Matching Items (12)

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Effect of pavement condition on accident rate

Description

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents.

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents. In this study, analysis was performed on highways in the states of Arizona, North Carolina and Maryland for years between 2013 and 2015 in order to investigate the relationship between accident rate and pavement roughness and rutting. Two main types of data were collected: crash data from the accident records and roughness and rut depth data from the pavement management system database in each state. Crash rates were calculated using the U.S. Department of Transportation method, which is the number of accidents per vehicle per mile per year multiplied by 100,000,000. The variations of crash rate with both International Roughness Index (IRI) and rut depth were investigated. Linear regression analysis was performed to study the correlation between parameters. The analysis showed positive correlations between road roughness and rut depth in all cases irrespective of crash severity level. The crash rate data points were high for IRI values above 250-300 inches/mile in several cases. Crash road segments represent 37-48 percent of the total length of the network using 1-mile segments. Roughness and rut depth values for crash and non-crash segments were close to each other, suggesting that roughness and rutting are not the only factors affecting number of crashes but possibly in combination with other factors such as traffic volume, human factors, etc. In summary, it can be concluded that both roughness and rut depth affect crash rate and highway maintenance authorities should maintain good pavement condition in order to reduce crash occurrences.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Sensitivity of synthetic population generation procedures in transportation models, implications of alternative constraints

Description

The growing use of synthetic population, which is a disaggregate representation of the population of an area similar to the real population currently or in the future, has motivated the

The growing use of synthetic population, which is a disaggregate representation of the population of an area similar to the real population currently or in the future, has motivated the analysis of its sensitivity in the population generation procedure. New methods in PopGen have enhanced the generation of synthetic populations whereby both household-level and person-level characteristics of interest can be matched in a computationally efficient manner. In the process of set up, population synthesis procedures need sample records for households and persons to match the marginal totals with a specific set of control variables for both the household and person levels, or only the household level, for a specific geographic resolution. In this study, an approach has been taken to analyze the sensitivity by changing and varying this number of controls, with and without taking person controls. The implementation of alternative constraints has been applied on a sample of three hundred block groups in Maricopa County, Arizona. The two datasets that have been used in this study are Census 2000 and a combination of Census 2000 and ACS 2005-2009 dataset. The variation in results for two different rounding methods: arithmetic and bucket rounding have been examined. Finally, the combined sample prepared from the available Census 2000 and ACS 2005-2009 dataset was used to investigate how the results differ when flexibility for drawing households is greater. Study shows that fewer constraints both in household and person levels match the aggregate total population more accurately but could not match distributions of individual attributes. A greater number of attributes both in household and person levels need to be controlled. Where number of controls is higher, using bucket rounding improves the accuracy of the results in both aggregate and disaggregates level. Using combined sample gives the software more flexibility as well as a rich seed matrix to draw households which generates more accurate synthetic population. Therefore, combined sample is another potential option to improve the accuracy in matching both aggregate and disaggregate level household and person distributions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Integrated predictive model for healing and fatigue endurance limit for asphalt concrete

Description

One of the main requirements of designing perpetual pavements is to determine the endurance limit of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). The purpose of this study was to validate the endurance

One of the main requirements of designing perpetual pavements is to determine the endurance limit of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA). The purpose of this study was to validate the endurance limit for HMA using laboratory beam fatigue tests. A mathematical procedure was developed to determine the endurance limit of HMA due to healing that occurs during the rest periods between loading cycles. Relating healing to endurance limit makes this procedure unique compared to previous research projects that investigated these concepts separately. An extensive laboratory testing program, including 468 beam tests, was conducted according to AASHTO T321-03 test procedure. Six factors that affect the fatigue response of HMA were evaluated: binder type, binder content, air voids, test temperature, rest period and applied strain. The endurance limit was determined when no accumulated damage occurred indicating complete healing. Based on the test results, a first generation predictive model was developed to relate stiffness ratio to material properties. A second generation stiffness ratio model was also developed by replacing four factors (binder type, binder content, air voids, and temperature) with the initial stiffness of the mixture, which is a basic material property. The model also accounts for the nonlinear effects of the rest period and the applied strain on the healing and endurance limit. A third generation model was then developed by incorporation the number of loading cycles at different locations along the fatigue degradation curve for each test in order to account for the nonlinearity between stiffness ratio and loading cycles. In addition to predicting endurance limit, the model has the ability to predict the number of cycles to failure at any rest period and stiffness combination. The model was used to predict fatigue relationship curves for tests with rest period and determining the K1, K2, and K3 fatigue cracking coefficients. The three generation models predicted close endurance limit values ranging from 22 to 204 micro strains. After developing the third generation stiffness ratio model, the predicted endurance limit values were integrated in the strain-Nf fatigue relationships as a step toward incorporating the endurance limit in the MEPDG software. The results of this study can be used to design perpetual pavements that can sustain a large number of loads if traffic volumes and vehicle weights are controlled.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Relative benefit of chip seal application in different climatic conditions based on initial pavement roughness

