Matching Items (13)

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Gasification of Municipal Solid Waste for Power Generation

Description

The paper analyzes the growing desire to use waste-to-energy strategies on municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate power. The two waste-to-energy technologies that will be explored are incineration and gasification. The background of these two technologies will be explained because

The paper analyzes the growing desire to use waste-to-energy strategies on municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate power. The two waste-to-energy technologies that will be explored are incineration and gasification. The background of these two technologies will be explained because incineration, which has been the pioneering technology for the past century, has come to be rivaled by gasification with its unique purification feature. Following this section, gasification and incineration power generation are studied to conclude which technology is sounder. This study will be conducted via an analysis to find the thermal and exergetic efficiencies and emissions of each. After analyzing the two technologies, both utilizing a vapor cogeneration power system, their efficiencies were found. For the gasification process, the thermal efficiency was 26% and the exergetic efficiency was 59%. The incineration process had a thermal efficiency of 25% and an exergetic efficiency of 55%. Lastly, the emission from the power generation of each method was explored to see which system had a greater impact on the environment. It was found that the primary emissions of these technologies were carbon dioxide and water.

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2020-05

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Solar Thermochemical Reactor

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As the need for environmentally friendly and renewable fuel sources rises, many are considering alternative fuel sources, such as solar power. The device explored in this report uses solar power, in theory, to heat a metal oxide, cerium oxide, to

As the need for environmentally friendly and renewable fuel sources rises, many are considering alternative fuel sources, such as solar power. The device explored in this report uses solar power, in theory, to heat a metal oxide, cerium oxide, to a desired temperature. At specific temperatures and pressures, a reaction between an input gas, carbon dioxide or water vapor, and the metal oxide may produce fuel in the form of hydrogen or carbon monoxide. In order to reach the temperatures required by the reaction, a filament inside a high-temperature radiant heater must be heated to the desired temperature. In addition, the system’s pressure range must be satisfied. A pressure and temperature measurement device, as well as a voltage control, must be connected to an interface with a computer in order to monitor the pressure and temperature of different parts of the system. The cerium oxide element must also be constructed and placed inside the system. The desired shape of the cerium oxide material is a tube, to allow the flow of gas through the tubes and system and to provide mechanical strength. To construct the metal oxide tubes, they need to be extruded, dried, and sintered correctly. All the manufactured elements described serve an essential purpose in the system and are discussed further in this document.
This report focuses on the manufacturing of ceria tubes, the construction of a high-temperature radiant heater filament, and the implementation of a pressure measurement device. The manufacturing of ceria tubes includes the extrusion, the drying, and the sintering of the tubes. In addition, heating element filament construction consists of spot-welding certain metals together to create a device similar to that of a light bulb filament. Different methods were considered in each of these areas, and they are described in this report. All of the explorations in this document move towards the final device, a thermochemical reactor for the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
The results of this report indicate that there are several important manufacturing steps to create the most desirable results, in terms of tube manufacturing and heating element design. For the correct tube construction, they must be dried in a drying rack, and they must be sintered in V-groove plates. In addition, the results of the heating element manufacturing indicate that the ideal heating element filament needs to be simple in design (easily fixed), cost-effective, require little construction time, attach to the ends of the system easily, provide mechanical flexibility, and prevent the coil from touching the walls of the tube it lies in. Each aspect of the ideal elements, whether they are tubes or heating elements, is explored in this report.

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2020-05

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The Refinement of Electrolyte Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application

Description

In this study, the viability of doped ceria for SOFC electrolyte application is investigated through calculation of the oxygen anion diffusion through undoped, Zr-doped, Pr-doped, and Gd-doped ceria. DFT calculations are performed to determine the oxygen vacancy formation and activation

In this study, the viability of doped ceria for SOFC electrolyte application is investigated through calculation of the oxygen anion diffusion through undoped, Zr-doped, Pr-doped, and Gd-doped ceria. DFT calculations are performed to determine the oxygen vacancy formation and activation energy to vacancy migration barriers for each material. All dopants were found to increase the activation energy to vacancy migration and decrease the oxygen vacancy formation energy. These energy barriers are then integrated into a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation that models the oxygen vacancy diffusion over time. From the simulation results, the diffusivity of oxygen anion through each material is calculated as a function of dopant concentration and temperature. It was discovered that diffusivity increased with temperature and decreased with dopant concentration in all dopant cases. Gd-doped ceria exhibited the highest overall oxygen diffusion rates, making it the most effective choice for SOFC electrolyte application, while Zr-doped ceria would be the least effective choice with the lowest diffusion rates.

