Matching Items (24)

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Cost-effectiveness of Rubber and Polymer Modified Asphalt Mixtures as Related to Sustainable Fatigue Performance

Description

Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavements. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered

Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavements. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered an integral part of the Superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to sustain the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to add sustainable materials such as rubber or polymers to the asphalt mixture. A laboratory testing program was performed on three gap-graded mixtures: unmodified, Asphalt Rubber (AR) and polymer-modified. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to the AASHTO T321 procedure. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR and polymer-modified gap graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue lives compared to the reference (unmodified) mixture. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost-effectiveness analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the three mixtures were performed. Overall, the analysis showed that the AR and polymer-modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly higher cost-effectiveness compared to unmodified HMA mixture. Although AR and polymer-modification increases the cost of the material, the analysis showed that they are more cost effective than the unmodified mixture.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05-20

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Improving Undergraduate Structural Engineering Education and Assessing the Use of Technology in Structural Analysis and Design Courses

Description

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics,

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics, structural analysis, and structural design. The core structural analysis and design course at Arizona State University (CEE 321) is a transition course to connect realistic structural design and analysis concepts to an engineering foundation created by the first and second year mathematics and mechanics courses. CEE 321 is styled after a flipped classroom model and students are assessed through quizzes, midterms, design projects, and a final exam. Student performance was evaluated for the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters through an error analysis technique designed to categorize student mistakes based on type of error and related topic. This analysis revealed that student's basic engineering mechanics skills improved throughout the course as well as identified the areas that students struggle in. The slope-deflection and direct stiffness methods of analysis and calculating cross-sectional properties are the primary areas of concern. Using appropriate technology in the engineering classroom has the potential to enhance the learning environment and address the areas of inadequacy identified by the performance analysis. A survey of CEE 321 students demonstrated that technology is a highly integrated and useful portion of student's lives. Therefore, the engineering classroom should reflect this. Through the use of analysis and design software, students are able to begin to develop design intuition and understanding while completing realistic engineering projects in their third year of undergraduate studies. Additionally, incorporating internet resources into and outside of the classroom allows students to be connected to course content from any web-enabled device of their choice. Lecture videos posted online covering the course content were requested by many CEE 321 students and are an emerging resource that supplements the flipped classroom model. The availability of such a tool allows students to revisit concepts that they do not understand or pause, rewind, and replay the lectures when necessary. An expansion of the structural analysis and design online lecture videos for CEE 321 are expected to address and improve the areas that students struggle in as identified by the error analysis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Understanding the Influence of Fly Ash and Activator Chemistry on Geopolymer Kinetics and Property Development

Description

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C and Class F Fly Ash (CFA and FFA, respectively) derived from industrial coal combustion were selected as the replacement materials for this study. Sodium sulfate and calcium oxide were used as activators. In Part 1 of this study, focus was placed on high volume replacement of OPC using sodium sulfate as the activator. Despite improvements in heat generation for both CFA and FFA systems in the presence of sulfate, sodium sulfate was found to have adverse effects on the compressive strength of CFA mortars. In the CFA mixes, strength improved significantly with sulfate addition, but began to decrease in strength around 14 days due to expansive ettringite formation. Conversely, the addition of sulfate led to improved strength for FFA mixes such that the 28 day strength was comparable to that of the CFA mixes with no observable strength loss. Maximum compressive strengths achieved for the high volume replacement mixes was around 40 MPa, which is considerably lower than the baseline OPC mix used for comparison. In Part 2 of the study, temperature dependency and calcium oxide addition were studied for sodium sulfate activated systems composed of 100% Class F fly ash. In the presence of sulfate, added calcium increased reactivity and compressive strength at early ages, particularly at elevated temperatures. It is believed that sulfate and calcium react with alumina from fly ash to form ettringite, while heat overcomes the activation energy barrier of fly ash. The greatest strengths were obtained for mixes containing the maximum allowed quantity of calcium oxide (5%) and sodium sulfate (3%), and were around 12 MPa. This is a very low compressive strength relative to OPC and would therefore be an inadequate substitute for OPC needs.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Development of the C* fracture test for asphalt concrete mixtures