Description

Pavement preservation is the practice of selecting and applying maintenance activities in order to extend pavement life, enhance performance, and ensure cost effectiveness. Pavement preservation methods should be applied before

Pavement preservation is the practice of selecting and applying maintenance activities in order to extend pavement life, enhance performance, and ensure cost effectiveness. Pavement preservation methods should be applied before pavements display significant amounts of environmental distress. The long-term effectiveness of different pavement preservation techniques can be measured in terms of life extension, relative benefit, and benefit-cost ratio. Optimal timing of pavement preservation means that the given maintenance treatment is applied so that it will extend the life of the roadway for the longest possible period with the minimum cost. This document examines the effectiveness of chip seal treatment in four climatic zones in the United States. The Long-Term Pavement Performance database was used to extract roughness and traffic data, as well as the maintenance and rehabilitation histories of treated and untreated sections. The sections were categorized into smooth, medium, and rough pavements, based upon initial condition as indicated by the International Roughness Index. Pavement performance of treated and untreated sections was collectively modeled using exponential regression analysis. Effectiveness was evaluated in terms of life extension, relative benefit, and benefit-cost ratio. The results of the study verified the assumption that treated sections performed better than untreated sections. The results also showed that the life extension, relative benefit, and benefit cost ratio are highest for sections whose initial condition is smooth at the time of chip seal treatment. These same measures of effectiveness are lowest for pavements whose condition is rough at the time of treatment. Chip seal treatment effectiveness showed no correlation to climatic conditions or to traffic levels.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Evaluation of warm mix asphalt versus conventional hot mix asphalt for field and laboratory-compacted specimens

Description

A recent joint study by Arizona State University and the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) was conducted to evaluate certain Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) properties in the laboratory. WMA material

A recent joint study by Arizona State University and the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) was conducted to evaluate certain Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) properties in the laboratory. WMA material was taken from an actual ADOT project that involved two WMA sections. The first section used a foamed-based WMA admixture, and the second section used a chemical-based WMA admixture. The rest of the project included control hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixture. The evaluation included testing of field-core specimens and laboratory compacted specimens. The laboratory specimens were compacted at two different temperatures; 270 °F (132 °C) and 310 °F (154 °C). The experimental plan included four laboratory tests: the dynamic modulus (E*), indirect tensile strength (IDT), moisture damage evaluation using AASHTO T-283 test, and the Hamburg Wheel-track Test. The dynamic modulus E* results of the field cores at 70 °F showed similar E* values for control HMA and foaming-based WMA mixtures; the E* values of the chemical-based WMA mixture were relatively higher. IDT test results of the field cores had comparable finding as the E* results. For the laboratory compacted specimens, both E* and IDT results indicated that decreasing the compaction temperatures from 310 °F to 270 °F did not have any negative effect on the material strength for both WMA mixtures; while the control HMA strength was affected to some extent. It was noticed that E* and IDT results of the chemical-based WMA field cores were high; however, the laboratory compacted specimens results didn't show the same tendency. The moisture sensitivity findings from TSR test disagreed with those of Hamburg test; while TSR results indicated relatively low values of about 60% for all three mixtures, Hamburg test results were quite excellent. In general, the results of this study indicated that both WMA mixes can be best evaluated through field compacted mixes/cores; the results of the laboratory compacted specimens were helpful to a certain extent. The dynamic moduli for the field-core specimens were higher than for those compacted in the laboratory. The moisture damage findings indicated that more investigations are needed to evaluate moisture damage susceptibility in field.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Understanding Viscoelastic Behavior of Asphalt Binders Through Molecular Structure Investigation

