Matching Items (17)
In these times of increasing industrialization, there arises a need for effective and energy efficient heat transfer/heat exchange devices. The focus nowadays is on identifying various methods and techniques which can aid the process of developing energy efficient devices. One of the most common heat transfer devices is a heat exchanger. Heat exchangers are an essential commodity to any industry and their efficiency can play an important role in making industries energy efficient and reduce the energy losses in the devices, in turn decreasing energy inputs to run the industry.
One of the ways in which we can improve the efficiency of heat exchangers is by applying ultrasonic energy to a heat exchanger. This research explores the possibility of introducing the external input of ultrasonic energy to increase the efficiency of the heat exchanger. This increase in efficiency can be estimated by calculating the parameters important for the characterization of a heat exchanger, which are effectiveness (ε) and overall heat transfer coefficient (U). These parameters are calculated for both the non-ultrasound and ultrasound conditions in the heat exchanger.
This a preliminary study of ultrasound and its effect on a conventional shell-and-coil heat exchanger. From the data obtained it can be inferred that the increase in effectiveness and overall heat transfer coefficient upon the application of ultrasound is 1% and 6.22% respectively.
Buildings continue to take up a significant portion of the global energy consumption, meaning there are significant research opportunities in reducing the energy consumption of the building sector. One widely studied area is waste heat recovery. The purpose of this research is to test a prototype thermogalvanic cell in the form factor of a UK metric brick sized at 215 mm × 102.5 mm × 65 mm for the experimental power output using a copper/copper(II) (Cu/Cu2+) based aqueous electrode. In this study the thermogalvanic brick uses a 0.7 M CuSO4 + 0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte with copper electrodes as two of the walls. The other walls of the thermogalvanic brick are made of 5.588 mm (0.22 in) thick acrylic sheet. Internal to the brick, a 0.2 volume fraction minimal surface Schwartz diamond (Schwartz D) structure made of ABS, Polycarbonate-ABS (PCABS), and Polycarbonate-Carbon Fiber (PCCF) was tested to see the effects on the power output of the thermogalvanic brick. By changing the size of the thermogalvanic cell into that of a brick will allow this thermogalvanic cell to become the literal building blocks of green buildings. The thermogalvanic brick was tested by applying a constant power to the strip heater attached to the hot side of the brick, resulting in various ∆T values between 8◦C and 15◦C depending on the material of Schwartz D inside. From this, it was found that a single Cu/Cu2+ thermogalvanic brick containing the PCCF or PCABS Schwartz D performed equivalently well at a 163.8% or 164.9%, respectively, higher normalized power density output than the control brick containing only electrolyte solution.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) generate electricity using only hydrogen and oxygen and they form H2O as the only byproduct, giving them the potential to significantly reduce carbon emissions and the impacts of global warming. In order to meet the global power demands today, SOFCs need to significantly increase their power density and improve robustness in startup and cycling operations. This study explores the impact of decreasing the anode thickness to improve the mass transport of the fuel through the anode of a micro-tubular (mT) SOFC because few studies have reported the correlation between the two. Decreasing the thickness decreases the chance for concentration overpotential which is caused by not enough of the reactants being able to reach the reaction site while products are not able to be removed quickly enough. Experiments were performed in a split tube furnace heated to 750°C with nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) supported cells. Pure hydrogen was supplied to the cell at rates of 10, 20, 30, and 40 mL/min while the cathode was supplied air from the environment. The cell's performance was studied using the current-voltage method to generate polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to create Bode and Nyquist plots. The results from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a lower impedance for the frequencies pertaining to the gas diffusion in the anode for the thinner cells. This suggests that decreasing the anode thickness increases the mass transport of the gas. Additionally, through a distribution of relaxation times (DRT) analysis, the peaks vary between the two cell thicknesses at the frequencies pertaining to gas diffusion in anode-supported cells, implicating the decreased resistance created by thinning the anode layer.
Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion is seen as a viable option for efficiently converting heat to electricity. There are three key components to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system: a heat source, a heat emitter and a photovoltaic (PV) cell. A heat source heats up the emitter which causes the emitter to release thermal radiation. The photons are absorbed by a PV cell when they are acting above the bandgap energy. The PV cell then generates electricity from this thermal radiation. In theory, efficiency of a TPV system can be well above 50%. In order for TPV to reach large-scale adaptation, an efficiency at or above 20% is needed. In this project, a high-temperature heater capable of reaching 1000K was developed. The heater involved a copper block machined to hold two cartridge heaters, as well as two thermocouples. It has an accompanying copper lid that can be screwed tight to the main block, with an emitter in between. There is an aperture to allow radiation through the casing towards the PV cell. Preliminary thermal analysis showed that the heater provides uniform temperature distribution across the emitter, which is necessary for proper radiation. A mounting system was also designed to implement the heater into the overall TPV system. Current work is being done to lower the radiation loss from the heater and mounting system, as well as implementation of all auxiliary components to begin testing. The maximum temperature of the heater, radiation heat flux received by the cell, and overall power output and efficiency of the system will be tested.