Description

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests

Laboratory assessment of crack resistance and propagation in asphalt concrete is a difficult task that challenges researchers and engineers. Several fracture mechanics based laboratory tests currently exist; however, these tests and subsequent analysis methods rely on elastic behavior assumptions and do not consider the time-dependent nature of asphalt concrete. The C* Line Integral test has shown promise to capture crack resistance and propagation within asphalt concrete. In addition, the fracture mechanics based C* parameter considers the time-dependent creep behavior of the materials. However, previous research was limited and lacked standardized test procedure and detailed data analysis methods were not fully presented. This dissertation describes the development and refinement of the C* Fracture Test (CFT) based on concepts of the C* line integral test. The CFT is a promising test to assess crack propagation and fracture resistance especially in modified mixtures. A detailed CFT test protocol was developed based on a laboratory study of different specimen sizes and test conditions. CFT numerical simulations agreed with laboratory results and indicated that the maximum horizontal tensile stress (Mode I) occurs at the crack tip but diminishes at longer crack lengths when shear stress (Mode II) becomes present. Using CFT test results and the principles of time-temperature superposition, a crack growth rate master curve was successfully developed to describe crack growth over a range of test temperatures. This master curve can be applied to pavement design and analysis to describe crack propagation as a function of traffic conditions and pavement temperatures. Several plant mixtures were subjected to the CFT and results showed differences in resistance to crack propagation, especially when comparing an asphalt rubber mixture to a conventional one. Results indicated that crack propagation is ideally captured within a given range of dynamic modulus values. Crack growth rates and C* prediction models were successfully developed for all unmodified mixtures in the CFT database. These models can be used to predict creep crack propagation and the C* parameter when laboratory testing is not feasible. Finally, a conceptual approach to incorporate crack growth rate and the C* parameter into pavement design and analysis was presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Performance Evaluation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in Hot Mix Asphalt Modified with Organosilane

Description

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA)

Use of Recycled Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in newly designed asphalt mixtures is becoming a common practice. Depending on the percentage of RAP, the stiffness of the hot mix asphalt (HMA) increases by incorporating RAP in mixes. In a climatic area such as the City of Phoenix, RAP properties are expected to be more oxidized and aged compared to other regions across the US. Therefore, there are concerns about the cracking behavior and long-term performance of asphalt mixes with high percentage of RAP. The use of Organosilane (OS) in this study was hypothesized to reduce the additional cracking potential and improve resistance to moisture damage of the asphalt mixtures when using RAP. OS has also the potential to improve the bond between the aggregate and asphalt binder. The use of OS also reduces the mixing and compaction temperatures required for asphalt mixtures, making it similar to a warm mix asphalt (WMA),

Six asphalt mixes were prepared with three RAP contents, 0%, 15% and 25%, with and without Organosilane. The mixing temperature was reduced by 10°C and the compaction temperature was reduced by 30°C. Mix designs were performed, and the volumetric properties were compared. The mixture laboratory performance was evaluated for all mixtures by conducting Dynamic Modulus, Flow Number and Tensile Strength Ratio tests.

The study findings showed that mixtures achieved better compaction at a reduced temperature of 30°C. Mixtures modified with Organosilane generally exhibited softer behavior at the extreme ends of lower and higher temperatures. The lower moduli are to reduce the potential for cracking. For the Flow Number test, the RAP mixtures with OS passed the minimum required at all traffic levels. Tensile Strength Ratio results increased with the increase in RAP percentage, and further increase was observed when OS was used. The OS reduced the sticking nature of the binder to the molds and equipment, which reduced the efforts in cleaning them.

