Matching Items (52)

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Octopus Transverse and Internal Longitudinal Arm Muscles in Relation to Fetching Movements

Description

Octopus arms employ a complex three dimensional array of musculature, called a
muscular hydrostat, which allows for nearly infinite degrees of freedom of movement without
the structure of a skeletal system. This study employed Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a
Gadoteridol-based

Octopus arms employ a complex three dimensional array of musculature, called a
muscular hydrostat, which allows for nearly infinite degrees of freedom of movement without
the structure of a skeletal system. This study employed Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a
Gadoteridol-based contrast agent to image the octopus arm and view the internal tissues. Muscle
layering was mapped and area was measured using AMIRA image processing and the trends in
these layers at the proximal, middle, and distal portions of the arms were analyzed. A total of 39
arms from 6 specimens were scanned to give 112 total imaged sections (38 proximal, 37 middle,
37 distal), from which to ascertain and study the possible differences in musculature. The
images revealed significant increases in the internal longitudinal muscle layer percentages
between the proximal and middle, proximal and distal, and middle and distal sections of the
arms. These structural differences are hypothesized to be used for rapid retraction of the distal
segment when encountering predators or noxious stimuli. In contrast, a significant decrease in
the transverse muscle layer was found when comparing the same sections. These structural
differences are hypothesized to be a result of bending behaviors during retraction. Additionally,
the internal longitudinal layer was separately studied orally, toward the sucker, and aborally,
away from the sucker. The significant differences in oral and aboral internal longitudinal
musculature in proximal, middle, and distal sections is hypothesized to support the pseudo-joint
functionality displayed in octopus fetching behaviors. The results indicate that individual
octopus arm morphology is more unique than previously thought and supports that internal
structural differences exist to support behavioral functionality.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Design and Simulation of Controllers for Multi-Robot Transport over Inclines

Description

The goal of this thesis is designing controllers for swarm robots transport a payload over inclines. Several fields of study are related to this study, including control theory, dynamic modeling and programming. MATLAB, a tool of design controller and simulation,

The goal of this thesis is designing controllers for swarm robots transport a payload over inclines. Several fields of study are related to this study, including control theory, dynamic modeling and programming. MATLAB, a tool of design controller and simulation, is used in this thesis.

To achieve this goal, a model of swarm robots transportation should be designed, which is cruise control for this scenario. Secondly, based on free body diagram, force equilibrium equation can be deduced. Then, the function of plant can be deduced based on cruise control and force equilibrium equations. Thirdly, list potential controllers, which may implement desired controls of swarm robots, and test their performance. Modify value of gains and do simulations of these controller. After analyzing results of simulation, the best controller can be selected.

In the last section, there is conclusion of entire thesis project and pointing out future work. The section of future work will mention potential difficulties of building entire control system, which allow swarm robots transport over inclines in real environment.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Characterization of Glass Beads: Flowability and Angle of Repose

Description

Characterization of particulate process and product design is a difficult field because of the unique bulk properties and behaviors of particles that differ from gasses and liquids. The purpose of this research is to develop an equation to relate the

Characterization of particulate process and product design is a difficult field because of the unique bulk properties and behaviors of particles that differ from gasses and liquids. The purpose of this research is to develop an equation to relate the angle of repose and flowability, the ability of the particle to flow as it pertains to particulate processes and product design. This research is important in multiple industries such as pharmaceuticals and food processes.

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Date Created
2019-05

Animal and Robotic Locomotion on Dry and Wet Granular Media

Description

Traditional wheeled robots struggle to traverse granular media such as sand or mud which has inspired the use of continuous tracks, legged, and various bio-inspired designs in recent robotics research. Animals can navigate the natural world with relative ease and

Traditional wheeled robots struggle to traverse granular media such as sand or mud which has inspired the use of continuous tracks, legged, and various bio-inspired designs in recent robotics research. Animals can navigate the natural world with relative ease and one animal, the Basilisk lizard, can perform the amazing feat of bipedal water and land running. Through the observation and study of basilisk lizards of the common and plumed variety, inspiration and development of a robotic platform was completed. After fabricating the bio-inspired robot, parameters unchanged by the animals were varied to characterize the combined effects of stride length and frequency on average velocity. It was found that animals increased stride length at higher saturation levels of sand to increase their velocity rather than increase their step frequency. The BasiliskBot version one was unable to change its stride length as the wheel-legs or "whegs" of this version were set at four spokes. Bipedal running of the robot was slower than quadrupedal running due to sand reaction forces and tail drag. BasiliskBot version two was lighter than the first version and had a range of stride lengths tested with increasing spoke numbers from 3-7. At lower step frequencies and lower wheg numbers, higher average velocity could be achieved compared to higher wheg numbers despite the highest maximum velocity being achieved by the highest number of spokes. A comparison of transition strategies for common and plumed basilisks showed both species chose to jump and swim through water more often than jump and run across water which achieved the highest average velocity. Results of transition strategies study pertain to future developments of the robot for amphibious purposes. Weight experiments were performed to assess the ability of the robot to carry sensors and other payloads. Added weight increased the highest frequency allowable before failure, but also caused failure at low step frequencies that had not displayed failure previously.