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2019-12

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Techno-Economic Assessment of CHP in Wastewater Treatment Plants

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Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) utilization of combined heat and power (CHP) systems allows for the efficient use of on-site biogas production, as well as increased annual savings in utility costs. In this thesis, a literature review of six CHP prime

Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) utilization of combined heat and power (CHP) systems allows for the efficient use of on-site biogas production, as well as increased annual savings in utility costs. In this thesis, a literature review of six CHP prime mover technologies is presented. Even though there are different prime mover technologies, the main ones currently being implemented in WWTPs are micro turbines, fuel cells and reciprocating engines. These prime mover technologies offer varying efficiencies, installation costs and maintenance requirements. The prime movers are also all in different stages of development, leading some to be more currently-in-use than others in WWTPs. Currently reciprocating engines and micro turbines occupy the largest shares of the CHP in WWTP sector.
This thesis will also go in detail into equations and calculations created for a techno-economic assessment for installation and maintenance of a CHP system at a WWTP. The equations and calculations created here were then utilized with data from a typical WWTP in the Southwestern United States to create an accurate case study. In this case study, a payback of 5.7 years and a net present value of $709,000 can be achieved when the WWTP generates over 2,000,000 m3 of biogas per year and utilizes over 36,000 GJ of natural gas per year.

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2020-12

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Fuel Cell Integrated Gas Turbine Hybrid System Under Various Conditions

Description

A novel concept for integration of flame-assisted fuel cells (FFC) with a gas turbine is analyzed in this paper. Six different fuels (CH4, C3H8, JP-4, JP-5, JP-10(L), and H2) are investigated for the analytical model of the FFC integrated gas

A novel concept for integration of flame-assisted fuel cells (FFC) with a gas turbine is analyzed in this paper. Six different fuels (CH4, C3H8, JP-4, JP-5, JP-10(L), and H2) are investigated for the analytical model of the FFC integrated gas turbine hybrid system. As equivalence ratio increases, the efficiency of the hybrid system increases initially then decreases because the decreasing flow rate of air begins to outweigh the increasing hydrogen concentration. This occurs at an equivalence ratio of 2 for CH4. The thermodynamic cycle is analyzed using a temperature entropy diagram and a pressure volume diagram. These thermodynamic diagrams show as equivalence ratio increases, the power generated by the turbine in the hybrid setup decreases. Thermodynamic analysis was performed to verify that energy is conserved and the total chemical energy going into the system was equal to the heat rejected by the system plus the power generated by the system. Of the six fuels, the hybrid system performs best with H2 as the fuel. The electrical efficiency with H2 is predicted to be 27%, CH4 is 24%, C3H8 is 22%, JP-4 is 21%, JP-5 is 20%, and JP-10(L) is 20%. When H2 fuel is used, the overall integrated system is predicted to be 24.5% more efficient than the standard gas turbine system. The integrated system is predicted to be 23.0% more efficient with CH4, 21.9% more efficient with C3H8, 22.7% more efficient with JP-4, 21.3% more efficient with JP-5, and 20.8% more efficient with JP-10(L). The sensitivity of the model is investigated using various fuel utilizations. When CH4 fuel is used, the integrated system is predicted to be 22.7% more efficient with a fuel utilization efficiency of 90% compared to that of 30%.

