Matching Items (28)

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Understanding the Influence of Fly Ash and Activator Chemistry on Geopolymer Kinetics and Property Development

Description

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C and Class F Fly Ash (CFA and FFA, respectively) derived from industrial coal combustion were selected as the replacement materials for this study. Sodium sulfate and calcium oxide were used as activators. In Part 1 of this study, focus was placed on high volume replacement of OPC using sodium sulfate as the activator. Despite improvements in heat generation for both CFA and FFA systems in the presence of sulfate, sodium sulfate was found to have adverse effects on the compressive strength of CFA mortars. In the CFA mixes, strength improved significantly with sulfate addition, but began to decrease in strength around 14 days due to expansive ettringite formation. Conversely, the addition of sulfate led to improved strength for FFA mixes such that the 28 day strength was comparable to that of the CFA mixes with no observable strength loss. Maximum compressive strengths achieved for the high volume replacement mixes was around 40 MPa, which is considerably lower than the baseline OPC mix used for comparison. In Part 2 of the study, temperature dependency and calcium oxide addition were studied for sodium sulfate activated systems composed of 100% Class F fly ash. In the presence of sulfate, added calcium increased reactivity and compressive strength at early ages, particularly at elevated temperatures. It is believed that sulfate and calcium react with alumina from fly ash to form ettringite, while heat overcomes the activation energy barrier of fly ash. The greatest strengths were obtained for mixes containing the maximum allowed quantity of calcium oxide (5%) and sodium sulfate (3%), and were around 12 MPa. This is a very low compressive strength relative to OPC and would therefore be an inadequate substitute for OPC needs.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Improving Undergraduate Structural Engineering Education and Assessing the Use of Technology in Structural Analysis and Design Courses

Description

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics,

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics, structural analysis, and structural design. The core structural analysis and design course at Arizona State University (CEE 321) is a transition course to connect realistic structural design and analysis concepts to an engineering foundation created by the first and second year mathematics and mechanics courses. CEE 321 is styled after a flipped classroom model and students are assessed through quizzes, midterms, design projects, and a final exam. Student performance was evaluated for the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters through an error analysis technique designed to categorize student mistakes based on type of error and related topic. This analysis revealed that student's basic engineering mechanics skills improved throughout the course as well as identified the areas that students struggle in. The slope-deflection and direct stiffness methods of analysis and calculating cross-sectional properties are the primary areas of concern. Using appropriate technology in the engineering classroom has the potential to enhance the learning environment and address the areas of inadequacy identified by the performance analysis. A survey of CEE 321 students demonstrated that technology is a highly integrated and useful portion of student's lives. Therefore, the engineering classroom should reflect this. Through the use of analysis and design software, students are able to begin to develop design intuition and understanding while completing realistic engineering projects in their third year of undergraduate studies. Additionally, incorporating internet resources into and outside of the classroom allows students to be connected to course content from any web-enabled device of their choice. Lecture videos posted online covering the course content were requested by many CEE 321 students and are an emerging resource that supplements the flipped classroom model. The availability of such a tool allows students to revisit concepts that they do not understand or pause, rewind, and replay the lectures when necessary. An expansion of the structural analysis and design online lecture videos for CEE 321 are expected to address and improve the areas that students struggle in as identified by the error analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Estimating the soil-water characteristic curve using grain size analysis and plasticity index

Description

The infrastructure is built in Unsaturated Soils. However, the geotechnical practitioners insist in designing the structures based on Saturated Soil Mechanics. The design of structures based on unsaturated soil mechanics

The infrastructure is built in Unsaturated Soils. However, the geotechnical practitioners insist in designing the structures based on Saturated Soil Mechanics. The design of structures based on unsaturated soil mechanics is desirable because it reduces cost and it is by far a more sustainable approach. The research community has identified the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve as the most important soil property when dealing with unsaturated conditions. This soil property is unpopular among practitioners because the laboratory testing takes an appreciable amount of time. Several authors have attempted predicting the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve; however, most of the published predictions are based on a very limited soil database. The National Resources Conservation Service has a vast database of engineering soil properties with more than 36,000 soils, which includes water content measurements at different levels of suctions. This database was used in this study to validate two existing models that based the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve prediction on statistical analysis. It was found that although the predictions are acceptable for some ranges of suctions; they did not performed that well for others. It was found that the first model validated was accurate for fine-grained soils, while the second model was best for granular soils. For these reasons, two models to estimate the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve are proposed. The first model estimates the fitting parameters of the Fredlund and Xing (1994) function separately and then, the predicted parameters are fitted to the Fredlund and Xing function for an overall estimate of the degree of saturation. Results show an overall improvement on the predicted values when compared to existing models. The second model is based on the relationship between the Soil-Water Characteristic Curve and the Pore-Size Distribution of the soils. The process allows for the prediction of the entire Soil-Water Characteristic Curve function and proved to be a better approximation than that used in the first attempt. Both models constitute important tools in the implementation of unsaturated soil mechanics into engineering practice due to the link of the prediction with simple and well known engineering soil properties.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Pavement temperature effects on overall urban heat island

