Matching Items (4)

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Revision Hip Arthroplasties: The burdens created due to physical compromise and biofilm formation

Description

Revision hip procedures represent a large financial burden on hospitals and the problem will continue to worsen as the baby boomer generation ages and life expectancy goes up. The future

Revision hip procedures represent a large financial burden on hospitals and the problem will continue to worsen as the baby boomer generation ages and life expectancy goes up. The future problem is a complex issue that bridges scientific and anecdotal evidence and must be solved. A review of the current total hip arthroplasty procedure in regards to the physical properties of the materials used for hip prostheses is given. Revision procedures can be caused by infection or basic wear and tear from the stress that that implant is subjected to daily. Infections on these implants often present themselves as medical biofilms. The mechanisms of biofilm formation include a complex system of enzymes that work to initiate a phenotypic response based on an established quorum sensing within the colony of bacteria. Surgical methods to treat infection include irrigation and debridement as well as loading drug cement spacers with antimicrobial in hopes of delivering the antibiotic locally. Research is being done to better model the transport of drug through the tissue surrounding the implant, and will hopefully one day be available for use in individual patients.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Biophysical Separation of Staphylococcus Epidermidis Strains Based on Antibiotic Resistance

Description

Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic approaches to separations can provide unique capabilities. In the past, capillary and microchip-based approaches to electrophoresis have demonstrated extremely high-resolution separations. More recently, dielectrophoretic systems have shown

Electrophoretic and dielectrophoretic approaches to separations can provide unique capabilities. In the past, capillary and microchip-based approaches to electrophoresis have demonstrated extremely high-resolution separations. More recently, dielectrophoretic systems have shown excellent results for the separation of bioparticles. Here we demonstrate resolution of a difficult pair of targets: gentamicin resistant and susceptible strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. This separation has significant potential implications for healthcare. This establishes a foundation for biophysical separations as a direct diagnostic tool, potentially improving nearly every figure of merit for diagnostics and antibiotic stewardship. The separations are performed on a modified gradient insulator-based dielectrophoresis (g-iDEP) system and demonstrate that the presence of antibiotic resistance enzymes (or secondary effects) produces a sufficient degree of electrophysical difference to allow separation. The differentiating factor is the ratio of electrophoretic to dielectrophoretic mobilities. This factor is 4.6 ± 0.6 × 109 V m−2 for the resistant strain, versus 9.2 ± 0.4 × 109 V m−2 for the susceptible strain. Using g-iDEP separation, this difference produces clear and easily discerned differentiation of the two strains.

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Date Created
  • 2015-06-09

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Temperature-responsive hydrogels with controlled water content and their development toward drug delivery and embolization applications

Description

Aqueous solutions of temperature-responsive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) hold promise for medical applications because they can be delivered as liquids and quickly form gels in the body without organic

Aqueous solutions of temperature-responsive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) hold promise for medical applications because they can be delivered as liquids and quickly form gels in the body without organic solvents or chemical reaction. However, their gelation is often followed by phase-separation and shrinking. Gel shrinking and water loss is a major limitation to using NIPAAm-based gels for nearly any biomedical application. In this work, a graft copolymer design was used to synthesize polymers which combine the convenient injectability of poly(NIPAAm) with gel water content controlled by hydrophilic side-chain grafts based on Jeffamine® M-1000 acrylamide (JAAm). The first segment of this work describes the synthesis and characterization of poly(NIPAAm-co-JAAm) copolymers which demonstrates controlled swelling that is nearly independent of LCST. The graft copolymer design was then used to produce a degradable antimicrobial-eluting gel for prevention of prosthetic joint infection. The resorbable graft copolymer gels were shown to have three unique characteristics which demonstrate their suitability for this application. First, antimicrobial release is sustained and complete within 1 week. Second, the gels behave like viscoelastic fluids, enabling complete surface coverage of an implant without disrupting fixation or movement. Finally, the gels degrade rapidly within 1-6 weeks, which may enable their use in interfaces where bone healing takes place. Graft copolymer hydrogels were also developed which undergo Michael addition in situ with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate to form elastic gels for endovascular embolization of saccular aneurysms. Inclusion of JAAm grafts led to weaker physical crosslinking and faster, more complete chemical crosslinking. JAAm grafts prolonged the delivery window of the system from 30 seconds to 220 seconds, provided improved gel swelling, and resulted in stronger, more elastic gels within 30 minutes after delivery.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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A Design of Experiment Analysis of Log-Normal Microsphere Distributions Modeling Drug Delivery

Description

Technology transfer hurdles constantly keep effective medical treatment from healthcare. One prevalent hurdle is that of cost. Regulation from any organization or entity can drive up cost and requires thorough

Technology transfer hurdles constantly keep effective medical treatment from healthcare. One prevalent hurdle is that of cost. Regulation from any organization or entity can drive up cost and requires thorough review before implementation. For microspheres specifically, extensive research has been conducted to minimize variation in size. How variation effects drug delivery of microspheres, however, has not been studied in depth. In this study, a preliminary approach to modeling drug delivery in microspheres with a given log-normal distribution is reported. A design of experiment statistical analysis was performed using incremental values of mean and standard deviation. To estimate the rate of drug diffusing from the microspheres, a simplified Fick's second law was used. Various data types were considered and it was found that the shape factors which are related to mean and standard deviation fit the statistical analysis best. Using the shape factor data type, equation characteristics were identified and reported. It was seen that standard deviation has a greater influence on drug delivery than mean. A prediction expression is presented that can be used to identify the time it takes to get to 60% drug delivery and can be used in a scaled manner.

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Date Created
  • 2021