Matching Items (34)

129304-Thumbnail Image.png

Electroluminescence From GeSn Heterostructure Pin Diodes at the Indirect to Direct Transition

Description

The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge1-y Sny i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration yc where the Ge1-y Sny alloy becomes a direct-ga

The emission properties of GeSn heterostructure pin diodes have been investigated. The devices contain thick (400–600 nm) Ge1-y Sny i-layers spanning a broad compositional range below and above the crossover Sn concentration yc where the Ge1-y Sny alloy becomes a direct-gap material. These results are made possible by an optimized device architecture containing a single defected interface thereby mitigating the deleterious effects of mismatch-induced defects. The observed emission intensities as a function of composition show the contributions from two separate trends: an increase in direct gap emission as the Sn concentration is increased, as expected from the reduction and eventual reversal of the separation between the direct and indirect edges, and a parallel increase in non-radiative recombination when the mismatch strains between the structure components is partially relaxed by the generation of misfit dislocations. An estimation of recombination times based on the observed electroluminescence intensities is found to be strongly correlated with the reverse-bias dark current measured in the same devices.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2015-03-02

129447-Thumbnail Image.png

Frustrated Incomplete Donor Ionization in Ultra-Low Resistivity Germanium Films

Description

The relationship between carrier concentration and donor atomic concentration has been determined in n-type Ge films doped with P. The samples were carefully engineered to minimize non-active dopant incorporation by using specially designed P(SiH3)3 and P(GeH3)3 hydride precursors. The in

The relationship between carrier concentration and donor atomic concentration has been determined in n-type Ge films doped with P. The samples were carefully engineered to minimize non-active dopant incorporation by using specially designed P(SiH3)3 and P(GeH3)3 hydride precursors. The in situ nature of the doping and the growth at low temperatures, facilitated by the Ge3H8 and Ge4H10 Ge sources, promote the creation of ultra-low resistivity films with flat doping profiles that help reduce the errors in the concentration measurements. The results show that Ge deviates strongly from the incomplete ionization expected when the donor atomic concentration exceeds Nd  = 1017 cm-3, at which the energy separation between the donor and Fermi levels ceases to be much larger than the thermal energy. Instead, essentially full ionization is seen even at the highest doping levels beyond the solubility limit of P in Ge. The results can be explained using a model developed for silicon by Altermatt and coworkers, provided the relevant model parameter is properly scaled. The findings confirm that donor solubility and/or defect formation, not incomplete ionization, are the major factors limiting the achievement of very high carrier concentrations in n-type Ge. The commercially viable chemistry approach applied here enables fabrication of supersaturated and fully ionized prototypes with potential for broad applications in group-IV semiconductor technologies.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-12-08

129531-Thumbnail Image.png

Compositional Dependence of the Bowing Parameter for the Direct and Indirect Band Gaps in Ge1-ySny Alloys

Description

Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to determine the direct gap E0 of Ge1-ySny alloys over a broad compositional range from pure Ge to Sn concentrations exceeding 10%. A fit of the compositional dependence of E0 using a standard quadratic expression

Photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to determine the direct gap E0 of Ge1-ySny alloys over a broad compositional range from pure Ge to Sn concentrations exceeding 10%. A fit of the compositional dependence of E0 using a standard quadratic expression is not fully satisfactory, revealing that the bowing parameter (quadratic coefficient) b0 is compositionally dependent. Excellent agreement with the data is obtained with b0(y) = (2.66 ± 0.09) eV − (5.4 ± 1.1)y eV. A theoretical model of the bowing is presented, which explains the strong compositional dependence of the bowing parameter and suggest a similar behavior for the indirect gap. Combining the model predictions with experimental data for samples with y ≤ 0.06, it is proposed that the bowing parameter for the indirect gap is bind(y) = (1.11 ± 0.07) eV − (0.78 ± 0.05)y eV. The compositional dependence of the bowing parameters shifts the crossover concentration from indirect to direct gap behavior to yc  = 0.087, significantly higher than the value predicted earlier based on strictly quadratic fits.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-10-06

129533-Thumbnail Image.png

Ge1-ySny (y=0.01-0.10) Alloys on Ge-Buffered Si: Synthesis, Microstructure, and Optical Properties

Description

Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge1-y Snyalloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers.