Description

In recent years, an increase of environmental temperature in urban areas has raised many concerns. These areas are subjected to higher temperature compared to the rural surrounding areas. Modification of

In recent years, an increase of environmental temperature in urban areas has raised many concerns. These areas are subjected to higher temperature compared to the rural surrounding areas. Modification of land surface and the use of materials such as concrete and/or asphalt are the main factors influencing the surface energy balance and therefore the environmental temperature in the urban areas. Engineered materials have relatively higher solar energy absorption and tend to trap a relatively higher incoming solar radiation. They also possess a higher heat storage capacity that allows them to retain heat during the day and then slowly release it back into the atmosphere as the sun goes down. This phenomenon is known as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect and causes an increase in the urban air temperature. Many researchers believe that albedo is the key pavement affecting the urban heat island. However, this research has shown that the problem is more complex and that solar reflectivity may not be the only important factor to evaluate the ability of a pavement to mitigate UHI. The main objective of this study was to analyze and research the influence of pavement materials on the near surface air temperature. In order to accomplish this effort, test sections consisting of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA), Porous Hot Mix asphalt (PHMA), Portland Cement Concrete (PCC), Pervious Portland Cement Concrete (PPCC), artificial turf, and landscape gravels were constructed in the Phoenix, Arizona area. Air temperature, albedo, wind speed, solar radiation, and wind direction were recorded, analyzed and compared above each pavement material type. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the air temperature at 3-feet and above, regardless of the type of the pavement. Near surface pavement temperatures were also measured and modeled. The results indicated that for the UHI analysis, it is important to consider the interaction between pavement structure, material properties, and environmental factors. Overall, this study demonstrated the complexity of evaluating pavement structures for UHI mitigation; it provided great insight on the effects of material types and properties on surface temperatures and near surface air temperature.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Development of the C* fracture test for asphalt concrete mixtures

Description

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests and subsequent analysis methods rely on elastic behavior assumptions and do not consider the time-dependent nature of asphalt concrete. The C* Line Integral test has shown promise to capture crack resistance and propagation within asphalt concrete. In addition, the fracture mechanics based C* parameter considers the time-dependent creep behavior of the materials. However, previous research was limited and lacked standardized test procedure and detailed data analysis methods were not fully presented. This dissertation describes the development and refinement of the C* Fracture Test (CFT) based on concepts of the C* line integral test. The CFT is a promising test to assess crack propagation and fracture resistance especially in modified mixtures. A detailed CFT test protocol was developed based on a laboratory study of different specimen sizes and test conditions. CFT numerical simulations agreed with laboratory results and indicated that the maximum horizontal tensile stress (Mode I) occurs at the crack tip but diminishes at longer crack lengths when shear stress (Mode II) becomes present. Using CFT test results and the principles of time-temperature superposition, a crack growth rate master curve was successfully developed to describe crack growth over a range of test temperatures. This master curve can be applied to pavement design and analysis to describe crack propagation as a function of traffic conditions and pavement temperatures. Several plant mixtures were subjected to the CFT and results showed differences in resistance to crack propagation, especially when comparing an asphalt rubber mixture to a conventional one. Results indicated that crack propagation is ideally captured within a given range of dynamic modulus values. Crack growth rates and C* prediction models were successfully developed for all unmodified mixtures in the CFT database. These models can be used to predict creep crack propagation and the C* parameter when laboratory testing is not feasible. Finally, a conceptual approach to incorporate crack growth rate and the C* parameter into pavement design and analysis was presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Endurance limit for HMA based on healing phenomenon using viscoelastic continuum damage analysis

Description

Perpetual Pavements, if properly designed and rehabilitated, it can last longer than 50 years without major structural rehabilitation. Fatigue endurance limit is a key parameter for designing perpetual pavements to

