Matching Items (24)

Joan McGregor Oral History Interview

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Joan McGregor is a professor of philosophy in the School of Historical, Philosophical, and Religious Studies at ASU as well as an adjunct professor in the Sandra Day O’Connor College

Joan McGregor is a professor of philosophy in the School of Historical, Philosophical, and Religious Studies at ASU as well as an adjunct professor in the Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law. Approaching the issue of food sustainability through ethics, Joan offers a unique perspective on the idea of food systems. She believes by looking at the ethics of food systems people move beyond seeing sustainability as a scientific problem and address the problem as a manageable part of their everyday lives. In the development of Dinner 2040 with her team Joan sought to make the food systems about the people directly affected by the food crisis. Though she believes there is no overnight solution, she does believe that the forum that Dinner 2040 provides begins the process of thinking about local solutions.

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  • 2016-07-12

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The Eugenics Movement: Humanity Chosen and Humanity Refined

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Genetic engineering has become an increasingly prevalent topic in the media today. It has raised bioethical concerns nationwide as philosophers and scientists alike realize the challenges behind where to draw

Genetic engineering has become an increasingly prevalent topic in the media today. It has raised bioethical concerns nationwide as philosophers and scientists alike realize the challenges behind where to draw the line in certain modifications. As an introduction to the topic, this paper discusses the history behind eugenics and its importance in modern society. There is a discussion on what gene alterations are and the many processes of its scientific background. This is followed by how certain procedures and the ethical issues they raise are not cut and dry. The basis of the arguments in this paper focus on two ethical approaches: Kantian and Utilitarian. These approaches exemplify the difficulty on the decision making process behind what sort of therapeutic or enhancement therapies should be legalized or denied. These approaches can be applied to the two types of gene alterations: somatic cell therapy and germline therapy. The concluding decisions made in regards to what should or should not be accepted could have an effect on future generations, altering our species subsequently, and leading to an advancement in medicine and science.

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  • 2016-05

Bridging the Human-Animal Gap: the Intersection of Sexism, Racism, and Speciesism

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Understanding the connection between different forms of oppression is relevant both in the political movement for animal rights and the political movements for social justice and human equality. I argue

Understanding the connection between different forms of oppression is relevant both in the political movement for animal rights and the political movements for social justice and human equality. I argue that sexism, racism, and speciesism intersect in such a way that each form of oppression depends on and mutually reinforces the others. In the struggle for justice, inequalities cannot be compartmentalized and the approach cannot be single issue because leaving groups behind means leaving the oppressive systems intact, perpetuating all forms of oppression, and undermining the efforts of each campaign. By recognizing sexism, racism, and speciesism as inextricably linked, each movement can be made more successful by approaching inequality as a bundled political problem instead of as distinct and independent forms of injustice.

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  • 2016-05

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Increasing Access to Medical Care Through Scope of Practice Laws

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This paper sought to answer the question of how to improve the American healthcare system. The Affordable Care Act aimed to do this by increasing access to insurance. What this

This paper sought to answer the question of how to improve the American healthcare system. The Affordable Care Act aimed to do this by increasing access to insurance. What this has done, however, is exacerbate the already rising rate of physician shortages. As a way to fix this problem, it is suggested that state legislatures and the federal government adopt the rising trend of expanding scope of practice to the extent of the care providers' certification. This is a movement has garnered support throughout the country and 20 states already allow for nearly autonomous practice by advanced practice nurses (APNs). This paper looked at systematic review, peer-reviewed papers, state/federal legislation and labor statistics to demonstrate how this move could increase access to healthcare providers as well as decrease cost by nearly 25%. This paper also evaluated how to formalization of nursing education has had positive impacts on the French healthcare system. Additionally, it evaluated a more specific look at Arizona and used data provided by the Arizona Board of Nursing and The Arizona Medical Board to make a compelling argument as to why this is a viable option for solving the disparity between rural and urban healthcare. The conclusion of the paper was to push policy makers to make the statutory constraints of the profession closer to the certification the people receive in their education as opposed to relying on case law. Additionally, it would be helpful to use technological innovations, like project echo, to help these professionals practice in rural areas. This will ultimately lead to a healthcare system that better serves the needs of all populations, as well as decreasing the overall cost of care.

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  • 2018-05

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The Ethics of Defining Somatic and Germline Genetic Modifications: Where Should the Line Be Drawn?

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Genetic engineering and gene alterations are a very rich and complex issue that have been the talk of many ethical debates. Somatic and germline genetic engineering technologies are becoming more

Genetic engineering and gene alterations are a very rich and complex issue that have been the talk of many ethical debates. Somatic and germline genetic engineering technologies are becoming more prevalent in the scientific community and could be provided for public use in a matter of time. These technologies raise bioethical concerns as society recognizes the challenges behind where to draw the line in use of this relatively new science. The basis of this paper is focused around a meta-analysis and systematic assessment of previous publications of major ethical debates to show the complex interests and ideas that need to be reflected and contemplated upon when deciding to genetically alter our species. A short description of background literature takes place first to show the ideas of major philosophers and bioethic figures to introduce these topics. This analysis will then continue with discussion from a religious point of view and the concerns that they have on these technologies. Next, there is a discussion regarding violation of consent, rights, and autonomy. A discussion of the potential consequential grounds of these enhancements on our species and what they could mean for our future takes ensues after this. At the end of this paper, there is a last discussion about the injustice and inequity that could form from these technologies becoming available to the public. These technologies could affect the future of our entire species and drastically shape our society, medicine, and science in ways we could never imagine.