Advanced fibrous composite materials exhibit outstanding thermomechanical performance under extreme environments, which make them ideal for structural components that are used in a wide range of aerospace, nuclear, and defense applications. The integrity and residual useful life of these components, however, are strongly influenced by their inherent material flaws and defects resulting from the complex fabrication processes. These defects exist across multiple length scales and govern several scale-dependent inelastic deformation mechanisms of each of the constituents as well as their composite damage anisotropy. Tailoring structural components for optimal performance requires addressing the knowledge gap regarding the microstructural material morphology that governs the structural scale damage and failure response. Therefore, there is a need for a high-fidelity multiscale modeling framework and scale-specific in-situ experimental characterization that can capture complex inelastic mechanisms, including damage initiation and propagation across multiple length scales. This dissertation presents a novel multiscale computational framework that accounts for experimental information pertinent to microstructure morphology and architectural variabilities to investigate the response of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) with manufacturing-induced defects. First, a three-dimensional orthotropic viscoplasticity creep formulation is developed to capture the complex temperature- and time-dependent constituent load transfer mechanisms in different CMC material systems. The framework also accounts for a reformulated fracture mechanics-informed matrix damage model and the Curtin progressive fiber damage model to capture the complex scale-dependent damage and failure mechanisms through crack kinetics and porosity growth. Next, in-situ experiments using digital image correlation (DIC) are performed to capture the damage and failure mechanisms in CMCs and to validate the high-fidelity modeling results.
The dissertation also presents an exhaustive experimental investigation into the effects of temperature and manufacturing-induced defects on toughened epoxy adhesives and hybrid composite-metallic bonded joints. Nondestructive evaluation techniques are utilized to characterize the inherent defects morphology of the bulk adhesives and bonded interface. This is followed by quasi-static tensile tests conducted at extreme hot and cold temperature conditions. The damage mechanisms and failure modes are investigated using in-situ DIC and a high-resolution camera. The information from the morphology characterization studies is used to reconstruct high-fidelity geometries of the test specimens for finite element analysis.
District heating plays an important role in improving energy efficiency and providing thermal heat to buildings. Instead of using water as an energy carrier to transport sensible heat, this dissertation explores the use of liquid-phase thermochemical reactions for district heating as well as thermal storage. Chapters 2 and 3 present thermodynamic and design analyses for the proposed district heating system. Chapter 4 models the use of liquid-phase thermochemical reactions for on-site solar thermal storage. In brief, the proposed district heating system uses liquid-phase thermochemical reactions to transport thermal energy from a heat source to a heat sink. The separation ensures that the stored thermochemical heat can be stored indefinitely and/or transported long distances. The reactant molecules are then pumped over long distances to the heat sink, where they are combined in an exothermic reaction to provide heat. The product of the exothermic reaction is then pumped back to the heat source for re-use. The key evaluation parameter is the system efficiency.
The results demonstrate that with heat recovery, the system efficiency can be up to 77% when the sink temperature equals 25 C. The results also indicate that the appropriate chemical reaction candidates should have large reaction enthalpy and small reaction entropy. Further, the design analyses of two district heating systems, Direct District Heating (DDH) system and Indirect District Heating (IDH) system using the solvated case shows that the critical distance is 106m. When the distance is shorter than 1000,000m, the factors related to the chemical reaction at the user side and factors related to the separation process are important for the DDH system. When the distance is longer than 106m, the factors related to the fluid mechanic become more important. Because the substation of the IDH system degrades the quality of the energy, when the distance is shorter than 106m, the efficiency of the substation is significant. Lastly, I create models for on-site solar thermal storage systems using liquid-phase thermochemical reactions and hot water. The analysis shows that the thermochemical reaction is more competitive for long-duration storage applications. However, the heat recovery added to the thermochemical thermal storage system cannot help improving solar radiation absorption with high inlet temperature of the solar panel.
The colloidal solutions of nanoparticles have been seen as promising solutions forheat transfer enhancement. Additionally, there has been an accelerated study on the effects
of ultrasound on heat transfer enhancement in recent years. A few authors have studied the
combined impact of Al2O3 nanofluids and ultrasound on mini channels. This study focused
on the combined effects of Al2O3 nanofluids and ultrasound on heat transfer enhancement
in a circular mini channel heat sink. Two concentrations of Al2O3-water nanofluids, i.e.,
0.5% and 1%, were used for the experiments in addition to two heat input conditions,
namely 40 W and 50 W providing a constant heat flux of 25000 W m-2 and 31250 W m-2
respectively. The effect on the nanofluids using 5 W ultrasound was analyzed.
