Matching Items (10)

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From Civilian to Soldier: Factors Influencing Military Enlistment

Description

There are various motivational factors that affect both enlistment and retention success in the military. The purpose of this study was to identify those factors, their influence on enlistment rates,

There are various motivational factors that affect both enlistment and retention success in the military. The purpose of this study was to identify those factors, their influence on enlistment rates, and to determine if there is an all-encompassing personality type characteristics of individuals who choose to enlist. Nineteen studies were identified that looked at one or more potential motivational factors. In total, these studies contained roughly 95,226 participants including men, women, Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Other minority groups were looked at in these studies, however, their sample sizes were too small for any conclusions to be drawn. The population samples ranged from high school seniors who were about to make the decision between the armed forces and alternative paths to those who had recently enlisted. Participants were from across all branches of the military. Overall, there were six main categories of motivational factors that appeared to be the most influential on one's decision to enlist in the armed forces. These include benefits offered by the military, educational aspirations and achievements of the potential enlistee, one's socioeconomic status, social influences, family influence, and the potential recruit's own personality. Finally, apart from motivational factors, the standards for enlistment imposed by the different military branches also affect who can enlist. In general, these six factors seem to be the most influential, although the specific patterns of motivational factors underlying one's enlistment decision are likely as unique as the enlistees themselves.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Learning to Draw lik a Child: How Age and Interest Affect Artistic Style

Description

This correlational study investigated how adolescent's artistic style changed depending on their level of interest in art. The participants were 28 students from the 7th and 8th grade of Zuni

This correlational study investigated how adolescent's artistic style changed depending on their level of interest in art. The participants were 28 students from the 7th and 8th grade of Zuni Hills Elementary School. A survey was administered which measured, in regards to their artwork, the categories of interest, experimentation in subject, experimentation in material, abstract style, literal style, imagination, identity, emotion and storytelling. It was predicted that interest would have a significant positive relationship with abstract style and experimentation with subject. It was also predicted that interest would have a significant negative relationship with literal style and experimentation with material. Scores for all categories were compared and significant positive relations were found in regards to emotion, identity and storytelling. There was also a significant positive realtionship between interest and imagination as well as interest and emotion. These findings add to research about motivation in adolescent art through the means of expression of the self.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Effects of Unemployment on Children

Description

This research looked at the effects unemployment had on children. A searched of the previous research few studies on the effects unemployment had on children. The leading research article, or

This research looked at the effects unemployment had on children. A searched of the previous research few studies on the effects unemployment had on children. The leading research article, or genesis of the later studies found on the topic, was the 1938 study done by Einsenburg and Lazafeld. In that study, they found that children experience many negative effects from having an unemployed parent. In the current study, a total of 111 participants, (79 females and 32 males), in the study most of the volunteers came from Arizona State University, and the surrounding area. The research hypothesis (H1) was that individuals who had an unemployed parent as a child (Children/child for this study was defined being between the ages of 10-15) were more likely to be depressed, isolated, bullied, have an increase of illness, be less optimistic about the future and experience a decline in school performance than individuals whose parents were never unemployed. The current study found that having an unemployed parent led to being more depressed, isolated, optimistic, and having lower school performance and self-esteem in adolescence. Interestingly the study also found that as an adult the child of unemployed parents was more likely to be bullied as an adult. The results of this study furthered the research on the effects of unemployment had on children, and recommendations were made for future studies on the effects of parents unemployment has on children.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Chronic Pain: Social Responses and Treatment

Description

Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and

Abstract Chronic pain is a growing problem in the western world and is one of the largest costs to the healthcare system. In order to decrease both the prevalence and the cost, it is necessary to understand factors that influence the chronic pain experience and potential ways to treat it. This literature review examines three demographic factors - gender, ethnicity and age \u2014 and the effect each has on the chronic pain experience. Pain intensity, disability caused by pain, mood and coping were reviewed in relation to gender. No conclusions were able to be drawn based on the literature reviewed for any of the topics; findings were conflicting. Ethnic groups with chronic pain were evaluated for differences in the pain experience, psychological and emotional responses and coping. A lack of consistent findings among studies made it hard to come to conclusions. As children and adolescents get older, the frequency of their pain becomes higher. The literature review then continues by examining three treatment methods: cognitive behavioral therapy, hypnosis and exercise. Each treatment method discussed had beneficial outcomes in the treatment of chronic pain. Cognitive behavioral therapy seemed to be the most beneficial both short- and long-term. Hypnosis was most beneficial short-term for flair-ups and exercise had the best effects long term when the treatment is continued. In the future, I recommend designing a study that takes into consideration multiple variables that may have an effect on the pain experience including gender, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, education, income and duration of pain, and manipulating one at a time.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Timing of Parental Divorce on Offspring Gender Attitudes and Behavior

