Matching Items (32)

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Design and Simulation of Controllers for Multi-Robot Transport over Inclines

Description

The goal of this thesis is designing controllers for swarm robots transport a payload over inclines. Several fields of study are related to this study, including control theory, dynamic modeling

The goal of this thesis is designing controllers for swarm robots transport a payload over inclines. Several fields of study are related to this study, including control theory, dynamic modeling and programming. MATLAB, a tool of design controller and simulation, is used in this thesis.

To achieve this goal, a model of swarm robots transportation should be designed, which is cruise control for this scenario. Secondly, based on free body diagram, force equilibrium equation can be deduced. Then, the function of plant can be deduced based on cruise control and force equilibrium equations. Thirdly, list potential controllers, which may implement desired controls of swarm robots, and test their performance. Modify value of gains and do simulations of these controller. After analyzing results of simulation, the best controller can be selected.

In the last section, there is conclusion of entire thesis project and pointing out future work. The section of future work will mention potential difficulties of building entire control system, which allow swarm robots transport over inclines in real environment.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Chemoreception in Octopus bimaculoides

Description

Chemoreception is an important method for an octopus to sense and react to its surroundings. However, the density of chemoreceptors within different areas of the skin of the octopus arm

Chemoreception is an important method for an octopus to sense and react to its surroundings. However, the density of chemoreceptors within different areas of the skin of the octopus arm is poorly documented. In order to assess the relative sensitivity of various regions and the degree to which chemoreception is locally controlled, octopus arms were amputated and exposed to acetic acid, a noxious chemical stimulus that has previously been shown to elicit movement responses in amputated arms (Hague et al., 2013). To test this, 11 wild-caught Octopus bimaculoides (6 females, 5 males) were obtained. Acetic acid vapor was introduced in the distal oral, distal aboral, proximal oral, and proximal aboral regions of amputated arms. The frequency of the occurrence of movement was first analyzed. For those trials in which movement occurred, the latency (delay between the stimulus and the onset of movement) and the duration of movement were analyzed. The distal aboral and distal oral regions were both more likely to move than either the proximal oral or proximal aboral regions (p < 0.0001), and when they did move, were more likely to move for longer periods of time (p < 0.05). In addition, the proximal oral region was more likely to exhibit a delay in the onset of movement compared to the distal oral or distal aboral regions (p < 0.0001). These findings provide evidence that the distal arm is most sensitive to noxious chemical stimuli. However, there were no significant differences between the distal oral and distal aboral regions, or between the proximal oral and proximal aboral regions. This suggests that there may not be a significant difference in the density of chemoreceptors in the aboral versus oral regions of the arm, contrary to claims in the literature. The other independent variables analyzed, including sex, body mass, arm length, anterior versus posterior arm identity, and left versus right arm identity, did not have a significant effect on any of the three dependent variables analyzed. Further analysis of the relative density of chemoreceptors in different regions of the octopus arm is merited.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Animal and Robotic Locomotion on Dry and Wet Granular Media

Description

Traditional wheeled robots struggle to traverse granular media such as sand or mud which has inspired the use of continuous tracks, legged, and various bio-inspired designs in recent robotics research.

Traditional wheeled robots struggle to traverse granular media such as sand or mud which has inspired the use of continuous tracks, legged, and various bio-inspired designs in recent robotics research. Animals can navigate the natural world with relative ease and one animal, the Basilisk lizard, can perform the amazing feat of bipedal water and land running. Through the observation and study of basilisk lizards of the common and plumed variety, inspiration and development of a robotic platform was completed. After fabricating the bio-inspired robot, parameters unchanged by the animals were varied to characterize the combined effects of stride length and frequency on average velocity. It was found that animals increased stride length at higher saturation levels of sand to increase their velocity rather than increase their step frequency. The BasiliskBot version one was unable to change its stride length as the wheel-legs or "whegs" of this version were set at four spokes. Bipedal running of the robot was slower than quadrupedal running due to sand reaction forces and tail drag. BasiliskBot version two was lighter than the first version and had a range of stride lengths tested with increasing spoke numbers from 3-7. At lower step frequencies and lower wheg numbers, higher average velocity could be achieved compared to higher wheg numbers despite the highest maximum velocity being achieved by the highest number of spokes. A comparison of transition strategies for common and plumed basilisks showed both species chose to jump and swim through water more often than jump and run across water which achieved the highest average velocity. Results of transition strategies study pertain to future developments of the robot for amphibious purposes. Weight experiments were performed to assess the ability of the robot to carry sensors and other payloads. Added weight increased the highest frequency allowable before failure, but also caused failure at low step frequencies that had not displayed failure previously.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Ground Control System for Studying Locomotion on Granular Media

