Matching Items (7)

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Combination Treatment for Full Thickness Wounds: Platelet-Rich-Gels and Electro-Spun Collagen Scaffolds

Description

Full thickness wounds encompass damage through the epidermis and dermis with characteristic loss of structure and healing through secondary intention. Two treatments that have been thoroughly researched and shown efficacy

Full thickness wounds encompass damage through the epidermis and dermis with characteristic loss of structure and healing through secondary intention. Two treatments that have been thoroughly researched and shown efficacy in treating these types of wounds are platelet-rich-gels (PRG) and electro-spun collagen scaffolds. However, little research has been done to investigate the two as a combination treatment, a biomaterial enrich platelet-rich-gel. PRGs provide the wound with growth factors and cytokines that are naturally present in a wound bed, but in a concentration above that of native physiological conditions. The electro-spun collagen scaffold works on two premises, the first is that it is providing a vital skin protein that will be deposited during the wound healing process in addition to providing a matrix for cells to migrate into. The investigation into PRGs and the combination treatment was ultimately accomplished in a three step study: creation of a PRG from platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) utilizing calcium chloride; analysis into the effects of calcium chloride on platelets through scanning electron microscopy; and finally an in vivo study comparing two treatments, the combination treatment and standalone electrospun scaffold treatment, and a control (dressed with petroleum gauze). Calcium chloride revealed to be an effective method for gel creation. SEM analysis detailed whole blood platelets demonstrating normal discoid morphology found in quiescent platelets, whereas the PRG platelets demonstrated extending pseudopods and bleb formation indicative of activation. In the in vivo study, both the standalone electro-spun collagen scaffold treatment and the combination treatment had statistical significance 144 hours post wound creation when compared to the control with p values of 0.0092 and 0.0016 respectively. However, there was no statistical significance between the combination treatment and the standalone electro-spun scaffold treatment at any time point of the study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Optimization of design factors for electrospun scaffolds for regenerative medicine

Description

The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship among key process design variables associated with the development of nanoscale electrospun polymeric scaffolds capable of tissue regeneration. To date,

The objective of this research is to investigate the relationship among key process design variables associated with the development of nanoscale electrospun polymeric scaffolds capable of tissue regeneration. To date, there has been no systematic approach toward understanding electrospinning process parameters responsible for the production of 3-D nanoscaffold architectures with desired levels quality assurance envisioned to satisfy emerging regenerative medicine market needs. , As such, this study encompassed a more systematic, rational design of experiment (DOE) approach toward the identification of electrospinning process conditions responsible for the production of dextran-polyacrylic acid (DEX-PAA) nanoscaffolds with desired architectures and tissue engineering properties. The latter includes scaffold fiber diameter, pore size, porosity, and degree of crosslinking that together can provide a range of scaffold nanomechanical properties that closely mimics the cell microenvironment. The results obtained from this preliminary DOE study indicate that there exist electrospinning operation conditions capable of producing Dex-PAA nanoarchitecture having potential utility for regenerative medicine applications.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Engineering PNIPAAm Biomaterial Scaffolds to Model Microenvironmental Regulation of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

Description

Following diagnosis of a glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor, surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation together yield a median patient survival of only 15 months. Importantly, standard treatments fail to address the