Description

The outcomes of parental divorce on offspring has been extensively examined in

previous research. How parental divorce predicts gender attitudes and behaviors in offspring, however, is less studied. More specifically, research

The outcomes of parental divorce on offspring has been extensively examined in

previous research. How parental divorce predicts gender attitudes and behaviors in offspring, however, is less studied. More specifically, research suggesting when the divorce occurs on young adult offspring attitudes and behaviors has not be reviewed to my knowledge in previous literature. Several instruments were used in the current paper to address how gender-typed attitudes and behaviors are predicted by parental divorce occurring between the age groups of birth-6, 7-12, or 13 and older in relation to individuals from intact families. Participants were 202 individuals, where 75 experienced a parental divorce or separation sometime in their life. Gender attitudes were assessed through the Pacific Attitudes Toward Gender Scale, Attitudes Toward Divorce Scale, Attitudes Toward Marriage Scale, and a scale created for this study on dating expectations. Gender behavior was assessed through scales created for this study: current occupation or major, number of romantic relationships, number of friends with benefits, number of one night stands, safe sex use, and future plans on marrying or having children. The Personal Attributes Questionnaire was also used to determine participants’ self-report of their masculinity or femininity. The results suggest parental divorce occurring between 7 and 12 years predicted more egalitarian gender attitudes compared to other groups. Gender attitudes also partially mediated the relationship between the timing of divorce and gender behavior in an exploratory analysis, although this was only significant for men. Finally, it was found that men whose parents divorced tend to report less safe sex, whereas women from divorced families tend to report more one night stand

relationships than those from intact families. The data were partially supported by previous research of timing, where those whose parents divorced tend to show more egalitarian gender attitudes and behaviors.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Job Calling and Perceived Work Stress in Zookeepers: Problem-Focused Coping as a Mediator

Description

There are some factors that have been used to explain why the presence of a calling (i.e., “an approach to work that reflects the belief that one's career is a

There are some factors that have been used to explain why the presence of a calling (i.e., “an approach to work that reflects the belief that one's career is a central part of a broader sense of purpose and meaning in life and is used to help others or advance the greater good in some fashion” (Duffy & Dik, 2013, p. 429) reduces work stress and its potential negative outcomes, such as absenteeism, job performance and productivity, work-related accidents and overall employee health. The effect of problem-focused coping, however, remains largely untested as a potential mediator in this relation. The present study was conducted to quantitatively test whether problem-focused coping would mediate the relation between having a calling to work and perceived work stress in zookeepers. Participants were recruited through an online survey. They responded to questionnaires regarding calling, problem-focused coping, and work stress. Using hierarchical regression analyses, it was found that problem-focused coping partially mediated the relation between presence of a calling and perceived work stress. Specifically, having the presence of a calling to work predicted greater problem-focused style of coping, which, in turn, led to lower perceived work stress. Future directions for research were discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Cyberbullying: predictors and prevalence in American and German middle school students

Description

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate several factors associated with cyberbullying and its victims; gender, age, and the time spent using various forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC).

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate several factors associated with cyberbullying and its victims; gender, age, and the time spent using various forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Because cross-national studies are so important to understanding the similarities and differences found in this global problem, the current study explored the connection between traditional bullying and cyberbullying in middle school students in both the United States (N = 111) and Germany (N = 279). Participants ranged in age from 12 to 15 years and were administered self-report questionnaires during the regular school day. It was predicted that German students would have higher mean rates of CMC use; Americans would have higher mean rates of participation in and being victims of cyberbullying; there would be no mean differences in American and German student outcomes as either victims or perpetrators of traditional bullying. Results indicated that German students did use CMC more often than American students did, but Americans used certain forms of CMC more often, such as texting, IM and email. Contrary to expectations, Germans were more likely to participate in cyber and traditional bullying behavior. Americans did have a greater number of victims compared to perpetrators for both traditional and cyberbullying behavior. Additional results found that the American sample had a pattern of decreasing then increasing behavior as student age increased, across participation in all forms of bullying behavior, and participation rates often depended on the age of the students involved. Future research suggestions might focus on the importance of distinguishing the varying thought processes that define cyberbullying within a culture, specifically within our own culture. Additional research might also address how online communities and their inherent social norms and interactions, may inadvertently contribute to increasing cyberbullying and victimization of others outside of those groups and communities. Finally, due to the constant updating and improvement of social media, a follow- up study utilizing updated online applications would add considerably to the current knowledge base.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Evaluating brain boosters: a new cognitive enhancement program for treating post-traumatic stress disorder and depression