Description

Current robotic systems are limited in their abilities to efficiently traverse granular environments due to an underdeveloped understanding of the physics governing the interactions between solids and deformable substrates. As

Current robotic systems are limited in their abilities to efficiently traverse granular environments due to an underdeveloped understanding of the physics governing the interactions between solids and deformable substrates. As there are many animal species biologically designed for navigation of specific terrains, it is useful to study their mechanical ground interactions, and the kinematics of their movement. To achieve this, an automated, fluidized bed was designed to simulate various terrains under different conditions for animal testing. This document examines the design process of this test setup, with a focus on the controls. Control programs will be tested with hardware to ensure full functionality of the design. Knowledge gained from these studies can be used to optimize morphologies and gait parameters of robots. Ultimately, a robot can be developed that is capable of adapting itself for efficient locomotion on any terrain. These systems will be invaluable for applications such as planet exploration and rescue operations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Analysis of Local Minima arising from Potential-Based Controllers for Multi-Robot Transport with Convex Obstacle Avoidance

Description

This thesis presents a process by which a controller used for collective transport tasks is qualitatively studied and probed for presence of undesirable equilibrium states that could entrap the system

This thesis presents a process by which a controller used for collective transport tasks is qualitatively studied and probed for presence of undesirable equilibrium states that could entrap the system and prevent it from converging to a target state. Fields of study relevant to this project include dynamic system modeling, modern control theory, script-based system simulation, and autonomous systems design. Simulation and computational software MATLAB and Simulink® were used in this thesis.
To achieve this goal, a model of a swarm performing a collective transport task in a bounded domain featuring convex obstacles was simulated in MATLAB/ Simulink®. The closed-loop dynamic equations of this model were linearized about an equilibrium state with angular acceleration and linear acceleration set to zero. The simulation was run over 30 times to confirm system ability to successfully transport the payload to a goal point without colliding with obstacles and determine ideal operating conditions by testing various orientations of objects in the bounded domain. An additional purely MATLAB simulation was run to identify local minima of the Hessian of the navigation-like potential function. By calculating this Hessian periodically throughout the system’s progress and determining the signs of its eigenvalues, a system could check whether it is trapped in a local minimum, and potentially dislodge itself through implementation of a stochastic term in the robot controllers. The eigenvalues of the Hessian calculated in this research suggested the model local minima were degenerate, indicating an error in the mathematical model for this system, which likely incurred during linearization of this highly nonlinear system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Characterization of Glass Beads: Flowability and Angle of Repose

Description

Characterization of particulate process and product design is a difficult field because of the unique bulk properties and behaviors of particles that differ from gasses and liquids. The purpose of

Characterization of particulate process and product design is a difficult field because of the unique bulk properties and behaviors of particles that differ from gasses and liquids. The purpose of this research is to develop an equation to relate the angle of repose and flowability, the ability of the particle to flow as it pertains to particulate processes and product design. This research is important in multiple industries such as pharmaceuticals and food processes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Octopus Transverse and Internal Longitudinal Arm Muscles in Relation to Fetching Movements

Description

Octopus arms employ a complex three dimensional array of musculature, called a
muscular hydrostat, which allows for nearly infinite degrees of freedom of movement without
the structure of a skeletal

Octopus arms employ a complex three dimensional array of musculature, called a
muscular hydrostat, which allows for nearly infinite degrees of freedom of movement without
the structure of a skeletal system. This study employed Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a
Gadoteridol-based contrast agent to image the octopus arm and view the internal tissues. Muscle
layering was mapped and area was measured using AMIRA image processing and the trends in
these layers at the proximal, middle, and distal portions of the arms were analyzed. A total of 39
arms from 6 specimens were scanned to give 112 total imaged sections (38 proximal, 37 middle,
37 distal), from which to ascertain and study the possible differences in musculature. The
images revealed significant increases in the internal longitudinal muscle layer percentages
between the proximal and middle, proximal and distal, and middle and distal sections of the
arms. These structural differences are hypothesized to be used for rapid retraction of the distal
segment when encountering predators or noxious stimuli. In contrast, a significant decrease in
the transverse muscle layer was found when comparing the same sections. These structural
differences are hypothesized to be a result of bending behaviors during retraction. Additionally,
the internal longitudinal layer was separately studied orally, toward the sucker, and aborally,
away from the sucker. The significant differences in oral and aboral internal longitudinal
musculature in proximal, middle, and distal sections is hypothesized to support the pseudo-joint
functionality displayed in octopus fetching behaviors. The results indicate that individual
octopus arm morphology is more unique than previously thought and supports that internal
structural differences exist to support behavioral functionality.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Bioinspired Interactions with Complex Granular and Aquatic Environments