Perpetual Pavements, if properly designed and rehabilitated, it can last longer than 50 years without major structural rehabilitation. Fatigue endurance limit is a key parameter for designing perpetual pavements to mitigate bottom-up fatigue cracking. The endurance limit has not been implemented in the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide software, currently known as DARWin-ME. This study was conducted as part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 9-44A to develop a framework and mathematical methodology to determine the fatigue endurance limit using the uniaxial fatigue test. In this procedure, the endurance limit is defined as the allowable tensile strains at which a balance takes place between the fatigue damage during loading, and the healing during the rest periods between loading pulses. The viscoelastic continuum damage model was used to isolate time dependent damage and healing in hot mix asphalt from that due to fatigue. This study also included the development of a uniaxial fatigue test method and the associated data acquisition computer programs to conduct the test with and without rest period. Five factors that affect the fatigue and healing behavior of asphalt mixtures were evaluated: asphalt content, air voids, temperature, rest period and tensile strain. Based on the test results, two Pseudo Stiffness Ratio (PSR) regression models were developed. In the first model, the PSR was a function of the five factors and the number of loading cycles. In the second model, air voids, asphalt content, and temperature were replaced by the initial stiffness of the mix. In both models, the endurance limit was defined when PSR is equal to 1.0 (net damage is equal to zero). The results of the first model were compared to the results of a stiffness ratio model developed based on a parallel study using beam fatigue test (part of the same NCHRP 9-44A). The endurance limit values determined from uniaxial and beam fatigue tests showed very good correlation. A methodology was described on how to incorporate the second PSR model into fatigue analysis and damage using the DARWin-ME software. This would provide an effective and efficient methodology to design perpetual flexible pavements.

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Date Created
  • 2012

Reliability associated with the estimation of soil resilient modulus at different hierarchical levels of pavement design

Description

Deterministic solutions are available to estimate the resilient modulus of unbound materials, which are difficult to interpret because they do not incorporate the variability associated with the inherent soil heterogeneity

Deterministic solutions are available to estimate the resilient modulus of unbound materials, which are difficult to interpret because they do not incorporate the variability associated with the inherent soil heterogeneity and that associated with environmental conditions. This thesis presents the stochastic evaluation of the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM), which is a model used in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide to estimate the soil long-term equilibrium resilient modulus. The stochastic evaluation is accomplished by taking the deterministic equations in the EICM and applying stochastic procedures to obtain a mean and variance associated with the final design parameter, the resilient modulus at equilibrium condition. In addition to the stochastic evaluation, different statistical analyses were applied to determine that the uses of hierarchical levels are valid in the unbound pavement material design and the climatic region has an impact on the final design resilient moduli at equilibrium. After determining that the climatic regions and the hierarchical levels are valid, reliability was applied to the resilient moduli at equilibrium. Finally, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design concept based on the Structural Number (SN) was applied in order to illustrate the true implications the hierarchical levels of design and the variability associated with environmental effects and soil properties have in the design of pavement structures. The stochastic solutions developed as part of this thesis work together with the SN design concept were applied to five soils with different resilient moduli at optimum compaction condition in order to evaluate the variability associated with the resilient moduli at equilibrium condition. These soils were evaluated in five different climatic regions ranging from arid to extremely wet conditions. The analysis showed that by using the most accurate input parameters obtained from laboratory testing (hierarchical Level 1) instead of Level 3 analysis could potentially save the State Department of Transportation up to 10.12 inches of asphalt in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Probabilistic based assessment of the influence of nonlinear soil behavior and stratification on the performance of laterally loaded drilled pier foundations

Description

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A

This thesis presents a probabilistic evaluation of multiple laterally loaded drilled pier foundation design approaches using extensive data from a geotechnical investigation for a high voltage electric transmission line. A series of Monte Carlo simulations provide insight about the computed level of reliability considering site standard penetration test blow count value variability alone (i.e., assuming all other aspects of the design problem do not contribute error or bias). Evaluated methods include Eurocode 7 Geotechnical Design procedures, the Federal Highway Administration drilled shaft LRFD design method, the Electric Power Research Institute transmission foundation design procedure and a site specific variability based approach previously suggested by the author of this thesis and others. The analysis method is defined by three phases: a) Evaluate the spatial variability of an existing subsurface database. b) Derive theoretical foundation designs from the database in accordance with the various design methods identified. c) Conduct Monti Carlo Simulations to compute the reliability of the theoretical foundation designs. Over several decades, reliability-based foundation design (RBD) methods have been developed and implemented to varying degrees for buildings, bridges, electric systems and other structures. In recent years, an effort has been made by researchers, professional societies and other standard-developing organizations to publish design guidelines, manuals and standards concerning RBD for foundations. Most of these approaches rely on statistical methods for quantifying load and resistance probability distribution functions with defined reliability levels. However, each varies with regard to the influence of site-specific variability on resistance. An examination of the influence of site-specific variability is required to provide direction for incorporating the concept into practical RBD design methods. Recent surveys of transmission line engineers by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) demonstrate RBD methods for the design of transmission line foundations have not been widely adopted. In the absence of a unifying design document with established reliability goals, transmission line foundations have historically performed very well, with relatively few failures. However, such a track record with no set reliability goals suggests, at least in some cases, a financial premium has likely been paid.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Evaluation of short term aging effect of hot mix asphalt due to elevated temperatures and extended aging time