Description

Asphalt binder is a complex viscoelastic hydrocarbon, whose performance depends upon interaction between its physical and chemical properties, both of which are equally important to the successful understanding of the

Asphalt binder is a complex viscoelastic hydrocarbon, whose performance depends upon interaction between its physical and chemical properties, both of which are equally important to the successful understanding of the material. Researchers have proposed various models linking linear viscoelastic (LVE) and microstructural parameters. However, none of these parameters provide insight into the relationship in the non- linear viscoelastic NLVE domain. The main goals of this dissertation are two fold. The first goal is to utilize the technique of Laser Desorption Mass Spectroscopy (LDMS) to relate the molecular structure of asphalt binders to its viscoelastic properties. The second goal of the study is to utilize different NLVE characterization tools and analysis procedures to get a clear understanding of the NLVE behavior of the asphalt binders. The goals of the study are divided into four objectives; 1) Performing the LDMS test on asphalt binder to develop at the molecular weight distributions for different asphalts, 2) Characterizing LVE properties of Arizona asphalt binders, 3) Development of relationship between molecular structure and linear viscoelasticity, 4) Understanding NLVE behavior of asphalt binders through three different characterization methods and analysis techniques.

In this research effort, a promising physico-chemical relationship is developed between number average molecular weight and width of relaxation spectrum by utilizing the data from LVE characterization and the molecular weight distribution from LDMS. The relationship states that as the molecular weight of asphalt binders increase, they require more time to relax the developed stresses. Also, NLVE characterization was carried out at intermediate and high temperatures using three different tests, time sweep fatigue test, repeated stress/strain sweep test and Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test. For the intermediate temperature fatigue tests, damage characterization was conducted by applying the S-VECD model and it was found that aged binders possess greater fatigue resistance than unaged binders. Using the high temperature LAOS tests, distortion was observed in the stress-strain relationships and the data was analyzed using a Fourier transform based tool called MITlaos, which deconvolves stress strain data into harmonic constituents and aids in identification of non-linearity by detecting higher order harmonics. Using the peak intensities observed at higher harmonic orders, non-linearity was quantified through a parameter termed as “Q”, which in future applications can be used to relate to asphalt chemical parameters. Finally, the last NLVE characterization carried out was the MSCR test, where the focus was on the scrutiny of the Jnrdiff parameter. It was found that Jnrdiff is not a capable parameter to represent the stress-sensitivity of asphalt binders. The developed alternative parameter Jnrslope does a better job of not only being a representative parameter of stress sensitivity but also for temperature sensitivity.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Crumb rubber modified crack sealants to improve performance

Description

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material,

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material, environmental, and construction issues. A survey that was conducted as part of this study showed that the highest sealant failure year occurring on the second year. Therefore, any attempt to increase the sealants’ service life by addressing and improving the sealant properties and their resistance to failure will benefit the effectiveness of this treatment.

The goal behind this study was to evaluate the potential improvement in performance of hot applied sealant material commonly used in the Phoenix area, and evaluate the performance of using a neat binder modified with crumb rubber (at 5 and 10% by weight of binder) as a low-grade sealing material. The sealants was also modified with crumb rubber at 2.5, and 5% by weight fo the sealant. Six ASTM tests were conducted for the comparison. These tests are the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetration Test (CPT), Resilience Test, Softening Point Test, Brookfield Viscometer Test, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).

The results showed that adding only crumb rubber to a neat binder for its potential use as a crack sealant is inadequate to meet the specifications expected for sealants. However, the modification of the sealant with crumb rubber showed some benefits, such as increased elasticity and decreased temperature susceptibility. A crumb rubber content of 2.5% by weight of the sealant was recommended.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Enterprise Distress Cost: United States Air Force Airfield Pavement Inventory

Description

United States Air Force airfield PAVER pavement management system enterprise data was reviewed for 67 networks. The distress survey extents and severity fields were joined with treatment costs estimated using