Description

August Krogh, a 20th century Nobel Prize winner in Physiology and Medicine, once stated, "for such a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a

August Krogh, a 20th century Nobel Prize winner in Physiology and Medicine, once stated, "for such a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied." What developed to be known as the Krogh Principle, has become the cornerstone of bioinspired robotics. This is the realization that solutions to various multifaceted engineering problems lie in nature. With the integration of biology, physics and engineering, the classical approach in solving engineering problems has transformed. Through such an integration, the presented research will address the following engineering solution: maneuverability on and through complex granular and aquatic environments. The basilisk lizard and the octopus are the key sources of inspiration for the anticipated solution. The basilisk lizard is a highly agile reptile with the ability to easily traverse on vast, alternating, unstructured, and complex terrains (i.e. sand, mud, water). This makes them a great medium for pursuing potential solutions for robotic locomotion on such terrains. The octopus, with a nearly soft, yet muscular hydrostat body and arms, is proficient in locomotion and its complex motor functions are vast. Their versatility, "infinite" degrees of freedom, and dexterity have made them an ideal candidate for inspiration in the fields such as soft robotics. Through conducting animal experiments on the basilisk lizard and octopus, insight can be obtained on the question: how does the animal interact with complex granular and aquatic environments so effectively? Following it through by conducting systematic robotic experiments, the capabilities and limitations of the animal can be understood. Integrating the hierarchical concepts observed and learnt through animal and robotic experiments, it can be used towards designing, modeling, and developing robotic systems that will assist humanity and society on a diversified set of applications: home service, health care, public safety, transportation, logistics, structural examinations, aquatic and extraterrestrial exploration, search-and-rescue, environmental monitoring, forestry, and agriculture, just to name a few. By learning and being inspired by nature, there exist the potential to go beyond nature for the greater good of society and humanity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Simulation Framework for Driving Data Collection and Object Detection Algorithms to Aid Autonomous Vehicle Emulation of Human Driving Styles

Description

Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), or self-driving cars, are poised to have an enormous impact on the automotive industry and road transportation. While advances have been made towards the development of safe,

Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), or self-driving cars, are poised to have an enormous impact on the automotive industry and road transportation. While advances have been made towards the development of safe, competent autonomous vehicles, there has been inadequate attention to the control of autonomous vehicles in unanticipated situations, such as imminent crashes. Even if autonomous vehicles follow all safety measures, accidents are inevitable, and humans must trust autonomous vehicles to respond appropriately in such scenarios. It is not plausible to program autonomous vehicles with a set of rules to tackle every possible crash scenario. Instead, a possible approach is to align their decision-making capabilities with the moral priorities, values, and social motivations of trustworthy human drivers.Toward this end, this thesis contributes a simulation framework for collecting, analyzing, and replicating human driving behaviors in a variety of scenarios, including imminent crashes. Four driving scenarios in an urban traffic environment were designed in the CARLA driving simulator platform, in which simulated cars can either drive autonomously or be driven by a user via a steering wheel and pedals. These included three unavoidable crash scenarios, representing classic trolley-problem ethical dilemmas, and a scenario in which a car must be driven through a school zone, in order to examine driver prioritization of reaching a destination versus ensuring safety. Sample human driving data in CARLA was logged from the simulated car’s sensors, including the LiDAR, IMU and camera. In order to reproduce human driving behaviors in a simulated vehicle, it is necessary for the AV to be able to identify objects in the environment and evaluate the volume of their bounding boxes for prediction and planning. An object detection method was used that processes LiDAR point cloud data using the PointNet neural network architecture, analyzes RGB images via transfer learning using the Xception convolutional neural network architecture, and fuses the outputs of these two networks. This method was trained and tested on both the KITTI Vision Benchmark Suite dataset and a virtual dataset exclusively generated from CARLA. When applied to the KITTI dataset, the object detection method achieved an average classification accuracy of 96.72% and an average Intersection over Union (IoU) of 0.72, where the IoU metric compares predicted bounding boxes to those used for training.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Force Measurement of Basilisk Lizard Running on Water

Description

Basilisk lizards are often studied for their unique ability to run across the surface of

water. Due to the complicated fluid dynamics of this process, the forces applied on the

water’s surface

Basilisk lizards are often studied for their unique ability to run across the surface of

water. Due to the complicated fluid dynamics of this process, the forces applied on the

water’s surface cannot be measured using traditional methods. This thesis presents a

novel technique of measuring the forces using a fluid dynamic force platform (FDFP),

a light, rigid box immersed in water. This platform, along with a motion capture

system, can be used to characterize the kinematics and dynamics of a basilisk lizard

running on water. This could ultimately lead to robots that can run on water in a

similar manner.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019