Matching Items (7)

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Aggression, victimization, and social prominence in early adolescent girls and boys

Description

Although aggression is sometimes thought to be maladaptive, evolutionary theories of resource control and dominance posit that aggression may be used to gain and maintain high social prominence within the

Although aggression is sometimes thought to be maladaptive, evolutionary theories of resource control and dominance posit that aggression may be used to gain and maintain high social prominence within the peer group. The success of using aggression to increase social prominence may depend on the form of aggression used (relational versus physical), the gender of the aggressor, and the prominence of the victim. Thus, the current study examined the associations between aggression and victimization and social prominence. In addition, the current study extended previous research by examining multiple forms of aggression and victimization and conceptualizing and measuring social prominence using social network analysis. Participants were 339 6th grade students from ethnically diverse backgrounds (50.4% girls). Participants completed a peer nomination measure assessing relational and physical aggression and victimization. They also nominated friends within their grade, which were used to calculate three indices of social prominence, using social network analysis. As expected, results indicated that relational aggression was associated with higher social prominence, particularly for girls, whereas physical aggression was less robustly associated with social prominence. Results for victimization were less clear, but suggested that, for girls, those at mid-levels of social prominence were most highly victimized. For boys, results indicated that those both high and low in prominence were most highly relationally victimized, and those at mid-levels of prominence were most highly physically victimized. These findings help inform intervention work focused on decreasing overall levels of aggressive behavior.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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An Investigation of Gender Norm Resistance

Description

The aim of this dissertation was to explore the construct and experiences of gender norm resistance (GNR) using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The purpose of Study 1 was to

The aim of this dissertation was to explore the construct and experiences of gender norm resistance (GNR) using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The purpose of Study 1 was to standardize and universalize what is already known about GNR by creating a quantitative GNR measure. In so doing, I operationalized the implicit and explicit GNR framework described by Way and colleagues (2014). On a sample of adolescents (484 6th grade students; girls = 234; 10-13 years old, Mage = 11.44 years, SD = .56) the GNR measure was tested for gender differences and to explore how GNR aligns with and differs from other constructs related to gender identity and peer relations. The results supported the two-factor model (implicit and explicit forms of GNR), supported convergent and discriminant validity, and identified mean level differences depending on GNR form, gender, ethnic identity, and gender typicality. The purpose of Study 2 was to explore why young men resist gender norms, what motivates their acts of resistance, and how they understand those motives. I expected that implicit GNR would be motivated by the pursuit of authentic nonconformity and would involve an awareness of norms, feeling gender atypical, and authenticity. I expected that explicit GNR would be motivated by a dislike of gender norms, and that it would involve an awareness of, dislike of, and pressure to conform to gender norms. The results supported these expectations and indicated a subtype of GNR, activist GNR, defined by the desire to change gender norms to benefit the social group. Both studies rely on the resistance/accommodation framework to describe the balance of conformity and resistance as individuals navigate systems of power and oppression.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The Predictors, Correlates, and Development of Children’s Prosocial Behavior toward Diverse Others

Description

Prosocial behavior refers to voluntary acts done to benefit another. To date, there is little work examining children’s prosocial behavior toward outgroup members. Across several multi-method multi-informant data sets, I

Prosocial behavior refers to voluntary acts done to benefit another. To date, there is little work examining children’s prosocial behavior toward outgroup members. Across several multi-method multi-informant data sets, I used various statistical methods (e.g., latent change score analysis, mediation and moderation analyses) to examine the predictors, correlates, and development of children’s prosocial behavior toward various outgroup members (e.g., gender, race). In Study 1, I examined the relation between preschoolers’ other-gender friendships and their prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers. Findings showed support for the hypothesis that cross-gender friendships are positively associated with children’s prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers over time. Further, children’s prosocial behavior toward other-gender peers positively predicted children’s later gender attitudes suggesting that fostering intergroup prosocial behavior could be a potentially effective solution to reduce intergroup prejudice. To capture the multifaceted nature of social identities, in Study 2, I examined children’s prosocial behavior toward various ingroup and outgroup members with the intention of exploring the degree of ingroup-ness and testing the transfer effect of intergroup contact. Findings showed that cross-gender friendships were positively predictive of school-age children’s prosocial behavior toward diverse others. Further, cross-race friendships are related to children’s diverse prosocial behavior indirectly through children’s race-based sympathy. Study 3 extended the previous two studies by testing both Intergroup Contact Theory and Social Identity Theory and taking into consideration the social identity of oneself (versus the targets of prosocial behavior). Specifically, I examined the central component of gender identity: children’s perceived same-gender similarity and other-gender similarity, as well as children’s same- and other-gender friendships. Results showed that only intergroup friendships, but not children’s gender identity, were related to children’s prosocial behavior toward same- and other-gender peers. In sum, this basic research has potential to shed light on ways to promote equity and inclusion across various social groups early in development.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Examining Child-Centered and Direct Instruction Approaches to Early Education

Description

The majority of early education programs today use a mix of child-centered and direct instruction approaches. Existing research comparing educational approaches is limited in the degree to which it can