United States Air Force airfield PAVER pavement management system enterprise data was reviewed for 67 networks. The distress survey extents and severity fields were joined with treatment costs estimated using RSMeans to determine the costliest distress. In asphalt surfaced pavements Longitudinal/transverse cracking, weathering, and block cracking resulted in the most pavement condition index (PCI) deducts while the costliest distresses are weathering, block cracking and longitudinal cracking. In portland cement concrete surfaced pavements linear cracking, joint seal damage, and joint spalling resulted in the most PCI deducts while the costliest distresses are joint seal damage, linear cracking, and corner spalling. The results of this data were then compared to airfield attributes: Pavement Temperature Group, Dominant American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Soil Classification, Pavement- Transportation Computer Assisted Structural Engineering (PCASE) Climate Zone, and years since last maintenance. Maps showing the Pavement Temperature Group, Dominant AASHTO Soil Classification, and PCASE Climate Zone are included in Appendix A. Alligator cracking is most prevalent at the airfields with PTG 64-34 (Ellsworth, Fairchild, Hill, and Offutt) and 58-22 (Niagara and Vandenberg). Rutting is most prevalent at PTG 64-34 (Ellsworth, Fairchild, Hill, and Offutt). An increasing trend of joint spalling, corner spalling, and corner break with decreasing soil quality (AASHOTO A-1 to A-8 soils). The PCASE Climate Zone Cost Indices the cost index for weathering is approximately double in the moist region over the dry region. The cost index for block cracking is approximately double in the cold region over the hot region. It is recommended that the agency review its pavement performance modeling in the pavement management system to increase the recommendation of pavement preservation treatments and review the use of higher quality materials for pavement maintenance treatments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Effect of using Organosilane with Crumb Rubber Modified Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures

Description

Crumb rubber use in asphalt mixtures by means of wet process technology has been in place for several years in the United States with good performance record; however, it has

Crumb rubber use in asphalt mixtures by means of wet process technology has been in place for several years in the United States with good performance record; however, it has some shortcomings such as maintaining high mixing and compaction temperatures in the field production. Organosilane (OS), a nanotechnology chemical substantially improves the bonding between aggregate and asphalt by modifying the aggregate structure from hydrophilic to hydrophobic contributing to increased moisture resistance of conventional asphalt mixtures. Use of Organosilane also reduces the mixing and compaction temperatures and facilitates similar compaction effort at lower temperatures. The objective of this research study was first to perform a Superpave mix design for Crumb Rubber Modified Binder (CRMB) gap-graded mixture with and without Organosilane; and secondly, analyse the performance of CRMB mixtures with and without Organosilane by conducting various laboratory tests. Performance Grade (PG) 64-22 binder was used to create the gap-graded Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) mixtures for this study. Laboratory tests included rotational viscometer binder test and mixtures tests: dynamic modulus, flow number, tensile strength ratio, and C* fracture test. Results from the tests indicated that the addition of Organosilane facilitated easier compaction efforts despite reduced mixing and compaction temperatures. Organosilane also modestly increased the moisture susceptibility and resistance to crack propagation yet retaining equal rutting resistance of the CRMB mixtures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Use of micro-mechanical models to study the mastic level structure of asphalt concretes containing reclaimed asphalt pavement

Description

This study investigates the mastic level structure of asphalt concrete containing RAP materials. Locally sourced RAP material was screened and sieved to separate the coated fines (passing #200) from the

This study investigates the mastic level structure of asphalt concrete containing RAP materials. Locally sourced RAP material was screened and sieved to separate the coated fines (passing #200) from the remaining sizes. These binder coated fines were mixed with virgin filler at proportions commensurate with 0%, 10%, 30%, 50% and 100% RAP dosage levels. Mastics were prepared with these blended fillers and a PG 64-22 binder at a filler content of 27% by volume. Rheological experiments were conducted on the resulting composites as well as the constituents, virgin binder, solvent extracted RAP binder. The results from the dynamic modulus experiments showed an expected increase in stiffness with increase in dosage levels. These results were used to model the hypothesized structure of the composite. The study presented discusses the different micromechanical models employed, their applicability and suitability to correctly predict the blended mastic composite. The percentage of blending between virgin and RAP binder estimated using Herve and Zaoui model decreased with increase in RAP content.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014