Novel hydride chemistries are employed to deposit light-emitting Ge1-y Snyalloys with y ≤ 0.1 by Ultra-High Vacuum Chemical Vapor Deposition (UHV-CVD) on Ge-buffered Si wafers. The properties of the resultant materials are systematically compared with similar alloys grown directly on Si wafers. The fundamental difference between the two systems is a fivefold (and higher) decrease in lattice mismatch between film and virtual substrate, allowing direct integration of bulk-like crystals with planar surfaces and relatively low dislocation densities. For y ≤ 0.06, the CVD precursors used were digermane Ge2H6 and deuterated stannane SnD4. For y ≥ 0.06, the Ge precursor was changed to trigermane Ge3H8, whose higher reactivity enabled the fabrication of supersaturated samples with the target film parameters. In all cases, the Ge wafers were produced using tetragermane Ge4H10 as the Ge source. The photoluminescence intensity from Ge1-y Sny /Ge films is expected to increase relative to Ge1-y Sny /Si due to the less defected interface with the virtual substrate. However, while Ge1-y Sny /Si films are largely relaxed, a significant amount of compressive strain may be present in the Ge1-y Sny /Ge case. This compressive strain can reduce the emission intensity by increasing the separation between the direct and indirect edges. In this context, it is shown here that the proposed CVD approach to Ge1-y Sny /Ge makes it possible to approach film thicknesses of about 1  μm, for which the strain is mostly relaxed and the photoluminescence intensity increases by one order of magnitude relative to Ge1-y Sny /Si films. The observed strain relaxation is shown to be consistent with predictions from strain-relaxation models first developed for the Si1-x Gex /Si system. The defect structure and atomic distributions in the films are studied in detail using advanced electron-microscopy techniques, including aberration corrected STEM imaging and EELS mapping of the average diamond–cubic lattice.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-10-07

128050-Thumbnail Image.png

Direct Gap Ge1-ySny Alloys: Fabrication and Design of Mid-IR Photodiodes

Description

Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge3H8 and SnD4 hydrides, to fabricate Ge1-ySny photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in the 12%–16% range. A unique aspect of this approach is the compatible reactivity of the

Chemical vapor deposition methods were developed, using stoichiometric reactions of specialty Ge3H8 and SnD4 hydrides, to fabricate Ge1-ySny photodiodes with very high Sn concentrations in the 12%–16% range. A unique aspect of this approach is the compatible reactivity of the compounds at ultra-low temperatures, allowing efficient control and systematic tuning of the alloy composition beyond the direct gap threshold. This crucial property allows the formation of thick supersaturated layers with device-quality material properties. Diodes with composition up to 14% Sn were initially produced on Ge-buffered Si(100) featuring previously optimized n-Ge/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz type structures with a single defected interface. The devices exhibited sizable electroluminescence and good rectifying behavior as evidenced by the low dark currents in the I-V measurements. The formation of working diodes with higher Sn content up to 16% Sn was implemented by using more advanced n-Ge1-xSnx/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architectures incorporating Ge1-xSnx intermediate layers (x ∼ 12% Sn) that served to mitigate the lattice mismatch with the Ge platform. This yielded fully coherent diode interfaces devoid of strain relaxation defects. The electrical measurements in this case revealed a sharp increase in reverse-bias dark currents by almost two orders of magnitude, in spite of the comparable crystallinity of the active layers. This observation is attributed to the enhancement of band-to-band tunneling when all the diode layers consist of direct gap materials and thus has implications for the design of light emitting diodes and lasers operating at desirable mid-IR wavelengths. Possible ways to engineer these diode characteristics and improve carrier confinement involve the incorporation of new barrier materials, in particular, ternary Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys. The possibility of achieving type-I structures using binary and ternary alloy combinations is discussed in detail, taking into account the latest experimental and theoretical work on band offsets involving such materials.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2016-07-13

152352-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis and band gap engineering in Ge₁-x-ySixSny Materials for Near-IR Wavelength Applications

Description

This thesis describes the fabrication of several new classes of Ge1-x-ySixSny materials with the required compositions and crystal quality to engineer the band gaps above and below that of elemental Ge (0.8 eV) in the near IR. The work initially