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2021-05

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Investigation of Heat Exchanger Improvement via Ultrasonic Energy

Description

In these times of increasing industrialization, there arises a need for effective and energy efficient heat transfer/heat exchange devices. The focus nowadays is on identifying various methods and techniques which can aid the process of developing energy efficient devices. One

In these times of increasing industrialization, there arises a need for effective and energy efficient heat transfer/heat exchange devices. The focus nowadays is on identifying various methods and techniques which can aid the process of developing energy efficient devices. One of the most common heat transfer devices is a heat exchanger. Heat exchangers are an essential commodity to any industry and their efficiency can play an important role in making industries energy efficient and reduce the energy losses in the devices, in turn decreasing energy inputs to run the industry.

One of the ways in which we can improve the efficiency of heat exchangers is by applying ultrasonic energy to a heat exchanger. This research explores the possibility of introducing the external input of ultrasonic energy to increase the efficiency of the heat exchanger. This increase in efficiency can be estimated by calculating the parameters important for the characterization of a heat exchanger, which are effectiveness (ε) and overall heat transfer coefficient (U). These parameters are calculated for both the non-ultrasound and ultrasound conditions in the heat exchanger.

This a preliminary study of ultrasound and its effect on a conventional shell-and-coil heat exchanger. From the data obtained it can be inferred that the increase in effectiveness and overall heat transfer coefficient upon the application of ultrasound is 1% and 6.22% respectively.

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2019

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Experimental Measurements of the Power Output of a Cu/Cu2+ Thermogalvanic Brick

Description

Buildings continue to take up a significant portion of the global energy consumption, meaning there are significant research opportunities in reducing the energy consumption of the building sector. One widely studied area is waste heat recovery. The purpose of this

Buildings continue to take up a significant portion of the global energy consumption, meaning there are significant research opportunities in reducing the energy consumption of the building sector. One widely studied area is waste heat recovery. The purpose of this research is to test a prototype thermogalvanic cell in the form factor of a UK metric brick sized at 215 mm × 102.5 mm × 65 mm for the experimental power output using a copper/copper(II) (Cu/Cu2+) based aqueous electrode. In this study the thermogalvanic brick uses a 0.7 M CuSO4 + 0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte with copper electrodes as two of the walls. The other walls of the thermogalvanic brick are made of 5.588 mm (0.22 in) thick acrylic sheet. Internal to the brick, a 0.2 volume fraction minimal surface Schwartz diamond (Schwartz D) structure made of ABS, Polycarbonate-ABS (PCABS), and Polycarbonate-Carbon Fiber (PCCF) was tested to see the effects on the power output of the thermogalvanic brick. By changing the size of the thermogalvanic cell into that of a brick will allow this thermogalvanic cell to become the literal building blocks of green buildings. The thermogalvanic brick was tested by applying a constant power to the strip heater attached to the hot side of the brick, resulting in various ∆T values between 8◦C and 15◦C depending on the material of Schwartz D inside. From this, it was found that a single Cu/Cu2+ thermogalvanic brick containing the PCCF or PCABS Schwartz D performed equivalently well at a 163.8% or 164.9%, respectively, higher normalized power density output than the control brick containing only electrolyte solution.

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2018

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Low temperature soot regime of propane/air in a micro flow reactor with controlled temperature profile

Description

Micro/meso combustion has several advantages over regular combustion in terms of scale, efficiency, enhanced heat and mass transfer, quick startup and shutdown, fuel utilization and carbon footprint. This study aims to analyze the effect of temperature on critical sooting equivalence

Micro/meso combustion has several advantages over regular combustion in terms of scale, efficiency, enhanced heat and mass transfer, quick startup and shutdown, fuel utilization and carbon footprint. This study aims to analyze the effect of temperature on critical sooting equivalence ratio and precursor formation in a micro-flow reactor. The effect of temperature on the critical sooting equivalence ratio of propane/air mixture at atmospheric pressure with temperatures ranging from 750-1250°C was investigated using a micro-flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile of diameter 2.3mm, equivalence ratios of 1-13 and inlet flow rates of 10 and 100sccm. The effect of inert gas dilution was studied by adding 90sccm of nitrogen to 10sccm of propane/air to make a total flow rate of 100sccm. The gas species were collected at the end of the reactor using a gas chromatograph for further analysis. Soot was indicated by visually examining the reactor before and after combustion for traces of soot particles on the inside of the reactor. At 1000-1250°C carbon deposition/soot formation was observed inside the reactor at critical sooting equivalence ratios. At 750-950°C, no soot formation was observed despite operating at much higher equivalence ratio, i.e., up to 100. Adding nitrogen resulted in an increase in the critical sooting equivalence ratio.