Following diagnosis of a glioblastoma (GBM) brain tumor, surgical resection, chemotherapy and radiation together yield a median patient survival of only 15 months. Importantly, standard treatments fail to address the dynamic regulation of the brain tumor microenvironment that actively supports tumor progression and treatment resistance. Moreover, specialized niches within the tumor microenvironment maintain a population of highly malignant glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). GSCs are resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy and are likely responsible for near universal rates of tumor recurrence and associated morbidity. Thus, disrupting microenvironmental support for GSCs could be critical to more effective GBM therapies. Three-dimensional (3D) culture models of the tumor microenvironment are powerful tools for identifying key biochemical and biophysical inputs that may support or inhibit malignant behaviors. Here, we developed synthetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Jeffamine M-1000® acrylamide) or PNJ copolymers as a model 3D system for culturing GBM cell lines and low-passage patient-derived GSCs in vitro. These temperature responsive scaffolds reversibly transition from soluble to insoluble in aqueous solution by heating from room temperature to body temperature, thereby enabling easy encapsulation and release of cells in a 3D scaffold. We also designed this system with the capacity for presenting the cell-adhesion peptide sequence RGD for adherent culture conditions. Using this system, we identified conditions that promoted GBM proliferation, invasion, GSC phenotypes, and radiation resistance. In particular, using two separate patient-derived GSC models, we observed that PNJ scaffolds regulated self-renewal, provided protection from radiation induced cell death, and may promote stem cell plasticity in response to radiation. Furthermore, PNJ scaffolds produced de novo activation of the transcription factor HIF2α, which is critical to GSC tumorigenicity and stem plasticity. All together, these studies establish the robust utility of PNJ biomaterials as in vitro models for studying microenvironmental regulation of GSC behaviors and treatment resistance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Development of an ECM-mimetic, electrospun hydrogel scaffold for soft tissue repair application

Description

The objective of this research is to develop a biocompatible scaffold based on dextran and poly acrylic acid (PAA) with the potential to be used for soft tissue repair. In

The objective of this research is to develop a biocompatible scaffold based on dextran and poly acrylic acid (PAA) with the potential to be used for soft tissue repair. In this thesis, physical and chemical properties of the scaffold were investigated. The scaffolds were made using electrospinning and cross-linked under high temperature. After heat treatment, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the structures of these scaffolds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the cross-linking level of scaffold samples given different times of heat treatment by detecting and comparing the newly formed ester bonds. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were added to enhance the mechanical properties of dextran-PAA scaffolds. Attachment of NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells to the scaffold and the response upon implantation into rabbit vaginal tissue were also evaluated to investigate the performance of SWCNT dextran-PAA scaffold. SEM was then used to characterize morphology of fibroblast cells and rabbit tissues. The results suggest that SWCNT could enhance cell attachment, distribution and spreading performance of dextran-PAA scaffold.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Temperature-responsive hydrogels with controlled water content and their development toward drug delivery and embolization applications

Description

Aqueous solutions of temperature-responsive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) hold promise for medical applications because they can be delivered as liquids and quickly form gels in the body without organic

Aqueous solutions of temperature-responsive copolymers based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) hold promise for medical applications because they can be delivered as liquids and quickly form gels in the body without organic solvents or chemical reaction. However, their gelation is often followed by phase-separation and shrinking. Gel shrinking and water loss is a major limitation to using NIPAAm-based gels for nearly any biomedical application. In this work, a graft copolymer design was used to synthesize polymers which combine the convenient injectability of poly(NIPAAm) with gel water content controlled by hydrophilic side-chain grafts based on Jeffamine® M-1000 acrylamide (JAAm). The first segment of this work describes the synthesis and characterization of poly(NIPAAm-co-JAAm) copolymers which demonstrates controlled swelling that is nearly independent of LCST. The graft copolymer design was then used to produce a degradable antimicrobial-eluting gel for prevention of prosthetic joint infection. The resorbable graft copolymer gels were shown to have three unique characteristics which demonstrate their suitability for this application. First, antimicrobial release is sustained and complete within 1 week. Second, the gels behave like viscoelastic fluids, enabling complete surface coverage of an implant without disrupting fixation or movement. Finally, the gels degrade rapidly within 1-6 weeks, which may enable their use in interfaces where bone healing takes place. Graft copolymer hydrogels were also developed which undergo Michael addition in situ with poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate to form elastic gels for endovascular embolization of saccular aneurysms. Inclusion of JAAm grafts led to weaker physical crosslinking and faster, more complete chemical crosslinking. JAAm grafts prolonged the delivery window of the system from 30 seconds to 220 seconds, provided improved gel swelling, and resulted in stronger, more elastic gels within 30 minutes after delivery.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A simultaneous physically and chemically gelling polymer system for endovascular embolization of cerebral aneurysms

Description

Current treatment methods for cerebral aneurysms are providing life-saving measures for patients suffering from these blood vessel wall protrusions; however, the drawbacks present unfortunate circumstances in the invasive procedure or