The majority of early education programs today use a mix of child-centered and direct instruction approaches. Existing research comparing educational approaches is limited in the degree to which it can inform practice in mixed-method classrooms (i.e., classrooms using both child-centered and direct instruction approaches). The current dissertation extended previous research examining child-centered and direct instruction approaches to early education in two studies. The first study explored how free play and guided play differ from one another. The second study examined how time spent in free play, guided play, and direct instruction in the fall related to children's school readiness in the spring. Both studies were conducted using mixed-method Head Start classrooms. Participants were preschool children (Study 1 n = 284, Study 2 n = 283; M age = 52 months, 48% girls, 70% Mexican or Mexican-American) from lower socioeconomic status families. Observational data were utilized to assess children's time spent in free play and guided play and experiences with activities and peers in each context. Children's academic, affective, and social readiness were assessed through child interviews and teacher reports. The results provided little evidence to support the hypotheses or the popularly held belief that guided play is the most beneficial context for learning and development in early education programs. Findings were discussed in terms of the strengths and limitations of the studies and directions for future research. Importantly, recommendations for policy and practice were provided.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Examining adolescents' gender stereotypes and ingroup biases about academics, classroom regulatory behavior, and occupations

Description

The major goal of the current study was to extend previous research on adolescents' gender stereotyping by assessing adolescents' academic, classroom regulatory behavior, and occupational gender stereotypes. This was done

The major goal of the current study was to extend previous research on adolescents' gender stereotyping by assessing adolescents' academic, classroom regulatory behavior, and occupational gender stereotypes. This was done by creating new measures of academic and classroom regulation gender stereotypes. Using these measures, adolescents' gender stereotypes in core academic subjects, school in general, and classroom behavior were assessed. The coherence of adolescents' stereotypes was also examined. Participants were 257 7th grade students (M age = 12 years old, range 11-13 years old; 47% male. Students were administered surveys containing several measures of stereotyping. The results indicated that, for academic subjects, contrary to expectations, very few adolescents held traditional gender stereotypes; instead, most endorsed egalitarian views. Moreover, unexpected patterns emerged in which adolescents reported counter-traditional academic stereotypes. When sex differences were found in stereotyping patterns, they could be explained in part by ingroup bias. Approximately half of the students stereotyped classroom regulatory behaviors and occupations. Results provided support for the coherence of gender stereotypes such that students who stereotyped in one domain tended to stereotype in other domains. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed. Potentially important steps remain for research on the relation between academic gender stereotyping and academic performance.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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A relational perspective on aggression: the role of friends, victims, and unfamiliar peers in the use of aggressive behavior

Description

Aggression is inherently social. Evolutionary theories, for instance, suggest that the peer group within which an aggressor is embedded is of central importance to the use of aggression. However, there

Aggression is inherently social. Evolutionary theories, for instance, suggest that the peer group within which an aggressor is embedded is of central importance to the use of aggression. However, there is disagreement in the field with regard to understanding precisely how aggression and peer relationships should relate. As such, in a series of three empirical studies, my dissertation takes a relational approach and addresses some of the inconsistencies present in the extant literature. In Study 1, I examined how qualities of youth's close friendships contributed to the use of aggression, both concurrently and over time. I found that youth with large friendship networks were more aggressive, whereas those with highly interconnected friendship network decreased in aggression over time. Using a dyadic mediation model, the second study considered the precursors to aggressors' friendships with peers. Specifically, I explored aggressive youth's interactions with unfamiliar peers and assessed how the interactions that unfold affected the quality of the relationship. I found that dyads who were highly discrepant in their tendencies toward aggression failed to collaborate well with one another, and this led to less positive perceptions of one another. Whereas the first two studies concerned aggressors' relationships with their friends (Study 1) and acquaintances (Study 2), Study 3 focused on a different type of relationship – the relationship between an aggressor and his or her victim(s). In the third study, I explored how power dynamics operate within an aggressor-victim dyad and assessed whether differences in the balance of power between the aggressor and victim affected the strength of their relationship. I found that more aggressor-victim dyads were characterized by a relative balance than imbalance in power, and that power balanced dyads had stronger and more sustained aggressor-victim relationships. By taking a relational approach to the study of aggression, this dissertation has advanced extant work in the field. That is, these findings move away from the simplification and aggregation of relational constructs (e.g., relationships, friendships), and instead consider the nuances of specific types of relationships or interactions with specific peers, allowing for a better understanding of the relational nature of aggression.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Dimensions of preschool play activities: relations with academic readiness

Description

In preschool, learning often occurs within the context of children’s play activities with various toys and materials. Although much theoretical speculation has occurred, relatively little empirical research has examined how

In preschool, learning often occurs within the context of children’s play activities with various toys and materials. Although much theoretical speculation has occurred, relatively little empirical research has examined how preschoolers’ play activities foster children’s learning and academic skill development. The current study extended previous research on dimensions of adolescent activity involvement to young children in preschool by assessing dimensions of activity involvement across and within curriculum-based and gender-based activity domains. In a longitudinal design, I explored the relation between these dimensions of activity involvement in the fall semester of children’s preschool year and children’s academic outcomes at the end of their preschool year. Participants included preschool children (n = 279; M age = 52 months, 47% girls, 70% Mexican or Mexican-American) from lower socioeconomic status families. Children’s activity involvement was observed, and academic abilities were assessed through child interviews and teacher reports. The results provided little evidence to support the hypotheses that children’s dimensions of activity involvement in the fall semester of their preschool year contributed to their academic abilities in literacy and mathematics at the end of their preschool year. Findings were discussed in terms of the strengths and limitations of the present study. Potentially important steps remain for research on the relation between preschool activity involvement and academic abilities.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2010