Description

ABSTRACT Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and insomnia are prevalent among United States (US) military veterans. This study investigates whether Brain Boosters, a new cognitive enhancement group therapy, improves symptoms

ABSTRACT Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, and insomnia are prevalent among United States (US) military veterans. This study investigates whether Brain Boosters, a new cognitive enhancement group therapy, improves symptoms of PTSD, depression, and insomnia among veterans completing the groups. The study population includes 64 US military veterans treated in the setting of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System in Phoenix, AZ. Group members were US military veterans, age 22 to 87 (mean age=53.47), who had served in or after World War II (WWII), who sought mental health care at the Phoenix VA from 2007 through 2011. Participants were treated with Brain Boosters therapy. They completed measures of mental-health related symptoms before and after this therapy. Participants were assessed pre and post group with the PTSD Checklist for military personnel (PCL-M), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9; a measure of depression symptoms), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Statistical analyses were done with paired samples t-tests and McNemar's tests, using SPSS. The hypotheses were that symptoms of PTSD, depression, and insomnia would show statistically significant improvement with Brain Boosters therapy. Results supported the hypotheses that symptoms of PTSD and depression would improve significantly. Insomnia did not show significant improvement. The results showed the mean PCL-M score was 54.84 before Brain Boosters therapy and 51.35 after (p= 0.008). The mean PHQ-9 score was 15.21 before Brain Boosters therapy and 13.05 after (p= 0.002). The mean ISI score was 15.98 before Brain Boosters Therapy and 14.46 after (p= 0.056). Although this is a nonrandom, uncontrolled trial, findings nevertheless suggest that Brain Boosters may be an effective therapy to reduce PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity. This may be especially important for veterans seeking alternatives to pharmacological intervention or traditional therapeutic interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Mother-Child Conversations about Susceptibility to Influenza: The Role of Observed Anxiety

Description

Parents are the primary source for socializing children's attitudes and behaviors about adaptive concepts such as how to stay safe and reduce risk. Parent-child discussions about potential health risks have

Parents are the primary source for socializing children's attitudes and behaviors about adaptive concepts such as how to stay safe and reduce risk. Parent-child discussions about potential health risks have the ability to evoke anxiety in both mothers and children. This study examined the impact of observed anxiety on non-clinically anxious families, and the differences observed between anxious or non- anxious families. Sixty-one mothers engaged in naturalistic conversation with their children (aged 9-11) about their potential exposure to an anxiety-provoking situation, an Avian influenza pandemic. Conversations were video recorded and observational data were collected to examine mother and child behaviors; questionnaire data from both mothers and children supplemented this observational data. Results indicated that anxious children were more engaged in these discussions than less anxious children, and anxious mothers were less engaged than non-anxious mothers. The content of the parent-child conversations varied between non-anxious and anxious dyads; mothers were more likely to remind their children that the situation was "pretend" if they recognized that their child became anxious, and mothers that emphasized the severity of the hypothetical situation had children who self-reported higher levels of anxiety. Underlying parental beliefs about how children develop also varied among mothers; mothers of anxious children were more likely to believe that their children learn because of cognitive development that occurs through their own interactions within their environment, while there was a trend for mothers of non-anxious children to hold stronger beliefs that children learn through modeling and the direct teaching of behaviors. Results indicate that dysfunctional behaviors previously observed in clinically anxious families may be apparent within non-clinically anxious families when anxiety levels increase, and the bi-directional influence of mother-child anxious behavior is explored. This study builds on our understanding of parent-child interactions, parent socialization behaviors, and the importance of minimizing anxiousness during parent-child threat discussions evoking child anxiety.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Bullying, loneliness, and future responses to stress

Description

Bully victimization has been associated with blunted cardiovascular responses to stress as well as elevated responses to stress. The difference between these altered physiological responses to stress is largely unknown.

Bully victimization has been associated with blunted cardiovascular responses to stress as well as elevated responses to stress. The difference between these altered physiological responses to stress is largely unknown. This study explored several possible moderators to the relationship between chronic stress and future cardiac output (an indicator of increased stress) in response to future stressors. These moderators include the difference between social and physical stressors and individual levels of loneliness. Participants were administered measures of loneliness and victimization history, and led to anticipate either a "social" (recorded speech) or "non-social" (pain tolerance test ) stressor, neither of which occurred. EKG and impedance cardiography were measured throughout the session. When anticipating both stressors, loneliness and victimization were associated with increased CO. A regression revealed a three-way interaction, with change in cardiac output depending on victimization history, loneliness, and condition in the physical stressor condition. Loneliness magnified the CO output levels of non-bullied individuals when facing a physical stressor. These results suggest that non- bullied participants high in loneliness are more stressed out when facing stressors, particularly stressors that are physically threatening in nature.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013