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2018-05

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A Ground Control System for Studying Locomotion on Granular Media

Description

Current robotic systems are limited in their abilities to efficiently traverse granular environments due to an underdeveloped understanding of the physics governing the interactions between solids and deformable substrates. As there are many animal species biologically designed for navigation of

Current robotic systems are limited in their abilities to efficiently traverse granular environments due to an underdeveloped understanding of the physics governing the interactions between solids and deformable substrates. As there are many animal species biologically designed for navigation of specific terrains, it is useful to study their mechanical ground interactions, and the kinematics of their movement. To achieve this, an automated, fluidized bed was designed to simulate various terrains under different conditions for animal testing. This document examines the design process of this test setup, with a focus on the controls. Control programs will be tested with hardware to ensure full functionality of the design. Knowledge gained from these studies can be used to optimize morphologies and gait parameters of robots. Ultimately, a robot can be developed that is capable of adapting itself for efficient locomotion on any terrain. These systems will be invaluable for applications such as planet exploration and rescue operations.

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Date Created
2016-05

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Chemoreception in Octopus bimaculoides

Description

Chemoreception is an important method for an octopus to sense and react to its surroundings. However, the density of chemoreceptors within different areas of the skin of the octopus arm is poorly documented. In order to assess the relative sensitivity

Chemoreception is an important method for an octopus to sense and react to its surroundings. However, the density of chemoreceptors within different areas of the skin of the octopus arm is poorly documented. In order to assess the relative sensitivity of various regions and the degree to which chemoreception is locally controlled, octopus arms were amputated and exposed to acetic acid, a noxious chemical stimulus that has previously been shown to elicit movement responses in amputated arms (Hague et al., 2013). To test this, 11 wild-caught Octopus bimaculoides (6 females, 5 males) were obtained. Acetic acid vapor was introduced in the distal oral, distal aboral, proximal oral, and proximal aboral regions of amputated arms. The frequency of the occurrence of movement was first analyzed. For those trials in which movement occurred, the latency (delay between the stimulus and the onset of movement) and the duration of movement were analyzed. The distal aboral and distal oral regions were both more likely to move than either the proximal oral or proximal aboral regions (p < 0.0001), and when they did move, were more likely to move for longer periods of time (p < 0.05). In addition, the proximal oral region was more likely to exhibit a delay in the onset of movement compared to the distal oral or distal aboral regions (p < 0.0001). These findings provide evidence that the distal arm is most sensitive to noxious chemical stimuli. However, there were no significant differences between the distal oral and distal aboral regions, or between the proximal oral and proximal aboral regions. This suggests that there may not be a significant difference in the density of chemoreceptors in the aboral versus oral regions of the arm, contrary to claims in the literature. The other independent variables analyzed, including sex, body mass, arm length, anterior versus posterior arm identity, and left versus right arm identity, did not have a significant effect on any of the three dependent variables analyzed. Further analysis of the relative density of chemoreceptors in different regions of the octopus arm is merited.

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2020-05

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Analysis of Local Minima arising from Potential-Based Controllers for Multi-Robot Transport with Convex Obstacle Avoidance

Description

This thesis presents a process by which a controller used for collective transport tasks is qualitatively studied and probed for presence of undesirable equilibrium states that could entrap the system and prevent it from converging to a target state. Fields

This thesis presents a process by which a controller used for collective transport tasks is qualitatively studied and probed for presence of undesirable equilibrium states that could entrap the system and prevent it from converging to a target state. Fields of study relevant to this project include dynamic system modeling, modern control theory, script-based system simulation, and autonomous systems design. Simulation and computational software MATLAB and Simulink® were used in this thesis.
To achieve this goal, a model of a swarm performing a collective transport task in a bounded domain featuring convex obstacles was simulated in MATLAB/ Simulink®. The closed-loop dynamic equations of this model were linearized about an equilibrium state with angular acceleration and linear acceleration set to zero. The simulation was run over 30 times to confirm system ability to successfully transport the payload to a goal point without colliding with obstacles and determine ideal operating conditions by testing various orientations of objects in the bounded domain. An additional purely MATLAB simulation was run to identify local minima of the Hessian of the navigation-like potential function. By calculating this Hessian periodically throughout the system’s progress and determining the signs of its eigenvalues, a system could check whether it is trapped in a local minimum, and potentially dislodge itself through implementation of a stochastic term in the robot controllers. The eigenvalues of the Hessian calculated in this research suggested the model local minima were degenerate, indicating an error in the mathematical model for this system, which likely incurred during linearization of this highly nonlinear system.