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  • 2020-05

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Defining Sex Trafficking: A Rights-Based Approach

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Abstract. The term "sex trafficking" can mean many different things, depending on who uses it. To some, it may be synonymous with prostitution. To others, it may equate to slavery.

Abstract. The term "sex trafficking" can mean many different things, depending on who uses it. To some, it may be synonymous with prostitution. To others, it may equate to slavery. And some may find that sex trafficking differs from both slavery and prostitution. But I find that the term "sex trafficking" is used improperly when referring to phenomena that may not entail the violation of rights of any individual involved. For this reason, various definitions of "sex trafficking" may inappropriately conflate sex trafficking with prostitution. In this essay, I argue against such a conflation through supporting a rights-based approach of defining "sex trafficking," in which every instance of true sex trafficking necessitates a violation of someone's rights. First, I begin by laying the foundation of my discussion with definitions and various government and non-government uses of the term "sex trafficking." Then, I argue for the rights-based approach. I proceed to explore how the rights-based approach relates to consent, force, coercion, deception, and competence. Then, I compile my findings, synthesize a definition, and elaborate on a few questions regarding my definition. Using the term "sex trafficking" correctly, as I argue, means that we necessarily use the term in a context of a violation of rights.

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  • 2016-05

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The Definition of Death According to Neurological Criteria: A Product of Medical Advancement and Reasons for Controversy over Accurate Diagnosis

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The concept of when human death occurs had for most of history been determined by criteria for cardiac death, defined as the cessation of a heartbeat and respiration. However, in

The concept of when human death occurs had for most of history been determined by criteria for cardiac death, defined as the cessation of a heartbeat and respiration. However, in the mid-1900's, a new definition of death emerged in the form of brain death, characterized by an irreversible cessation of brain and brainstem function. This definition was needed after resuscitation of the heart was made possible and a growing number of patients were in a state of ventilatory support but had undetectable brain function. The success of organ transplantation and the growing need for more organ procurements further reinforced the advantage of using neurological criteria to declare death. These advancements in medicine have created a need for a definition of death other than cardiac death and have led to the acceptance of brain death, though it is still the subject of controversy. It has been attacked as a concept with weak scientific foundations and ethical justifications, since the brain itself is not well understood and the definition is used to the advantage of the organ donation system. Those in opposition to the use of neurological criteria to pronounce death argue that it is not always correctly detected and is conceptually incoherent. It would help to resolve this point of controversy if accurate methods to detect brain death were standardized for all physicians to use when declaring death, so that no declarations could be termed inaccurate or incomplete. The definition of brain death needs more rigorous and updated scientific backing in its ability to be detected if it is to be imposed upon individuals by law, as it is in the United States. It is also possible that new research and developments in medical treatments will make the current definition of death subject to change, and understanding the underlying problems of the current definition of brain death will help eliminate issues in a new definition of death.

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  • 2018-05

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The Ethics of Food Localization

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The globalized food system has caused detriments to the environment, to economic justice, and to social and health rights within the food system. Due to an increasing concern over these

The globalized food system has caused detriments to the environment, to economic justice, and to social and health rights within the food system. Due to an increasing concern over these problems, there has been a popular turn back to a localized food system. Localization's main principle is reconnecting the producer and consumer while advocating for healthy, local, environmentally friendly, and socially just food. I give utilitarian reasons within a Kantian ethical framework to argue that while partaking in a local food system may be morally good, we cannot advocate for localization as a moral obligation. It is true from empirical research that localizing food could solve many of the environmental, economic, social, and health problems that exist today due to the food system. However, many other countries depend upon the import/export system to keep their own poverty rates low and economies thriving. Utilitarian Peter Singer argues that it would be irresponsible to stop our business with those other countries because we would be causing more harm than good. There are reasons to support food localization, and reasons to reject food localization. Food localization is a moral good in respect to the many benefits that it has, yet it is not a moral obligation due to some of the detriments it may itself cause.

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  • 2015-05

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The Ethics of Human Memory Augmentation

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Memory augmentation will play a vital role in the development of our future. The predicted introduction of downloadable brains will be the first of many neurocognitive technologies that will alter

Memory augmentation will play a vital role in the development of our future. The predicted introduction of downloadable brains will be the first of many neurocognitive technologies that will alter our lives at both the societal and individual levels. These technologies can affect everything from educational institutions to the judicial system, meanwhile raising issues such as autonomy, human psychology, and selfhood. Because of its tremendous potential, memory augmentation and its implications should thoroughly be examined.

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  • 2013-05

Consent: A Novella on Medical Ethics

Description

Human subject research is a sensitive ethical topic in today's society, and with good cause. The history of human subject research is full of tragedy and wrongdoing, which is what

Human subject research is a sensitive ethical topic in today's society, and with good cause. The history of human subject research is full of tragedy and wrongdoing, which is what has led to the firm restrictions we presently have. At the same time, we also acknowledge the value behind human subject research and the information science can obtain from such endeavors. This project analyzes this conundrum through a narrative describing a group of scientists who choose to ignore some of the laws and regulations concerning human subject research in order to pursue neurological based research for a "greater good." In the novella, the scientists end up harming several people while performing their illegal research, but are able to obtain successful results. However, the group is eventually caught, and end up having to face the consequences of their actions. The situations and interactions the story presents are meant to juxtapose both sides of the human subject research ethical argument in a unique way in order to allow the reader to critically think through the argument themselves and form their own opinions on the matter.

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  • 2015-05