Finally, the future use of RAP by the City of Phoenix would positively contributes to their sustainability aspiration and initiatives. The use of Organosilane may even facilitates higher percentage of RAP usage; it definitely improves the moisture resistance of asphalt mixtures, especially when lower mixing and compaction temperatures are desired or used.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Fiber dosage effects in asphalt binders and hot mix asphalt mixtures

Description

The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This

The application of fibers and other materials in asphalt mixes has been studied and applied over the past five decades in order to improve pavement performance around the world. This thesis highlights the characteristics and performance properties of modified asphalt mixes using a blend of polypropylene and aramid fibers, The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding different fiber dosages on the laboratory performance of both asphalt binder and mixture. The laboratory study was conducted on sixteen different dosages and blends of the fibers, with various combinations of polypropylene and aramid, using binder tests as well as hot mix asphalt tests. The binder tests included: penetration, softing point, and Brookfield viscosity tests. The asphalt mixture tests included the dynamic modulus, and indirect tensile strength. The binder test results indicated that the best viscosity - temperature susceptibility performance would be from the blend of three dosages of polypropylene and one dosage of aramid, the dynamic modulus test results also confirmed this finding. Overall, in almost every case, the addition of fibers resulted in an increase in mixture stiffness regardless of fiber content. From the indirect tensile strength results, the polypropylene fibers had less of an effect on post peak failure than the aramid fibers. Overall, the aramid fibers yielded better results than the polypropylene fibers. This study has important implications for the future of pavement design and the prospect of using optimal dosages of polypropylene and aramid fibers in further research to further determine their long-term performance and characteristics used in real world applications.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Plant Produced Asphalt Mixtures Containing RAP in Hot Climate Areas

Description

The use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) in newly produced asphalt mixtures has been gaining a wide attention from state Departments of Transportations (DOTs) during the past four decades. However,

The use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavements (RAP) in newly produced asphalt mixtures has been gaining a wide attention from state Departments of Transportations (DOTs) during the past four decades. However, the performance of these mixtures in harsh and hot climate areas such as Phoenix, Arizona has not been carefully addressed. This research focuses on evaluating the laboratory and field performance of Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures (HMA) produced with two different RAP contents 15%, and 25%. A road section was identified by the City of Phoenix where three test sections were constructed; the first being a control (0% RAP), the second and the third sections with 15% and 25% RAP contents, respectively. The 25% RAP mixture used a lower Performance Grade (PG) asphalt per local practices. During construction, loose HMA mixtures were sampled and transported to the laboratory for advanced material characterization.

The testing included Dynamic Modulus (DM) test to characterize the stiffness of the material, Flow Number (FN) test to characterize the rutting resistance of the mixtures, IDEAL CT test to characterize the crack initiation properties, C* Fracture test to investigate the crack propagation properties, Uniaxial Fatigue to evaluate fatigue cracking potential, and Tensile Strength Ratio test (TSR) to evaluate the moisture susceptibility. Field cores were obtained from each test section and were tested for indirect tensile strength characteristics. In addition, asphalt binder testing was done on the extracted and recovered binders.

The laboratory results, compared to the control mixture, indicated that adding 15% and 25% RAP to the mix did not have significant effect on the stiffness, improved the rutting potential, had comparable cracking potential, and gave an acceptable passing performance against potential moisture damage. The binder testing that was done on the extracted and recovered binders indicated that the blended RAP binder yields a high stiffness. Based on results obtained from this study, it is recommended that the City of Phoenix should consider incorporating RAP in their asphalt mixtures using these low to moderate RAP contents. In the future implementation process, it is also recommended to include specifications where proper mixture designs are followed and supported with some of the laboratory tests outlined in this research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Flashing yellow arrow traffic signal operation: a clinical methodology for field conversion

Description

ABSTRACT

This study examines the methodology for converting protected, permissive, and protected/permissive left-turn operation to flashing yellow arrow left-turn operation. This study addresses construction-related considerations, including negative offsets, lateral traffic signal

ABSTRACT

This study examines the methodology for converting protected, permissive, and protected/permissive left-turn operation to flashing yellow arrow left-turn operation. This study addresses construction-related considerations, including negative offsets, lateral traffic signal head position, left-turn accident rates, crash modification factors and crash reductions factors. A total of 85 intersections in Glendale, Arizona were chosen for this study. These intersections included 45 “arterial to arterial” intersections (a major road intersecting with a major road) and 40 “arterial to collector” intersections (a major road intersecting with a minor road).