This thesis describes the fabrication of several new classes of Ge1-x-ySixSny materials with the required compositions and crystal quality to engineer the band gaps above and below that of elemental Ge (0.8 eV) in the near IR. The work initially focused on Ge1-x-ySixSny (1-5% Sn, 4-20% Si) materials grown on Ge(100) via gas-source epitaxy of Ge4H10, Si4H10 and SnD4. Both intrinsic and doped layers were produced with defect-free microstructure and viable thickness, allowing the fabrication of high-performance photodetectors. These exhibited low ideality factors, state-of-the-art dark current densities and adjustable absorption edges between 0.87 and 1.03 eV, indicating that the band gaps span a significant range above that of Ge. Next Sn-rich Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys (2-4% Si and 4-10% Sn) were fabricated directly on Si and were found to show significant optical emission using photoluminescence measurements, indicating that the alloys have direct band gaps below that of pure Ge in the range of 0.7-0.55 eV. A series of Sn-rich Ge1-x-ySixSny analogues (y>x) with fixed 3-4% Si content and progressively increasing Sn content in the 4-10% range were then grown on Ge buffered Si platforms for the purpose of improving the material's crystal quality. The films in this case exhibited lower defect densities than those grown on Si, allowing a meaningful study of both the direct and indirect gaps. The results show that the separation of the direct and indirect edges can be made smaller than in Ge even for non-negligible 3-4% Si content, confirming that with a suitable choice of Sn compositions the ternary Ge1-x-ySixSny reproduces all features of the electronic structure of binary Ge1-ySny, including the sought-after indirect-to-direct gap cross over. The above synthesis of optical quality Ge1-x-ySixSny on virtual Ge was made possible by the development of high quality Ge-on-Si buffers via chemical vapor deposition of Ge4H10. The resultant films exhibited structural and electrical properties significantly improved relative to state-of-the-art results obtained using conventional approaches. It was found that pure Ge4H10 facilitates the control of residual doping and enables p-i-n devices whose dark currents are not entirely determined by defects and whose zero-bias collection efficiencies are higher than those obtained from samples fabricated using alternative Ge-on-Si approaches.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

151898-Thumbnail Image.png

Epitaxy of group IV optical materials and synthesis of IV/III-V semiconductor analogs by designer hydride chemistries

Description

The thesis studies new methods to fabricate optoelectronic Ge1-ySny/Si(100) alloys and investigate their photoluminescence (PL) properties for possible applications in Si-based photonics including IR lasers. The work initially investigated the origin of the difference between the PL spectrum of bulk

The thesis studies new methods to fabricate optoelectronic Ge1-ySny/Si(100) alloys and investigate their photoluminescence (PL) properties for possible applications in Si-based photonics including IR lasers. The work initially investigated the origin of the difference between the PL spectrum of bulk Ge, dominated by indirect gap emission, and the PL spectrum of Ge-on-Si films, dominated by direct gap emission. It was found that the difference is due to the supression of self-absorption effects in Ge films, combined with a deviation from quasi-equilibrium conditions in the conduction band of undoped films. The latter is confirmed by a model suggesting that the deviation is caused by the shorter recombination lifetime in the films relative to bulk Ge. The knowledge acquired from this work was then utilized to study the PL properties of n-type Ge1-ySny/Si (y=0.004-0.04) samples grown via chemical vapor deposition of Ge2H6/SnD4/P(GeH3)3. It was found that the emission intensity (I) of these samples is at least 10x stronger than observed in un-doped counterparts and that the Idir/Iind ratio of direct over indirect gap emission increases for high-Sn contents due to the reduced gamma-L valley separation, as expected. Next the PL investigation was expanded to samples with y=0.05-0.09 grown via a new method using the more reactive Ge3H8 in place of Ge2H6. Optical quality, 1-um thick Ge1-ySny/Si(100) layers were produced using Ge3H10/SnD4 and found to exhibit strong, tunable PL near the threshold of the direct-indirect bandgap crossover. A byproduct of this study was the development of an enhanced process to produce Ge3H8, Ge4H10, and Ge5H12 analogs for application in ultra-low temperature deposition of Group-IV semiconductors. The thesis also studies synthesis routes of an entirely new class of semiconductor compounds and alloys described by Si5-2y(III-V)y (III=Al, V= As, P) comprising of specifically designed diamond-like structures based on a Si parent lattice incorporating isolated III-V units. The common theme of the two thesis topics is the development of new mono-crystalline materials on ubiquitous silicon platforms with the objective of enhancing the optoelectronic performance of Si and Ge semiconductors, potentially leading to the design of next generation optical devices including lasers, detectors and solar cells.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

129427-Thumbnail Image.png

Compositional Dependence of the Direct and Indirect Band Gaps in Ge1-ySny Alloys From Room Temperature Photoluminescence: Implications for the Indirect to Direct Gap Crossover in Intrinsic and N-Type Materials

Description

The compositional dependence of the lowest direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1-ySny alloys has been determined from room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. This technique is particularly attractive for a comparison of the two transitions because distinct features in the spectra can