Description

Heating of asphalt during production and construction causes the volatilization and oxidation of binders used in mixes. Volatilization and oxidation causes degradation of asphalt pavements by increasing the stiffness of

Heating of asphalt during production and construction causes the volatilization and oxidation of binders used in mixes. Volatilization and oxidation causes degradation of asphalt pavements by increasing the stiffness of the binders, increasing susceptibility to cracking and negatively affecting the functional and structural performance of the pavements. Degradation of asphalt binders by volatilization and oxidation due to high production temperature occur during early stages of pavement life and are known as Short Term Aging (STA). Elevated temperatures and increased exposure time to elevated temperatures causes increased STA of asphalt. The objective of this research was to investigate how elevated mixing temperatures and exposure time to elevated temperatures affect aging and stiffening of binders, thus influencing properties of the asphalt mixtures. The study was conducted in two stages. The first stage evaluated STA effect of asphalt binders. It involved aging two Performance Graded (PG) virgin asphalt binders, PG 76-16 and PG 64-22 at two different temperatures and durations, then measuring their viscosities. The second stage involved evaluating the effects of elevated STA temperature and time on properties of the asphalt mixtures. It involved STA of asphalt mixtures produced in the laboratory with the PG 64-22 binder at mixing temperatures elevated 25OF above standard practice; STA times at 2 and 4 hours longer than standard practices, and then compacted in a gyratory compactor. Dynamic modulus (E*) and Indirect Tensile Strength (IDT) were measured for the aged mixtures for each temperature and duration to determine the effect of different aging times and temperatures on the stiffness and fatigue properties of the aged asphalt mixtures. The binder test results showed that in all cases, there was increased viscosity. The results showed the highest increase in viscosity resulted from increased aging time. The results also indicated that PG 64-22 was more susceptible to elevated STA temperature and extended time than the PG 76-16 binders. The asphalt mixture test results confirmed the expected outcome that increasing the STA and mixing temperature by 25oF alters the stiffness of mixtures. Significant change in the dynamic modulus mostly occurred at four hour increase in STA time regardless of temperature.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Performance Evaluation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Hot Mix Asphalt Modified with Organosilane

Description

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA)

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) increases by incorporating RAP in mixes. In a climatic area such as the City of Phoenix, RAP properties are expected to be more oxidized and aged compared to other regions across the US. Therefore, there are concerns about the cracking behavior and long-term performance of asphalt mixes with high percentage of RAP. The use of Organosilane (OS) in this study was hypothesized to reduce the additional cracking potential and improve resistance to moisture damage of the asphalt mixtures when using RAP. OS has also the potential to improve the bond between the aggregate and asphalt binder. The use of OS also reduces the mixing and compaction temperatures required for asphalt mixtures, making it similar to a warm mix asphalt (WMA),

Six asphalt mixes were prepared with three RAP contents, 0%, 15% and 25%, with and without Organosilane. The mixing temperature was reduced by 10°C and the compaction temperature was reduced by 30°C. Mix designs were performed, and the volumetric properties were compared. The mixture laboratory performance was evaluated for all mixtures by conducting Dynamic Modulus, Flow Number and Tensile Strength Ratio tests.

The study findings showed that mixtures achieved better compaction at a reduced temperature of 30°C. Mixtures modified with Organosilane generally exhibited softer behavior at the extreme ends of lower and higher temperatures. The lower moduli are to reduce the potential for cracking. For the Flow Number test, the RAP mixtures with OS passed the minimum required at all traffic levels. Tensile Strength Ratio results increased with the increase in RAP percentage, and further increase was observed when OS was used. The OS reduced the sticking nature of the binder to the molds and equipment, which reduced the efforts in cleaning them.

Finally, the future use of RAP by the City of Phoenix would positively contributes to their sustainability aspiration and initiatives. The use of Organosilane may even facilitates higher percentage of RAP usage; it definitely improves the moisture resistance of asphalt mixtures, especially when lower mixing and compaction temperatures are desired or used.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018