The wall temperature profiles were obtained with the help of a K-type thermocouple, to get an idea of the difference between the wall temperature provided with the resistive heater and the wall temperature with combustion inside the reactor. The temperature profiles were very similar in the case of 10sccm but markedly different in the other two cases for all the temperatures.

These results indicate a trend that is not well-known or understood for sooting flames, i.e., decreasing temperature decreases soot formation. The reactor capability to examine the effect of temperature on the critical sooting equivalence ratio at different flow rates was successfully demonstrated.

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Date Created
2019

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Study of Solar Thermophotovoltaic (STPV) Energy Conversion with Selective Metafilm Coatings and GaSb Cell Separated by Glass Microspheres

Description

Solar energy as a limitless source of energy all around the globe has been difficult to harness. This is due to the low direct solar-electric conversion efficiency which has an upper limit set to the Shockley-Queisser limit. Solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV)

Solar energy as a limitless source of energy all around the globe has been difficult to harness. This is due to the low direct solar-electric conversion efficiency which has an upper limit set to the Shockley-Queisser limit. Solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) is a much more efficient solar energy harvesting technology as it has the potential to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit, by converting the broad-spectrum solar irradiation into narrowband infrared spectrum radiation matched to the PV cell. Despite the potential to surpass the Shockley-Queisser limit, very few experimental results have reported high system-level efficiency.

The objective of the thesis is to study the STPV conversion performance with selective metafilm absorber and emitter paired with a commercial GaSb cell at different solar concentrations. Absorber and Emitter metafilm thickness was optimized and fabricated. The optical properties of fabricated metafilms showed good agreement with the theoretically determined properties. The experimental setup was completed and validated by measuring the heat transfer rate across the test setup and comparing it with theoretical calculations. A novel method for maintaining the gap between the emitter and PV cell was developed using glass microspheres. Theoretical calculations show that the use of the glass of microspheres introduces negligible conduction loss across the gap compared to the radiation heat transfer, which is confirmed by experimental heat transfer measurement. This research work will help enhance the fundamental understanding and the development of the high-efficiency solar thermophotovoltaic system.

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2020

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Thermal Resistance Measurements of Triply Periodic Minimal Surface Structures (TPMS) of the Thermogalvanic Brick

Description

The presence of huge amounts of waste heat and the constant demand for electric energy makes this an appreciable research topic, yet at present there is no commercially viable technology to harness the inherent energy resource provided by the temperature

The presence of huge amounts of waste heat and the constant demand for electric energy makes this an appreciable research topic, yet at present there is no commercially viable technology to harness the inherent energy resource provided by the temperature differential between the inside and outside of buildings. In a newly developed technology, electricity is generated from the temperature gradient between building walls through a Seebeck effect. A 3D-printed triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) structure is sandwiched in copper electrodes with copper (I) sulphate (Cu2SO4) electrolyte to mimic a thermogalvanic cell. Previous studies mainly concentrated on mechanical properties and the electric power generation ability of these structures; however, the goal of this study is to estimate the thermal resistance of the 3D-printed TPMS experimentally. This investigation elucidates their thermal resistances which in turn helps to appreciate the power output associated in the thermogalvanic structure. Schwarz P, Gyroid, IWP, and Split P geometries were considered for the experiment with electrolyte in the thermogalvanic brick. Among these TPMS structures, Split P was found more thermally resistive than the others with a thermal resistance of 0.012 m2 K W-1. The thermal resistances of Schwarz D and Gyroid structures were also assessed experimentally without electrolyte and the results are compared to numerical predictions in a previous Mater's thesis.

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2020