Experimental observations show that the usage of ultrasound increased the heat transfer
coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient also increased with increasing nanoparticle
concentration and high heat flux. The average heat transfer coefficient enhancement for
0.5% and 1% nanofluid due to increased heat flux in the absence of ultrasound was 12.4%
and 9% respectively. At a constant heat input of 40 W, the induction of ultrasound
enhanced the heat transfer coefficient by 22.8% and 23.9% for 0.5% and 1% nanofluid
respectively. Similarly, for a constant heat input of 50 W, the usage of ultrasound enhanced
the heat transfer coefficient by 19.8% and 22.9% for 0.5% and 1% nanofluid respectively
Also, interesting findings are reported with low heat input with ultrasound vs. high heat
input without ultrasound (i.e., 40 W with US vs. 50 W without US). The heat transfer
coefficient and Nusselt number for 0.5% and 1% concentrations was enhanced by 9.2%
and 13.6%, respectively. Furthermore, for fixed heat input powers of 40 W and 50 W, increasing the concentration from 0.5% to 1% along with ultrasound yielded an average
enhancement in Nu of 38.3% and 32.4% respectively
The presence of huge amounts of waste heat and the constant demand for electric energy makes this an appreciable research topic, yet at present there is no commercially viable technology to harness the inherent energy resource provided by the temperature differential between the inside and outside of buildings. In a newly developed technology, electricity is generated from the temperature gradient between building walls through a Seebeck effect. A 3D-printed triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) structure is sandwiched in copper electrodes with copper (I) sulphate (Cu2SO4) electrolyte to mimic a thermogalvanic cell. Previous studies mainly concentrated on mechanical properties and the electric power generation ability of these structures; however, the goal of this study is to estimate the thermal resistance of the 3D-printed TPMS experimentally. This investigation elucidates their thermal resistances which in turn helps to appreciate the power output associated in the thermogalvanic structure. Schwarz P, Gyroid, IWP, and Split P geometries were considered for the experiment with electrolyte in the thermogalvanic brick. Among these TPMS structures, Split P was found more thermally resistive than the others with a thermal resistance of 0.012 m2 K W-1. The thermal resistances of Schwarz D and Gyroid structures were also assessed experimentally without electrolyte and the results are compared to numerical predictions in a previous Mater's thesis.
Micro/meso combustion has several advantages over regular combustion in terms of scale, efficiency, enhanced heat and mass transfer, quick startup and shutdown, fuel utilization and carbon footprint. This study aims to analyze the effect of temperature on critical sooting equivalence ratio and precursor formation in a micro-flow reactor. The effect of temperature on the critical sooting equivalence ratio of propane/air mixture at atmospheric pressure with temperatures ranging from 750-1250°C was investigated using a micro-flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile of diameter 2.3mm, equivalence ratios of 1-13 and inlet flow rates of 10 and 100sccm. The effect of inert gas dilution was studied by adding 90sccm of nitrogen to 10sccm of propane/air to make a total flow rate of 100sccm. The gas species were collected at the end of the reactor using a gas chromatograph for further analysis. Soot was indicated by visually examining the reactor before and after combustion for traces of soot particles on the inside of the reactor. At 1000-1250°C carbon deposition/soot formation was observed inside the reactor at critical sooting equivalence ratios. At 750-950°C, no soot formation was observed despite operating at much higher equivalence ratio, i.e., up to 100. Adding nitrogen resulted in an increase in the critical sooting equivalence ratio.
The wall temperature profiles were obtained with the help of a K-type thermocouple, to get an idea of the difference between the wall temperature provided with the resistive heater and the wall temperature with combustion inside the reactor. The temperature profiles were very similar in the case of 10sccm but markedly different in the other two cases for all the temperatures.
These results indicate a trend that is not well-known or understood for sooting flames, i.e., decreasing temperature decreases soot formation. The reactor capability to examine the effect of temperature on the critical sooting equivalence ratio at different flow rates was successfully demonstrated.
One of the most promising technologies for creating power without emissions is Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) because it uses oxygen and hydrogen to create electricity with the only byproduct being water. To figure out the optimal design of the fuel cell, a literature review was conducted to determine the effects of adding both internal and external current collectors as well as the difference length has on the performance. To learn more about the kinetics of the reaction, hydrogen and carbon monoxide disappearance rates were measured to compare the rate at which each species disappears.