The compositional dependence of the lowest direct and indirect band gaps in Ge1-ySny alloys has been determined from room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. This technique is particularly attractive for a comparison of the two transitions because distinct features in the spectra can be associated with the direct and indirect gaps. However, detailed modeling of these room temperature spectra is required to extract the band gap values with the high accuracy required to determine the Sn concentration yc at which the alloy becomes a direct gap semiconductor. For the direct gap, this is accomplished using a microscopic model that allows the determination of direct gap energies with meV accuracy. For the indirect gap, it is shown that current theoretical models are inadequate to describe the emission properties of systems with close indirect and direct transitions. Accordingly, an ad hoc procedure is used to extract the indirect gap energies from the data. For y < 0.1 the resulting direct gap compositional dependence is given by ΔE0 = −(3.57 ± 0.06)y (in eV). For the indirect gap, the corresponding expression is ΔEind = −(1.64 ± 0.10)y (in eV). If a quadratic function of composition is used to express the two transition energies over the entire compositional range 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, the quadratic (bowing) coefficients are found to be b0 = 2.46 ± 0.06 eV (for E0) and bind = 1.03 ± 0.11 eV (for Eind). These results imply a crossover concentration yc = $0.073 [+0.007 over -0.006], much lower than early theoretical predictions based on the virtual crystal approximation, but in better agreement with predictions based on large atomic supercells.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2014-11-01

151937-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis and characterization of erbium compound nanowires as high gain optical materials

Description

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in

Integrated photonics requires high gain optical materials in the telecom wavelength range for optical amplifiers and coherent light sources. Erbium (Er) containing materials are ideal candidates due to the 1.5 μm emission from Er3+ ions. However, the Er density in typical Er-doped materials is less than 1 x 1020 cm-3, thus limiting the maximum optical gain to a few dB/cm, too small to be useful for integrated photonics applications. Er compounds could potentially solve this problem since they contain much higher Er density. So far the existing Er compounds suffer from short lifetime and strong upconversion effects, mainly due to poor quality of crystals produced by various methods of thin film growth and deposition. This dissertation explores a new Er compound: erbium chloride silicate (ECS, Er3(SiO4)2Cl ) in the nanowire form, which facilitates the growth of high quality single crystals. Growth methods for such single crystal ECS nanowires have been established. Various structural and optical characterizations have been carried out. The high crystal quality of ECS material leads to a long lifetime of the first excited state of Er3+ ions up to 1 ms at Er density higher than 1022 cm-3. This Er lifetime-density product was found to be the largest among all Er containing materials. A unique integrating sphere method was developed to measure the absorption cross section of ECS nanowires from 440 to 1580 nm. Pump-probe experiments demonstrated a 644 dB/cm signal enhancement from a single ECS wire. It was estimated that such large signal enhancement can overcome the absorption to result in a net material gain, but not sufficient to compensate waveguide propagation loss. In order to suppress the upconversion process in ECS, Ytterbium (Yb) and Yttrium (Y) ions are introduced as substituent ions of Er in the ECS crystal structure to reduce Er density. While the addition of Yb ions only partially succeeded, erbium yttrium chloride silicate (EYCS) with controllable Er density was synthesized successfully. EYCS with 30 at. % Er was found to be the best. It shows the strongest PL emission at 1.5 μm, and thus can be potentially used as a high gain material.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2013

150232-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterization of strain in core-shell nanowires: a Raman spectroscopy study

Description

Raman scattering from Ge-Si core-shell nanowires is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model that makes it possible to extract quantitative strain information from the measured Raman spectra is presented for the first time. Geometrical and elastic simplifications are introduced

Raman scattering from Ge-Si core-shell nanowires is investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model that makes it possible to extract quantitative strain information from the measured Raman spectra is presented for the first time. Geometrical and elastic simplifications are introduced to keep the model analytical, which facilitates comparison with experimental results. In particular, the nanowires are assumed to be cylindrical, and their elastic constants isotropic. The simple analytical model is subsequently validated by performing numerical calculations using realistic nanowire geometries and cubic, anisotropic elastic constants. The comparison confirms that the analytic model is an excellent approximation that greatly facilitates quantitative Raman work, with expected errors in the strain determination that do not exceed 10%. Experimental Raman spectra of a variety of core-shell nanowires are presented, and the strain in the nanowires is assessed using the models described above. It is found that all structures present a significant degree of strain relaxation relative to ideal, fully strained Ge-Si core-shell structures. The analytical models are modified to quantify this strain relaxation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2011