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Date Created
2020-12

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Dynamics, modeling, simulation and control of mid-flight coupling of quadrotors

Description

Unmanned aerial vehicles have received increased attention in the last decade due to their versatility, as well as the availability of inexpensive sensors (e.g. GPS, IMU) for their navigation and control. Multirotor vehicles, specifically quadrotors, have formed a fast growing

Unmanned aerial vehicles have received increased attention in the last decade due to their versatility, as well as the availability of inexpensive sensors (e.g. GPS, IMU) for their navigation and control. Multirotor vehicles, specifically quadrotors, have formed a fast growing field in robotics, with the range of applications spanning from surveil- lance and reconnaissance to agriculture and large area mapping. Although in most applications single quadrotors are used, there is an increasing interest in architectures controlling multiple quadrotors executing a collaborative task. This thesis introduces a new concept of control involving more than one quadrotors, according to which two quadrotors can be physically coupled in mid-flight. This concept equips the quadro- tors with new capabilities, e.g. increased payload or pursuit and capturing of other quadrotors. A comprehensive simulation of the approach is built to simulate coupled quadrotors. The dynamics and modeling of the coupled system is presented together with a discussion regarding the coupling mechanism, impact modeling and additional considerations that have been investigated. Simulation results are presented for cases of static coupling as well as enemy quadrotor pursuit and capture, together with an analysis of control methodology and gain tuning. Practical implementations are introduced as results show the feasibility of this design.

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Date Created
2016

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A friction and adhesion characterization setup for extreme temperatures

Description

It is well known that the geckos can cling to almost any surface using highly dense micro
ano fibrils found on the feet that rely on Van Der Waals forces to adhere. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been

It is well known that the geckos can cling to almost any surface using highly dense micro
ano fibrils found on the feet that rely on Van Der Waals forces to adhere. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the adhesion mechanism of gecko feet. This work explains the building procedure of custom experimental setup to test the adhesion force over a temperature range and extends its application in space environment, potentially unsafe working condition.

This study demonstrates that these adhesive capable of switching adhesive properties not only at room environment but also over a temperature range of -160 degC to 120 degC in vacuum conditions. These conditions are similar to the condition experienced by a satellite in a space orbiting around the earth. Also, this study demonstrated various detachment and specimen patch preparation methods. The custom-made experimental setup for adhesion test can measure adhesion force in temperature and pressure controlled environment over specimen size of 1 sq. inch. A cryogenic cooling system with liquid nitrogen is used to achieve -160 degC and an electric resistive heating system are used to achieve 120 degC in controlled volume. Thermal electrodes, infrared thermopile detectors are used to record temperature at sample and pressure indicator to record vacuum condition in controlled volume. Reversibility of the switching behaviour of the specimen in controlled environment confirms its application in space and very high or very low-temperature conditions.

The experimental setup was developed using SolidWorks as a design tool, Ansys as simulation tool and the data acquisition utilizes LabVIEW available in the market today.

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Date Created
2016

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A wearable pneumatic device for investigating ankle inversion and eversion in human gait

Description

Human walking has been a highly studied topic in research communities because of its extreme importance to human functionality and mobility. A complex system of interconnected gait mechanisms in humans is responsible for generating robust and consistent walking motion over

Human walking has been a highly studied topic in research communities because of its extreme importance to human functionality and mobility. A complex system of interconnected gait mechanisms in humans is responsible for generating robust and consistent walking motion over unpredictable ground and through challenging obstacles. One interesting aspect of human gait is the ability to adjust in order to accommodate varying surface grades. Typical approaches to investigating this gait function focus on incline and decline surface angles, but most experiments fail to address the effects of surface grades that cause ankle inversion and eversion. There have been several studies of ankle angle perturbation over wider ranges of grade orientations in static conditions; however, these studies do not account for effects during the gait cycle. Furthermore, contemporary studies on this topic neglect critical sources of unnatural stimulus in the design of investigative technology. It is hypothesized that the investigation of ankle angle perturbations in the frontal plane, particularly in the context of inter-leg coordination mechanisms, results in a more complete characterization of the effects of surface grade on human gait mechanisms. This greater understanding could potentially lead to significant applications in gait rehabilitation, especially for individuals who suffer from impairment as a result of stroke. A wearable pneumatic device was designed to impose inversion and eversion perturbations on the ankle through simulated surface grade changes. This prototype device was fabricated, characterized, and tested in order to assess its effectiveness. After testing and characterizing this device, it was used in a series of experiments on human subjects while data was gathered on muscular activation and gait kinematics. The results of the characterization show success in imposing inversion and eversion angle perturbations of approximately 9° with a response time of 0.5 s. Preliminary experiments focusing on inter-leg coordination with healthy human subjects show that one-sided inversion and eversion perturbations have virtually no effect on gait kinematics. However, changes in muscular activation from one-sided perturbations show statistical significance in key lower limb muscles. Thus, the prototype device demonstrates novelty in the context of human gait research for potential applications in rehabilitation.

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Date Created
2016