This thesis is a clinical study of the field conversion to flashing yellow arrow traffic signals and is not a study of the merits of flashing yellow arrow operation. This study included six categories: 1. High accident intersections (for inclusion in Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) funding); 2. Signal head modifications only; 3. Signal head replacement with median modifications; 4. Signal head and mast arm replacement; 5. Signal head, signal pole and mast arm replacement; and 6. Intersections where flashing yellow arrow operation is not recommended. Compliance with the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) played a large part in determining conversion costs because the standard for lateral position of the left-turn traffic signal greatly influenced the construction effort. Additionally, the left-turning vehicle’s sight distance factored into cost considerations. It’s important for agencies to utilize this study to understand all of the financial commitments and construction requirements for conversion to flashing yellow arrow operation, and ultimately to appreciate that the process is not purely a matter of swapping traffic signal heads.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Impact of forecasted freight trends on highway pavement infrastructure

Description

The major challenge for any pavement is the freight transport carried by the structure. This challenge is expected to increase in the coming years as freight movements are projected to

The major challenge for any pavement is the freight transport carried by the structure. This challenge is expected to increase in the coming years as freight movements are projected to grow and because these movements account for most of the load related distresses for the pavement. Substantial effort has been devoted to identifying the impacts of these future national freight trends with respect to the environment, economic growth, congestion, and reliability. These are all important aspects relating to the freight question, but an equally important and often overlooked aspect of this issue involves the impact of freight trends on the physical infrastructure. This study analyzes the impact of future freight traffic trends on 26 major interstates representing 68% of the total system mileage and carrying 80% of the total national roadway freight. The pavement segments were analyzed using the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide software after collecting the relevant traffic, climate, structural, and material properties. Comparisons were drawn between the expected pavement performance using current design standards for traffic growth and performance predictions that incorporated more detailed freight projections which themselves considered job growth and six key drivers of freight movement. The differences in the resultant performance were used to generate maps that provide a bird’s eye view of locations that are especially vulnerable to future trends in freight movement. The analysis shows that the areas of greatest vulnerability include segments that are directly linked to the busiest ports, and surprisingly those from Atlantic and Central states that provide long distance connectivity, but do not currently carry the highest traffic volumes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Using Mixture Design Data and Existing Prediction Models to Evaluate the Potential Performance of Asphalt Pavements

Description

Several ways exist to improve pavement performance over time. One suggestion is to tailor the asphalt pavement mix design according to certain specified specifications, set up by each state agency.

Several ways exist to improve pavement performance over time. One suggestion is to tailor the asphalt pavement mix design according to certain specified specifications, set up by each state agency. Another option suggests the addition of modifiers that are known to improve pavement performance, such as crumb rubber and fibers. Nowadays, improving asphalt pavement structures to meet specific climate conditions is a must. In addition, time and cost are two crucial settings and are very important to consider; these factors sometimes play a huge role in modifying the asphalt mix design needed to be set into place, and therefore alter the desired pavement performance over the expected life span of the structure. In recent studies, some methods refer to predicting pavement performance based on the asphalt mixtures volumetric properties.

In this research, an effort was undertaken to gather and collect most recent asphalt mixtures’ design data and compare it to historical data such as those available in the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP), maintained by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The new asphalt mixture design data was collected from 25 states within the United States and separated according to the four suggested climatic regions. The previously designed asphalt mixture designs in the 1960’s present in the LTPP Database implemented for the test sections were compared with the recently designed pavement mixtures gathered, and pavement performance was assessed using predictive models.

Three predictive models were studied in this research. The models were related to three major asphalt pavement distresses: Rutting, Fatigue Cracking and Thermal Cracking. Once the performance of the asphalt mixtures was assessed, four ranking criteria were developed to support the assessment of the mix designs quality at hand; namely, Low, Satisfactory, Good or Excellent. The evaluation results were reasonable and deemed acceptable. Out of the 48 asphalt mixtures design evaluated, the majority were between Satisfactory and Good.

The evaluation methodology and criteria developed are helpful tools in determining the quality of asphalt mixtures produced by the different agencies. They provide a quick insight on the needed improvement/modification against the potential development of distress during the lifespan of the pavement structure.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020