Current treatment methods for cerebral aneurysms are providing life-saving measures for patients suffering from these blood vessel wall protrusions; however, the drawbacks present unfortunate circumstances in the invasive procedure or with efficient occlusion of the aneurysms. With the advancement of medical devices, liquid-to-solid gelling materials that could be delivered endovascularly have gained interest. The development of these systems stems from the need to circumvent surgical methods and the requirement for improved occlusion of aneurysms to prevent recanalization and potential complications. The work presented herein reports on a liquid-to-solid gelling material, which undergoes gelation via dual mechanisms. Using a temperature-responsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm), the gelling system can transition from a solution at low temperatures to a gel at body temperature (physical gelation). Additionally, by conjugating reactive functional groups onto the polymers, covalent cross-links can be formed via chemical reaction between the two moieties (chemical gelation). The advantage of this gelling system comprises of its water-based properties as well as the ability of the physical and chemical gelation to occur within physiological conditions. By developing the polymer gelling system in a ground-up approach via synthesis, its added benefit is the capability of modifying the properties of the system as needed for particular applications, in this case for embolization of cerebral aneurysms. The studies provided in this doctoral work highlight the synthesis, characterization and testing of these polymer gelling systems for occlusion of aneurysms. Conducted experiments include thermal, mechanical, structural and chemical characterization, as well as analysis of swelling, degradation, kinetics, cytotoxicity, in vitro glass models and in vivo swine study. Data on thermoresponsive poly(NIPAAm) indicated that the phase transition it undertakes comes as a result of the polymer chains associating as temperature is increased. Poly(NIPAAm) was functionalized with thiols and vinyls to provide for added chemical cross-linking. By combining both modes of gelation, physical and chemical, a gel with reduced creep flow and increased strength was developed. Being waterborne, the gels demonstrated excellent biocompatibility and were easily delivered via catheters and injected within aneurysms, without undergoing degradation. The dual gelling polymer systems demonstrated potential in use as embolic agents for cerebral aneurysm embolization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A liquid-to-solid gelling polymer system for cerebral aneurysm embolization: : formulation, characterization, and testing

Description

Treatment of cerebral aneurysms using non-invasive methods has existed for decades. Since the advent of modern endovascular techniques, advancements to embolic materials have largely focused on improving platinum coil technology.

Treatment of cerebral aneurysms using non-invasive methods has existed for decades. Since the advent of modern endovascular techniques, advancements to embolic materials have largely focused on improving platinum coil technology. However, the recent development of Onyx®, a liquid-delivery precipitating polymer system, has opened the door for a new class of embolic materials--liquid-fill systems. These liquid-fill materials have the potential to provide better treatment outcomes than platinum coils. Initial clinical use of Onyx has proven promising, but not without substantial drawbacks, such as co-delivery of angiotoxic compounds and an extremely technical delivery procedure. This work focuses on formulation, characterization and testing of a novel liquid-to-solid gelling polymer system, based on poly(propylene glycol) diacrylate (PPODA) and pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (QT). The PPODA-QT system bypasses difficulties associated with Onyx embolization, yet still maintains non-invasive liquid delivery--exhibiting the properties of an ideal embolic material for cerebral aneurysm embolization. To allow for material visibility during clinical delivery, an embolic material must be radio-opaque. The PPODA-QT system was formulated with commercially available contrast agents and the gelling kinetics were studied, as a complete understanding of the gelling process is vital for clinical use. These PPODA-QT formulations underwent in vitro characterization of material properties including cytotoxicity, swelling, and degradation behaviors. Formulation and characterization tests led to an optimized PPODA-QT formulation that was used in subsequent in vivo testing. PPODA-QT formulated with the liquid contrast agent ConrayTM was used in the first in vivo studies. These studies employed a swine aneurysm model to assess initial biocompatibility and test different delivery strategies of PPODA-QT. Results showed good biocompatibility and a suitable delivery strategy, providing justification for further in vivo testing. PPODA-QT was then used in a small scale pilot study to gauge long-term effectiveness of the material in a clinically-relevant aneurysm model. Results from the pilot study showed that PPODA-QT has the capability to provide successful, long-term treatment of model aneurysms as well as facilitate aneurysm healing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011