants experienced higher levels of subjective well-being, lower levels of complicated grief and posttraumatic growth than Chinese participants. They also reported higher external yet lower internal locus of control, less frequent use of active and avoidance coping, and less informational support and negative social interactions than their Chinese counterparts. No difference in emotional support was evidenced between the two cultures. After controlling for demographic, loss-related information and the impact of post-bereavement life events, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that culture, external locus of control, avoidance coping and negative social interactions were unique predictors of complicated grief. Furthermore, the relation between external locus of control and complicated grief was weaker for US participants compared to that for Chinese participants. Culture, external and internal locus of control, active and avoidance coping, and negative social interactions significantly predicted individuals' subjective well-being after the loss. Additionally, culture, internal locus of control, active and avoidance coping, informational support, and negative social interactions were identified as unique predictors of posttraumatic growth. Specifically, an interaction effect of avoidance coping x culture emerged such that avoidance coping significantly predicted posttraumatic growth only for US participants. This study extracted the underlying mechanisms of predicting individuals' emotional adjustment and personal growth following bereavement. The influence of culture was also highlighted. Application of existing theories to the Chinese culture and clinical implications of the current study were discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Social support and problem-solving coping as moderators of the relation between stress and life satisfaction

Description

Numerous psychosocial and health factors contribute to perceived stress, social support, and problem-solving coping relating to overall well-being and life satisfaction in older adults. The effect of social support

Numerous psychosocial and health factors contribute to perceived stress, social support, and problem-solving coping relating to overall well-being and life satisfaction in older adults. The effect of social support and problem-solving coping, however, remains largely untested as potential moderators. The present study was conducted to test whether social support and problem- solving coping would moderate the relation between perceived stress and life satisfaction in older adults. First, I anticipated that stress will be negatively related to life satisfaction at low levels of social support, while at high social support; stress will be unrelated to life satisfaction. Second, I expected that with low problem- solving coping, stress will be negatively related to life satisfaction, whereas, at levels of high problem- solving coping, stress will be unrelated to life satisfaction. Using an experimental survey and interview design with hierarchical regression analyses, I found no support that social support would moderate the relation between stress and life satisfaction. I found support that problem-solving coping moderated the relation between stress and life satisfaction. For individuals who engage in higher levels of problem- solving coping, higher levels of stress predicted lower levels of life satisfaction. On the other hand, at lower levels of problem-solving coping, more stress predicted lower levels of life satisfaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017